Geology Study Guide
- Sedimentary Rocks -
1. Draw, label and explain the rock cycle.
2. What is the relationship between the 3 parts of a continent, folded mountain belts,
shield and stable platform, and the rock cycle?
3. What are the 3 ways that sediments can form?
4. Explain consolidated versus unconsolidated.
5. What does the Wentworth Scale show and what is it used for?
6. How can you distinguish between sand-, silt-, and clay-sized particles in the field?
7. There are two main categories under which sedimentary rock can be classified.
What are they?
8. What is the difference between clastic and non-clastic sedimentary rocks?
9. Identify 2 specific coarse-grained sedimentary rocks. Discuss their similarities
10. What is sandstone? List sedimentary environments in which you would expect
sandstone to form.
11. What is arkose? What does it suggest about the conditions under which it was
12. What is greywacke? What characteristic does greywacke demonstrate well?
13. What is siltstone? Where is it formed and why?
14. What is shale? Where is it formed and why?
15. What rock is noted for fissility?
16. Limestone is an example of a non-clastic sedimentary rock. What are the two
main subheadings of non-clastic sedimentary rocks? Explain how they differ and
how they are the same.
17. Coquina, chalk, oolitic ____, travertine and microcrystalline _____ are all types
of what sedimentary rock? Group them into two categories and justify your
18. Where does travertine typically form?
19. Explain in detail how oolitic limestone forms.
20. Although we aren’t completely sure how dolostone (dolomite) is formed what is a
21. What are evaporites? How and why are they formed? List two specific examples
22. What is chert and how does it form?
23. Describe, in detail, the 4 steps which lead to the formation of sedimentary rocks.
24. What is the difference between weathering and erosion?
25. What influence does transportation have on the character of deposited sediments?
26. Identify at least two different ways in which sediments can become lithified.
27. List and explain all the sedimentary structures we discussed in class.
28. Explain the term stratification. What is it and why does it occur?
29. Explain cross-bedding. List two environments in which it can occur.
30. Explain graded-bedding. Identify an environment where it can occur.
31. List some examples of surface impressions that might be preserved in
32. List and describe as many sedimentary environments as you can. What specific
type(s) of sedimentary rock would you expect to find forming in each of those