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					                                                                          Migration
                          Chapter 15. Migrants
                                                                          Chapter 15 of R&W.
                                                                          Baldwin-Edwards (2005) Migration
                Link to syllabus                                             in the Middle East and
                Link to WDI
                                                                             Mediterranean pages 5-20
                Link to Encyclopedia of the Orient
                                                                          (see also Kronemer in Saudi Arabia)
                                                                          1 day No handouts
Outline:
Theories; modifications
Data: Overview. Absolute levels, growth. Remittances.
Streams: into Europe, Gulf, Syria/Lebanon, Palestine/Israel, US

Theory of migration:
                           Theory Review                                 Theory Review
• Migration because of differences in wages (incomes), will raise
  wages in the sending country, lower them in receiving country.
  Total output will rise in receiving country, fall in source country.
                                                                         Migration because of differences in
• Modifications:
   Many people intend to migrate for a brief period, then return home
    People migrate for non-economic motives – refugees
                                                                         wages (incomes), will raise wages in
    Oftentimes, those who migrate have above average skills, youth, ..
• Migrants send money home (remittances), helping source country
• Migrants may be a drain on receiving countries, needing social
                                                                         the sending country, lower them in
  services

• There are many assertions of extra social effects: migrants help
                                                                         receiving country. Total output will rise
  their source country when they return with new skills. Migrants
  help their receiving country by inserting new energy (at low
  prices!)
                                                                         in receiving country, fall in source
                                                                         country.
Modifications:
Many people intend to migrate for a brief period, then return home
   People migrate for non-economic motives – refugees
    Often, those who migrate have above average skills, youth,
     Gender difference? Importance of networks
Migrants send money home (remittances), helping source country
Migrants may be a drain on receiving countries, needing social
  services

There are many assertions of extra social effects: migrants help
  their source country when they return with new skills. Migrants
  help their receiving country by inserting new energy (at low
  prices!)
Migration as a rite of passage.
  Governments from sending countries are learning to utilize this
  flow, by encouraging ties to home country, facilitating
                                                                                                                                2

     remittances and international marriages, ‘home for the
     holidays’, transfer of education.

For major labor importing countries. Suggestion that tendency is
  to import too many, pushing some locals out of jobs, creating
  disincentives for locals to work.
  Socio-Political issues for immigrant labor hosts in Gulf
     Who staffs army? Police.
     Support for Rulers.
     Social arrangement of living, recruiting, education, etc. (will
       be different for permanent or temporary workers
Amongst immigrants: Ease of expulsion. Fixed-term contracts
  versus permanent permission. Who does contracting?
  Saudi Arabia-planned Saudization. Not possible in other Gulf.
  Religious differences.
  Social issues. Intermarriage. Education. Families or not.
(Note Sayre/Olmsted article on good and bad in Palestine return)

                                                                                                Overview
                                     Overview




           millions
                        Emigrant
           Population Stock        % of
                                 Population
                                           Immigrant
                                             Stock      %of
                                                     Population
                                                                      Inward and
                                                                                                Inward and outward migration.
 Algeria          34.9      1.21       3.4      0.24         0.7       Outward
 Bahrain            0.8     0.03       3.7      0.32       39.1
 Egypt            83.0      3.74       4.4      0.24         0.3   Migration: MENA
 Iran             72.9      1.30       1.7      2.13         2.8
 Iraq             31.5      1.55       4.9      0.08         0.3
 Israel             7.4     1.02      14.0      2.94       40.4
 Jordan             6.0     0.73      11.3      2.97       45.9
 Kuwait             2.8     0.26       8.5      2.10       68.8
 Lebanon            4.2     0.66      15.6      0.76       17.8
 Libya              6.4     0.11       1.7      0.68       10.4
 Morocco          32.0      3.01       9.3      0.05         0.2
 Oman               2.8     0.02       0.5      0.83       28.4
 Qatar              1.4     0.01       0.7      1.31       86.5
 Saudi            25.4      0.18       0.7      7.29       27.8
 Syria            21.1      0.94       4.2      2.21         9.8
 Tunisia          10.4      0.65       6.3      0.03         0.3
 Turkey           74.8      4.26       5.6      1.41         1.9
 U.A.E.             4.6     0.06       1.2      3.29       70.0     Source: WB
 WB&G               4.0     3.01      68.3      1.92       43.6     Migration and Remittances
 Yemen            23.6      1.14       4.7      0.52         2.1    Factbook 2011
                                                                                                                            3

  Table 15.3 p. 404 Foreigners as a Percentage of the Labor Force,
                            1985-2003
                                                                               Table 15.3 (R&W) Foreigners as a
                                                                               Percentage of the Labor Force, 1985-
                                                                               2003




  Table 15.2 p. 398 (R&W). Remittance Flows to Selected MENA                   Table 15.2 p. 398 (R&W).

                                                                               Remittance Flows to Selected MENA

                                                                               Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon, Yemen,
                                                                               Morocco

 Importance of Migrant Remittances: MENA and Others
                                 As % of        Share of     Net rate of
                                                                               Importance of Migrant Remittances:
        Algeria
        Morocco
                                 Exports
                                          8.5
                                         20.1
                                                 GDP
                                                       2.3
                                                       6.3
                                                             Migration
                                                                  -1.80
                                                                  -1.54
                                                                               MENA and Others. Source: World Bank (2003)
        Tunisia                           9.2          4.1        -0.84        Trade and Investment in MENA
        Egypt                            23.5          3.8        -1.23
        Jordan                           52.2         21.8        -0.66
        Syria                             6.9          2.6        -0.16
        Yemen
        MENA – not GCC
        GCC
                                         28.5
                                         21.3
                                                      13.2
                                                       7.7
                                                                   0.09
                                                                  -0.88
                                                                   5.91
                                                                               Egypt, Jordan/Palestinians, Yemen,
        Mexico
        Turkey
                                          3.6
                                          8.9
                                                       1.1
                                                       2.3
                                                                  -3.26
                                                                  -0.85
                                                                               Morocco, Turkey. Tunisia, Algeria
        Latin America                    10.0          3.3        -1.60

Source: World Bank (2003), Trade, Investment and Development in MENA



                              Remittances/GDP
                  M EN A L ab o r R em ittan ces/G D P                         MENA: Labor Remittances/GDP (WDI)
                 35
                 30                                             Alge ria
                                                                E gy pt
                 25
                                                                J o rda n
  P e rc e n t




                 20                                             M o ro c c o
                 15                                             O ma n
                                                                Tunis ia
                 10
                                                                Turke y
                  5                                             Y e me n
                  0
                  1970 1980 1990 2000 2010
                                Ye a r


     WDI data



                                                                               Countries with Largest Immigrant Stock
                      Countries with Largest Immigrant Stock




 Source?
                                                                                                                                                                  4

                                                                                                         Countries with highest percentage of immigrants, in
         Countries with highest percentage of immigrants, in
                           total population
                                                                                                         total population




                                                                               Cities ranked by %
                                                                                  foreign-born
                                                                                                         Cities ranked by % foreign born

                                                                             Source: Benton-Short
                                                                             et al. “Globalization
                                                                             from Below: The Ranking
                                                                             Of Global Immigrant
                                                                             Cities,” Int’l Journal of
                                                                             Urban and Regional
                                                                             Research Dec. 2005




                                                                                                         Remittances into Egypt, by Region.
                 Remittances into Egypt, by Region. 2003
                                                                                                         2003.
                                                                                                         Source: Yousef (2005) The Changing Role of Labor Migration
                                                                                                         in Arab Economic Integration




Source: Yousef (2005) “The Changing Role of Labor Migration in Arab Economic Integration”




                                                                                                         Into Europe
                                            Europe


                                                                                                         Recall that several countries of Europe
                                                                                                         have a negative population growth.



                   Workers in Europe from Maghreb
                    Countries and Turkey, 1962-99                                                        Workers in Europe from Maghreb and
                 1962 ‘82 ‘99
    Number of overseas workers in
                                                                    1962 ‘82 ‘99
                                                      Ratio of overseas workers to
                                                                                                         Turkey, 1962-99 Source: mt Table 21a
    Europe, by home country
    (1,000s)
    Algeria         - 287 245
                                                      home labor force %

                                                      Algeria                 -    5.5      2.5
                                                                                                         Not migration spread across the board.
     into France 224 287 237
    Morocco
     into France
                    - 174 493
                   20 145 227
                                                       in France
                                                      Morocco
                                                        in France
                                                                            6.8
                                                                              -
                                                                            0.4
                                                                                   5.5
                                                                                   2.4
                                                                                   2.0
                                                                                            2.4
                                                                                            4.4
                                                                                            2.0
                                                                                                         Turks started into Germany when
    Tunisia
     into France
    Turkey
                    - 72 118
                   12 71 84
                    - 781 1,637
                                                      Tunisia
                                                       in France
                                                      Turkey
                                                                              -
                                                                            0.9
                                                                              -
                                                                                   3.1
                                                                                   3.1
                                                                                   3.9
                                                                                            3.2
                                                                                            2.3
                                                                                            5.4
                                                                                                         European guestworker pool cooled
      into Germany 18 652 1,290                        into Germany         0.1    3.3      4.2
                                                                                                         down, until about 1973.
Source: mt Table 21a
                                                                                                         Importance to European debates
                                                                                                                            5

Also Belgium, Netherlands, Spain. Not U.K., which had
immigrants from its ex-colonies. Iran now has 1 million in Europe,
post- revolution, in Sweden and elsewhere.
Algeria had ¼ of its males in France at end of WWI.

        Stock of Foreign Population by Nationality, as
     Percentage of Total Foreign Population-Selected EU                            Stock of Foreign Population by
  Source
  Country
                 Belgium France            Italy        Netherlands Spain          Nationality, as Percentage of Total
  Algeria                 1          17            --             --          --   Foreign Population-Selected EU
  Morocco

  Tunisia
                         14

                          1
                                     16

                                       6
                                                   13

                                                    4
                                                                 19

                                                                  --
                                                                              18

                                                                              --
                                                                                   Didn’t give data on Germany.
  Maghreb,               16          39            16            19           18
                                                                                   General message is that MENA doesn’t
  Total
                                                                                   account for majority of immigrants
    Source: World Bank: Trade Investment and Development in MENA Figure 2.9
                                                                                   anywhere
        On Illegal Immigrants in France. April 20 NYT                              On Illegal Immigrants in France. April 20,
Ms. Alouache said her asylum request was refused last year and is
pending appeal. She is angry that she still has no papers, but she said            NYT probably 2005
she was not about to go back to Algiers. Here, her son, Mohamed, 4,
attends a public nursery school, and her family gets 100 euros a
month, as well as food, clothing, housing and free medical care from
the state.
Until the fire, she spent her days in city parks with friends, waiting
for her son to get out of school while her husband, 42, played soccer
and acted as an informal coach for boys. She and her husband are not
allowed to work, but many illegal immigrants do.
Like most European countries, France rarely resorts to deportation,
so people like Ms. Alouache hang on, often for years.
SAMU Social handles about 3,000 such people in Paris, half of them
children, Mr. Emmanuelli said. Through these agencies, he said, the
state feeds, houses and clothes 9,000 to 10,000 immigrants lacking
papers in Paris alone.
"It's difficult to deport as soon as these people have kids in school,"
Mr. Emmanuelli said.
So far, France has offered residency only to illegal immigrants case
by case, but offers of residency to large numbers by Italy and Spain               Foreign Workers in the Gulf
have increased pressure on other European countries to do the same.
                     Foreign Workers in the Gulf
"I think we will reach that point in France," Mr. Emmanuelli said.
                                                                                   Turkey also is a host country, from Iran
                                                                                   and Iraq, as well as serving as point of
                                                                                   departure for people going to Europe.



          Table 15.1 p. 393 Foreign Workers in the Gulf, 2002                      Table 15.1 R&W p. 393 Foreign
                                                                                   Workers in the Gulf, 2002
                                                                                   Sum is about 12 million.
                                                                                   Most of workers currently go to Saudi
                                                                                                                                                      6

  Table 15.3 Foreigners as a Percentage of the Labor Force, 1985-2003                                  Fig. 15.3 R&W p. 404 Foreigners as %
                                                                                                       of labor force in GCC, 1985-2003.
                                                                                                       Arabia. Ranking by percentage: UAE,
                                                                                                       Qatar, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi, Bahrain.
                                                                                                       Detail: does labor force include public
                                                                                                       sector?
          Migration: Foreigners as % of Labor Force: GCC
                                                                                                       Migration: Foreigners as % of Labor
                                                                                                       Force: GCC




                                                   Source: Winckler (2004) Arab Political Demography




                                                                                                       Labor Force Growth in GCC p. 59.
                    Labor Force Growth in GCC p. 59
                                                                                                       Source: World Bank (2004) Unlocking
                                                                                                       the Employment Potential in the MENA
                                                                                                       page 59

  Source: World Bank (2004) Unlocking the Employment Potential in the MENA page 59




          Non-Nationals as a Share in Total Labor Force in
                                                                                                       Non-Nationals as a Share in Total Labor
                               GCC
                                                                                                       Force in GCC. Source: World Bank (2004) Unlocking
                                                                                                       the Employment Potential in the MENA page 59




Source: World Bank (2004) Unlocking the Employment Potential in the MENA page 59




      Foreigners--Arabs and non-Arabs--in the GCC                                                      Foreigners-Arabs and Non-Arabs in the
    Total non-nationals in GCC
                                                   1975

                                                   2,809
                                                                  1985

                                                                 5,544
                                                                                  1996

                                                                               10,662
                                                                                                       Gulf Labor Force. Source: mt Table 20c
    Number of expatriate
               Arabs in GCC
    Number of expatriate non-Arabs
                                                   2,022         3,105           3,305                 Larger dominance of workforce (due to
                in GCC

    % Arab in expatriate
                                                     787        2,439            7,556
                                                                                                       fewer families)
               population in GCC

    % non-nationals in GCC population
                                                      72

                                                      31
                                                                      56

                                                                      33
                                                                                      31

                                                                                      38
                                                                                                       Big rise of non-Arabs—from India, Pak,
    % non-nationals in GCC workforce                  51              72              70
                                                                                                       Indonesia, Sri Lanka.
Source: mt Table 20c, after Kapiszewski (2001) Nationals and Expatriates
                                                                                                                                             7

     Arab Labor Exporters to GCC (thousands and %)
                                                                                    Arab Labor Exporters to GCC
                        1975                            1997

                       Total   In % in                 Total       In % in          (thousands and %)
                        pop. GCC GCC                    pop.     GCC GCC

        Egypt    36,950         620        2         64,824 1,635            3
        Jordan    1,800         503       28          4,322   410            9
        Lebanon   3,090          53        2              -     -            -
        Oman        913          57        6              -     -            -
        Sudan    16,050          65        0         32,594   250            1
        Syria     7,410         105        1         16,138   265            2
        Tunisia   5,700          52        1              -     -            -
        Yemen, Rep.   -           -        -         15,857   500            3
        Y.A.R.    5,037         608       12              -     -            -
        YPDR      1,660         123        7              -     -            -

   Source: mt Table 20a



           Share of Arabs in Expatriate Population of GCC
                       Countries, 1975-2000
                                                                                    Share of Arabs in Expatriate Population
                                                                                    of GCC Countries, 1975-2000
                                                                                    Source: Shah (2004) in Arab Migration,
                                                                                    Globalization


    Source: Shah (2004) in Arab Migration, Globalization




                    Replacement of Expatriate
                                                                                    Replacement of Expatriate Workers by
                  Workers by Nationals in GCC p.
                              162                                                   Nationals in GCC p. 162. Source: World Bank
                                                                                    (2004) Unlocking the Employment Potential in the MENA page
                                                                                    162




Source: World Bank (2004) Unlocking the Employment Potential in the MENA page 162




          Distribution of the Labor Force in
                                                                                    Distribution of the Labor Force in
              Kuwait, by Origin p. 173
                                                                                    Kuwait, by Origin p. 173. Source: World Bank
                                                                                    (2004) Unlocking the Employment Potential in the MENA page
                                                                                    173




Source: World Bank (2004) Unlocking the Employment Potential in the MENA page 173




Percent of non-nationals in GCC workforce rises from 51 to 70.
Percent of non-national population rises from 31 to 38. Number
  would be larger for Gulf states minus Saudi Arabia.
Percent Arab in non-national population falls from 72 to 31.
Number of non-nationals (Table 20-b) rises from 2.6 to 8.7
million, while number of non-national Arabs rises from 2.0 to 3.3.
Labor Market in a Gulf Oil Exporter/Labor Importer
                                                                     8



Egyptians into Libya. Yemen, Jordan/Palestine (and Egypt) into
  Saudi Arabia.
1997 My table Increase from Egypt, absolute and relative decline
  from Jordan, and also from Yemen.
R&W Book: 1980 and 1985 basically an increase from Yemen, as
  well as from Egypt.Yemen, Syria.
Reasons for decline after 1985—1990. PLO, Jordan and Yemen
  supported Iraq against Kuwait/Saudi Arabia, and so those
  nationals were sent home. 800,000 Yemenis sent back in
  reprisal. Data suggests that number of Yemenis has mostly
  recovered after a few years. For same reason, 350,000
  Jordanians& Palestinians were returned from Kuwait, Saudi
  Arabia, and elsewhere. Kuwait: 1989 783,000; 45% Arab. 2000
  1,005,000 32% Arab.
There are also indications that Jordan has recently imported
  labor—some 60,000 (source on Jordan: Winckler, Population
  Growth and Migration in Jordan 1950-1994 HB 3808.5 W56
  1997). And now receives Iraqis.

Article by Birks et al. on Kuwait indicates how downturns in
  economy don’t necessarily result in people going home, as they
  find jobs elsewhere, employers hoard workers, some perhaps
  hide. Same has been documented in Germany.
Suggestion that the number of illegals equals the number of legals
  in Saudi Arabia.
Nagy and Longva
  1) Heirarchies: Kuwaitis, other Arab/Muslims, others (E.
      Asian). Men/women. Europeans in separate group. Some
      Non-Europeans are able to enter this highest group.
  2) Apparent growth of demand for low-skilled workers, who
      come from E. Asia. Construction and house services.
  3) Displacement of Arabs by E. Asians began before Gulf War,
      seemingly responding to greater willingness E. Asian
      governments to let people migrate, and better control over
      working conditions
                                                                                                                                         9

       4) Growth of national identity, women’s consciousness. English
          as second language.
       5) (In Kuwait), police and army work done by stateless people
          (longtime residents) called Bidoons. Some had been nomads,
          others are simply mercenaries.
       6) Mentions that Indian men work in lingerie shops, something
          that Arabs/Westerners wouldn’t do. Other standard example
          is Filipina women doing nursing.
       7) ‘naturalization’ as intermediary status between citizens and
          contracted workers.
       8) Class distinctions are often overwhelmed by ethnic ones.
          Evidence of salary differences by national origin: Filipinos
          paid more than Indonesians
       9) Sending country governments taking active role; sponsorship
       10)       Sees the growth of a ‘Creole’ culture.
       11)       Nagy points out that in Qatar contract workers cannot
          own their own homes. The expansion of their ‘company
          houses’ is pushing native residential areas.
       12) Nagy sees different ‘marriage strategies’, differing by home
       country culture. Indians return, Filipinos travel.

          Saudi Arabia: Population by Nationality, 1995                      Saudi Arabia: Population by
                                                                             Nationality, 1995
                                                                             Source: Shah (2004) in Arab Migration, Globalization   ..
                                                                             According to the WDI, the 1995
                                                                             population of Saudi Arabia was 18.5
According to the WDI, the 1995 population of Saudi Arabia was 18.5 million

    Source: Shah (2004) in Arab Migration, Globalization..
                                                                             million
          Saudi Arabia Private Sector Employment
                                                Saudis       Non-Saudis
                                                                             Saudi Arabia Private Sector
   Total
   Petroleum & Minerals
                                              687,261
                                               52,618
                                                              2,253,588
                                                                 12,521
                                                                             Employment Source:
   Manufacturing                               99,136           450,071
   Electricity Gas & Water
   Construction
                                               38,087
                                               46,928
                                                                 19,260
                                                                414,178
                                                                             Similar breakdown for 1981.
   Wholesale & Retail Trade                   258,100           790,649
   Restaurants
   Transport & Communication
                                               25,831
                                               51,651
                                                                137,581
                                                                 89,992
                                                                             Issues: Saudization of existing
   Banking & Insurance                         20,782            17,877
   Real Estate
   Consultants, Research etc.
                                               16,117
                                               34,336
                                                                 15,937
                                                                162,639
                                                                             activities. Expansion into other areas.
   Education
   Health & Human Services
   Community Services, Int’l
                                               14,149
                                               14,839
                                               14,687
                                                                 29,669
                                                                 58,475
                                                                 54,739
                                                                             Importance of oil refining,
   Source: Saudi Government’s web-site                                       exploration.
                                                                                                                                          10

                 Jordanian/Palestinians in GCC, 1965-97

     Total Population
                        1965 1970 1975 1980        1985 1990 1992         1997
                                                                                 Jordanian/Palestinians in GCC, 1965-
     S. Arabia
     Kuwait
     B.,O.,Q.
                           78   148
                                      537
                                      204
                                       24
                                                    281
                                                    231
                                                     44
                                                           311
                                                           274
                                                            32
                                                                    292
                                                                    380
                                                                     32
                                                                           270
                                                                                 97
     U.A.E.                            37            85    135      151    100

     GCC Total                        802           640    761      539    410
     Libya                             35            21

     Grand Total                      837           661

     Workers
     S. Arabia                        175    140    116    124
     Kuwait                            48     54     80     ??
     B.,O.,Q.                           8     11     10     10
     U.A.E.                            15     19     20     31
     GCC Total                        245    224    225
     Libya                             14     15     10
     Grand Total                      259    239    235

             Source:?




            Stocks of Egyptian Overseas Migrants, 1990s                          Stocks of Egyptian Overseas Migrants,
                                                                                 1990s
                                                                                 Source: Wahba (2004) in Arab Migration in a Globalized
                                                                                 World



According to the WDI, Egypt’s population in 1999 was 65 million.


     Source: Wahba (2004) in Arab Migration in a Globalized World




        Distribution of Arabs and Asians in Kuwait, 2001
                                                                                 Distribution of Arabs and Asians in
                                                                                 Kuwait, 2001
                                                                                 Source: Shah (2004) in Arab Migration, Globalization…




   Source: Shah (2004) in Arab Migration, Globalization…



     Sex Composition of the Expatriate Population in Kuwait
                                                                                 Sex Composition of the Expatriate
                                                                                 Population in Kuwait
                                                                                 Source: Shah (2004) in Arab Migration, Globalization…




      Source: Shah (2004) in Arab Migration, Globalization…




    Occupational Distribution of Arabs and Asians in Kuwait                      Occupational Distribution of Arabs
                                                                                 and Asians in Kuwait




  Source: Shah (2004) in Arab Migration, Globalization…
                                                                                                                       11



Lebanon: One example of shift in direction.

                             Lebanon and Migration
                                                                               Lebanon and Migration.
     Lebanon’s current population is about 4 million. There has not been
                                                                               Lebanon’s current population is about
       a credible national population census since the early 1930s.

     The (predominantly refugee) outmigration during the civil
                                                                               4 million. There has not been a
        war (1975-1990) has been estimated at 600,000.
     In addition, there are estimates of outmigration after 1990 of            credible national population census
        the order of one million.

     At the same time, one can find estimates of Syrians living in
                                                                               since the 1930s. But the one million
        Lebanon, of up to one million.
                                                                               immigrants = ¼ of population.


The (predominantly refugee) outmigration during the civil
   war (1975-1990) has been estimated at 600,000.
In addition, there are estimates of outmigration after 1990 of
   the order of one million.
At the same time, one can find estimates of Syrians living in
   Lebanon, of up to one million.
Lebanese outmigration began in the 1860s. Christians. Easy for
   them to return home, hold property, vote.
                                 Iraqi Refugees
                                                                               Iraqi Refugees
                                                  Populations, (millions):
                                                  Iraq ~ 25
                                                  Syria ~20
                                                  Jordan ~5
                                                  Lebanon ~3.5

                                                  Iraqi war deaths estimates
                                                  range from
                                                  80,000-600,000




 Source: NYT December 12, 2006




Comments about movements:
Some one-to-one links; Algerians and north Africans into France,
  Turks into Germany.
Absolute number of outsiders in Germany is less that that in Saudi
  Arabia.
Relative numbers of outsiders to host country populations is
  obviously biggest in the Gulf.
For Algeria today, nothing like the ¼ level mentioned for WWI.
                                                                                                                       12

Growing number of migration of Moroccans into Spain. Also, sub-
  Saharan Africans into France.

                                                                                Workers in Israel, West Bank and Gaza
           Workers in Israel, West Bank and Gaza




    Labor in Israel, West Bank and Gaza, 1970-2002                              Labor in Israel, West Bank and Gaza,
    Labor in Israel (1,000s)
                                      1970    1990     2002                     1970-2002
    Israel: Domestic Labor Force
    Workers from WB & Gaza
                                       963 1,492
                                        21   108
                                                      2,284
                                                         30
                                                                                Source: My Table 20d
    Workers from elsewhere               0     3        247
                                                                                Sayre/ Olmsted: Decline after 1990 Gulf
    Total West Bank and Gaza Work Force

    Total                              183     422
                                                    (2003)
                                                                                War was 15%, or about 60K.
                                                                                Also, 40-100K “returnees after Oslo
    Domestic                           161     200 (557)
    In Israel                           20     108 (30-70)
    In Other Countries                   0     114



   Source: mt Table 20d, and p. 265 O&P and PCBS
                                                                                accords.
Distribution of Arabs of Palestinian Birth or Descent
                                 pre- post-
                  1948 1952 1961 1967 1967 1970 1982 1992
Palestine
 Israel
                   100   76
                         22
                              65
                              11
                                    63
                                    12
                                        50
                                        15
                                             46
                                             15
                                                  41
                                                  12
                                                       40
                                                       12
                                                                                Distribution of Arabs of Palestinian Birth
 West Bank
 Gaza
                         47
                         18
                              37
                              17
                                    34
                                    18
                                        22
                                        13
                                             20
                                             11
                                                  18
                                                  10
                                                       16
                                                       12                       or Descent Source: J. AbuLughod
Outside
 Palestine                     24    35       37      50      54    59    60
  East Bank                     9    17       18      27      30    24    28
  Leb./Syria                   12    13       13      13      13    14    11
  Other                         0     5        6      10      11    21    21

Millions             1.4       1.6   2.2 2.65        2.7      3.0   4.5   6.0

Source: article by J. Abu-Lughod in Cambridge Survey
of World Migration

                  A Profile of the Palestinians, 1991
                                                                                A Profile of the Palestinians, 1991




Source: P. 415 of the Cambridge Survey of World Migration
                                                                                                                              13


                          Immigration into the US
                                                                                          Immigration into the US




                                                                                          Immigrants in US.
                     Immigrants into US, 1901-2002
                                                                                          Peaks pre WWI, now.
                                                                                          7 million unauthorized immigrants, mostly
                                                                                          from Latin America.

Homeland Security estimated there are 7 million unauthorized
immigrants in 2000, almost all from Latin America.
Source: US Census data, reported in Statistical Abstract of the U.S., 2004



    US Immigrants by Class of Admission, 1990-2002 (‘000s)
                                                                                          US Immigrants by Class of Admission,
                                                                                          1990-2002 (‘000s)
                                      1990           1995           2002
   Total Immigrants                  1,536             720         1,063
     Adjustments                     1,101             340            679
   Family Sponsored                     215            238            187
   Employment-Based                       58             85           175
   Relatives                            232            220            486
   Refugees & Asylees                     97           115            126 Source:
                                                                               Stat.Abs
   IRCA legalization                    880               4             <1 of US
   Refugees & Asylees                     97           115            126


 U.S. Immigrants Admitted by Country of Birth (000s)                                      U.S. Immigrants Admitted by Country of
            Total
                                          1980s
                                          7,338
                                                       2001+2002
                                                            1,129
                                                                                          Birth (000s)
            Europe                          706               349
            China+India+Hong                489               285
            Kong+Bangladesh
            Iran                             154                  28
            Iraq                              20                  10
            Jordan+Syria                      53                  14         Source:
                                                                             Stat. Abs.
            Lebanon                           42                   8         2004
            Turkey                            21                   6
            Latin America                  3,006                 916



              US Population with Arab Ancestry, 2000                                      US Population with Arab Ancestry, 2000




Source: US Census Bureau (2005) “We The People of Arab Ancestry in the US
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          14

In U.S. Foreign born total about 25 m, or 9% of population.
6-8 m Muslims, 4 m Arab-Americans. 300,000 in S.E. Michigan.
     500,000 in L.A., 200,000 in Bay Area. Don’t have data on
     Iranians; Turks small. The immigration of Arab Americans
     started in 1890-1920; 50,000-100,000 from
     Syria/Lebanon/Palestine. 100,000 Palestinians around 1948.
                                                                                                                                                                                Origin and Religions of Arab-
                           Origin and Religion of Arab-Americans, 2000
                                                                                                                                                                                Americans, 2000.
                                                                                                                                                                                Source Arab-American Institute




Source: Arab-American Institute http://www.aaiusa.org/arab-americans/22/demographics
 based on US Census of 2000




                                                                                                                                                                                 Arab immigration to U.S. 1989-2010
                                            Arab immigration to U.S. 1989-2010
     100000                                                                                                                                                                      Sources: Department of Homeland Security, Yearbook of
      90000


      80000
                                                                                                                                                       Tunisia
                                                                                                                                                       Sudan
                                                                                                                                                                                 Immigration Statistics 2005, 2010. From: Helen Samhan (2011)
                                                                                                                                                       Somalia
      70000                                                                                                                                            Morocco
                                                                                                                                                       Libya
      60000
                                                                                                                                                       Egypt
                                                                                                                                                       Algeria
      50000
                                                                                                                                                       Yemen
                                                                                                                                                       United Arab Emirates
      40000
                                                                                                                                                       Syria

      30000                                                                                                                                            Saudi Arabia
                                                                                                                                                       Lebanon
      20000                                                                                                                                            Kuwait
                                                                                                                                                       Jordan
      10000                                                                                                                                            Iraq


                0




  Sources: Department of Homeland Security, Yearbook of Immigration Statistics 2005, 2010

  From: Helen Samhan (2011) “Trends in Arab American Identity and Demographics”




                                                              Fastest growing
                                                       Arab immigrant groups in the US
                                                                                                                                                                                 Fastest growing Arab immigrant groups
     By Year of Entry 1989-2010                                                                             Total by Country 1989-2010
                                                                                                                                                                                 in the US
     80,000


     70,000
                                                                                                            180,000

                                                                                                            160,000
                                                                                                                                                                                 Sources: Department of Homeland Security, Yearbook of
     60,000
                                                                                                            140,000
                                                                                                                                                                                 Immigration Statistics 2005, 2010
                                                                                                            120,000
     50,000


     40,000
                                                                                                  Sudan
                                                                                                  Somalia
                                                                                                            100,000                                                             [From: Helen Samhan (2011)
                                                                                                  Morocco
                                                                                                             80,000
     30,000                                                                                       Egypt
                                                                                                  Iraq       60,000
     20,000
                                                                                                             40,000
     10,000
                                                                                                             20,000

            -
                                                                                                                 -
                    1989
                           1991
                                  1993
                                         1995
                                                1997
                                                       1999
                                                               2001
                                                                      2003
                                                                             2005
                                                                                    2007
                                                                                           2009




                                                                                                                        Iraq         Egypt   Morocco     Somalia      Sudan


  Sources: Department of Homeland Security, Yearbook of Immigration Statistics 2005, 2010
  [From: Helen Samhan (2011) “Trends in Arab American Identity and Demographics”]




                                                       Nativity by place: Lebanese and
                                                                                                                                                                                 Nativity by place: Lebanese and Total
   90.00%


   80.00%
                                                            Total Arab ancestries
                                                                                                                                                                                 Arab ancestries
   70.00%
                                                                                                                                                                                 Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, American Community
   60.00%
                                                                                                                                                                                 Survey (2007-2009) [From: Helen Samhan (2011)]
   50.00%


   40.00%                                                                                                                                                          Lebanese
                                                                                                                                                                   Total Arab
   30.00%


   20.00%


   10.00%


   0.00%
                                                                                                                      Foreign-born
                                                              Native


  Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, American Community Survey (2007-2009)
  [From: Helen Samhan (2011) “Trends in Arab American Identity and Demographics”]
                                                                                                                                                                                                          15


                                        Language spoken at home:
                                                                                                                                                 Language spoken at home: Lebanese
               80.00%
                                     Lebanese ancestry and Total Arab
                                                                                                                                                 ancestry and Total Arab
               70.00%


               60.00%
                                                                                                                                                 Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, American Community
               50.00%
                                                                                                                                                 Survey (2007-2009) From: Helen Samhan (2011)
               40.00%                                                                                                          Lebanese
                                                                                                                               Total Arab
               30.00%


               20.00%


               10.00%


                 0.00%
                                       English only at home                  Arabic spoken at home



    Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, American Community Survey (2007-2009)
    From: Helen Samhan (2011) “Trends in Arab American Identity and Demographics”




                                                                                                                                                 Education levels: Lebanese ancestry
             Education levels: Lebanese ancestry and Total Arab
        Graduate
        Degree
                                                                                                                                                 and Total Arab
        Bachelor's
                                                                                                                                                 Sources: U.S. Bureau of the Census, American Community
        Degree



                                                                                                                             Total Arab
                                                                                                                                                 Survey (2007-2009) [From: Helen Samhan (2011)
         Some
         College
                                                                                                                             Lebanese


     High school
     diploma



     Less than
     high school



                         0.00%          5.00%             10.00%        15.00%         20.00%             25.00%    30.00%



    Sources: U.S. Bureau of the Census, American Community Survey (2007-2009)
    [From: Helen Samhan (2011) “Trends in Arab American Identity and Demographics”]




                   Nativity by Ancestry: Lebanese, Total Arab, and
                                                                                                                                                 Nativity by ancestry: Lebanese, Total
        90.00%


        80.00%
                                (unspecified) “Arab”
                                                                                                                                                 Arab, and (unspecified) “Arab”
        70.00%
                                                                                                                                                 Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, American Community
        60.00%
                                                                                                                                                 Survey (2007-2009)
                                                                                                                                                 From: Helen Samhan (2011)
        50.00%
                                                                                                                               Lebanese
                                                                                                                               Total Arab
        40.00%
                                                                                                                               "Arab"

        30.00%


        20.00%


        10.00%


         0.00%
                                            Native                                              Foreign


    Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, American Community Survey (2007-2009)
    From: Helen Samhan (2011) “Trends in Arab American Identity and Demographics”



2000                     Total             Median                                                     Total Median
Censu

US-Born
                         Populat.
                         in USA
                            250,314     51
                                           Famil Full Time Incom
                                    Incom Male Female
                                             38 27
                                                                                                      Pop’n. Famil Full Time In
                                                                                                      in USA Incom           M Female
                                                                                                                                                 Incomes of US Foreign Born, by
Foreign Born-
All                31,108                       42            30 25              China                     1,519     57       44            33
                                                                                                                                                 country of origin
  By country of birth:                                                           India                     1,023     75       57            37
  Argentina            125                      55            41   31            Korea                       864     47       39            28
  Brazil               212                      41            32   25            Pakistan                    223     50       38            27
  Colombia             510                      40            30   22            Philippines               1,369     66       36            32
  Cuba                 873                      41            31   25            Viet Nam                    988     47       31            24
  Jamaica              554                      45            32   29
  Mexico            9,177                       31            21   17            Egypt                        113    58       44            35
                                                                                 Iran                         283    65       52            36
  Nigeria                            135        53            37 31              Iraq                          90    46       35            26
                                                                                 Israel                       110    63       51            37
  Australia                           61        77            61   36            Jordan                        47    46       39            31
  Canada                             821        62            52   35            Kuwait                        20    45       42            30
  Germany                            707        57            48   29            Lebanon                      106    55       47            31
  Ireland                            156        65            50   35            Saudi Arabia                  21    31       37            28
  Italy                              473        54            44   29            Syria                         55    49       41            27
  Poland                             467        51            39   26            Turkey                        78    52       42            32
  Russia                             340        46            41   31            Yemen                         19    32       26            24




                                             Model of Immigrants’ Income                                                                         Model of Immigrants’ Income.
                     +10
Income of
immigrant
Minus                     0
                                                      Years in the US                                                                            Lower income declines over time,
                                 0                   10                    20                        30
Income of
Similarly -10
                                                                                                                                                 perhaps becoming positive.
aged and
educated
native born-20
                                                                    Overall Average difference
                                                                                                                                                 Position of curve depends on ease of
(percent)
                     -30                                                                                                                         entry into mainstream culture.
                                                                                                                                                         16

                                                      Arab-American                    Arab-American
                                                        Population
                                                      Distribution in
                                                         Detroit
                                                                                       Population Distribution in Detroit
                                                                                       From: Arab Detroit


                                                        From: Arab Detroit




                                                                                       Arab-American Population in Detroit,
                                                               Arab Detroit II
                                                                                       more recent book.



                                                                 Source:




            From the UM Detroit Arab-American Study
                                                                                      From the UM Detroit Arab-American
                                                                                      http://www.umich.edu/news/index.html?Releases/2004/Jul04/r072904

                                                                                      Majority are Christians. For Syria/Leb,
                                                                                      Iraq, Palestine/Jordan, Yemen
                                                                                       Most are foreign-born, most are US
                                                                                       citizens.
  http://www.umich.edu/news/index.html?Releases/2004/Jul04/r072904




                  Arab-Americans in Michigan:
                                                                                               Median Incomes for US and metro Detroit
              Ancestry and Recent Immigrants. ~ 2000




Source: Arab-American Institute:
http://www.aaiusa.org/page/file/f6bf1bfae54f0224af_3dtmvyj4h.pdf/MIdemographics.pdf
                                                                                                                                                                            17


           Gallup on Racial Breakdown of religious groups in
                                                                                                                   Gallup on Racial Breakdown of
                                 US
                                                                                                                   religious groups in US
                                                                                                                   Source Gallup



 Souce: Gallup (2009) American Muslim Report




                               Arab Ancestry in the US:
                              Sub group changes over time
                                                                                                                   Arab Ancestry in the US:
                           1980                                                    2009
                                                                                                                   Sub group changes over time
                      6%

                                         Lebanese                         12%
                                                                                                                   Sources: U.S. Bureau of the Census. Decennial Census (1980-
1%
          15%
                                         Syrian
                                         Egyptian
                                         Jordanian
                                                                                              30%
                                                                                                    Lebanese
                                                                                                    Syrian
                                                                                                    Egyptian
                                                                                                                   2000); American Community Survey (2007-2009)
     3%                           47%                          17%


2%
     3%
                                         Palestinian
                                         Iraqi
                                         Moroccan
                                                                                                    Jordanian
                                                                                                    Palestinian
                                                                                                    Iraqi
                                                                                                                   [From: Helen Samhan (2011)
      6%                                                       5%                                   Moroccan
                                         Arab
                                                                    5%                        9%    Arab
                                         Other Arab
                                                                                                    Other Arab
                 17%                                                     6%
                                                                              4%   12%




 Sources: U.S. Bureau of the Census. Decennial Census (1980-2000); American Community
 Survey (2007-2009)

          [From: Helen Samhan (2011) “Trends in Arab American Identity and Demographics”]




            Selected Arab sub group growth in US since 1980:
                                                                                                                   Selected Arab sub group growth in US
            200,000
                       Egyptian, Iraqi, Moroccan
                                                                                                                   since 1980: Egyptian, Iraqi, Moroccan
                                                                                                                   From Helen Samhan (2011) “Trends in
            180,000

            160,000

            140,000

            120,000




                                                                                                                   Arab American
                                                                                                            1980
            100,000                                                                                         1990
                                                                                                            2000
             80,000
                                                                                                            2009

             60,000

             40,000

             20,000

                 0
                            Egyptian                   Iraqi                             Moroccan



 Sources: U.S. Bureau of the Census. Decennial Census (1980-2000); American Community
 Survey (2007-2009)

 [From: Helen Samhan (2011) “Trends in Arab American Identity and Demographics




          US: Arab arrivals – total immigrants vs. refugees,
                             2001-2010
                                                                                                                   US: Arab refugee arrivals vs.
                                                                                                                   immigrants, 2001-2010
                                                                                                                   Sources: Department of Homeland Security, Yearbook of
                                                                                                                   Immigration Statistics 2005, 2010
                                                                                                                   [From: Helen Samhan (2011)



 Sources: Department of Homeland Security, Yearbook of Immigration Statistics 2005, 2010
 [From: Helen Samhan (2011) “Trends in Arab American Identity and Demographics”]




                                                                                                                   Ehrenberg Graph
                                        Ehrenberg Graph




                 Vertical intercept has been declining over time
                 - “Recent immigrant discount” is increasing
                 - Data suggest an ultimate plateau of 90% of native income



 Lubotsky article published in JPE October, 2007
                                                                                                                         18

          Ratio of Wages of Recent Immigrants to National
                     Average, 1980 and 2000.                                         Ratio of Wages of recent immigrants to
                                                               Arabs, other MENA,
                                                               India & China doing
                                                                                     national average
                                                               better;
                                                               Mexico doing worse




Source: Census data from IPUMS



        Regresssion: Detroit DAAS Data, Including Religion
                 R2 = 0.33

                 Constant
                                    Coefficients

                                          12.161
                                                    t

                                                    59.818
                                                                                     Regresssion: Detroit DAAS Data, with
                 Experience
                 Experience2
                 ed1
                                           0.002
                                               0
                                           -1.262
                                                     0.322
                                                    -2.706
                                                    -10.49
                                                                                     Religion
                 ed2                       -0.941   -7.871
                 ed3                       -0.795   -7.038
                 ed4                       -0.527       -4.3
                 Iraqi                     -0.004   -0.023
                 Yemen                     -0.032   -0.157
                 Palestine/Jordon          -0.002   -0.011
                 Lebanon/Syria             0.056     0.319
                  Egypt/N. Africa          0.068     0.272
                 Migr_pre_55               0.071     0.289
                 Migr_55_69                0.184        1.26
                 Migr_70s                  -0.097   -0.917
                 Migr_80s                  -0.325   -3.106
                 Migr_90s                  -0.753   -7.827
                 Migr_2000s                -1.167   -7.809
                 Mulsim                    -0.329    0.084

				
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