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Name: _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Period ______ Collision Lab Up to now we have been describing the motion of one object. Now we start to consider two objects colliding with each other. We want to be able to describe the motion of the two objects after the collision if we know their motions before the collision. We are trying to make predictions. For now, we will limit ourselves to straight-line (one-dimensional) motion and “inelastic” collisions, where the two objects stick to each other and travel together after the collision. In this lab, you will be given a number of collision situations. You will first make predictions about what you think the results of the collision will be. Then, you will use the tracks and carts, along with the photogates, to test your predictions. PART I: PREDICTIONS (a) Both moving, stopping after colliding For each of the situations listed in the table below, a blue cart will be moving at speed v. You will push a red cart in the opposite direction at just the right speed so that the two carts stick together and come to a complete stop. (It will obviously take some practice.) In some of the situations the carts are identical; in others, the carts have different masses. In the charts below, write down your predictions for the speed with which the red cart will have to be moving in order to have both carts come to a stop. Your predictions should be written in terms of the initial speed v; that is, if you think the red cart will have to be going three times the speed of the blue cart, you would write down 3v. (Leave the “Actual Results” part blank until you perform the experiments, in Part II.) Your prediction Actual results Blue Cart Red Cart Blue Cart Red Cart mass speed mass speed mass speed mass speed m v m m m m v 2m m 2m m v 3m m 3m 2m v m 2m m 3m v m 3m m 1 (b) Initially at rest, pushing off each other What about a collision in reverse? Called an “explosion”, you’ll start two carts at rest right next to each other, then release the spring-loaded plunger on the red cart so that carts push off of each other in opposite directions. In the chart below, write down your predictions for the same five mass combinations listed above. (Again, write down your predictions in terms of v, the speed of one of the carts.) Your prediction Actual results Blue Cart Red Cart Blue Cart Red Cart mass speed mass speed mass speed mass speed m v m m m m v 2m m 2m m v 3m m 3m 2m v m 2m m 3m v m 3m m (c) One cart moving, the other at rest Now let’s consider a different question. For the same five mass combinations listed above, a blue cart will be moving at speed v toward a red cart at rest. The two carts will stick together after the collision. In the chart below, write down your predictions for the speed of the carts after they collide and stick together. As before, your prediction should be written in terms of v. Your prediction Actual results Before Collision After Collision Before Collision After Collision Both Carts Both Carts Blue Cart Red Cart Blue Cart Red Cart Together Together mass speed mass speed mass speed mass speed mass speed mass speed m v m 0 2m m m 0 2m m v 2m 0 3m m 2m 0 3m m v 3m 0 4m m 3m 0 4m 2m v m 0 3m 2m m 0 3m 3m v m 0 4m 3m m 0 4m 2 PART II: TESTING YOUR PREDICTIONS You should have predictions written down for fifteen different situations. Now you will use the carts and tracks to test each of your predictions. Each cart by itself is 250 g; you also have two extra 250 g masses that you can add to the cart(s) to vary their mass. Set up your tracks and photogates as shown in class. Follow the instructions shown below to set up the LabQuests. Using the photogates to measure speeds, perform the collisions listed above and record the speeds of the two carts. Compare the experimental results to your predictions. Using a Photogate with LabQuest 1. Connect the cables from the photogates to DIG1 and DIG2 on the right side of the LabQuest. 2. Turn on the LabQuest. 3. Select the “Sensors” menu, then “Sensor Setup”. For DIG1 and DIG2, choose “Photogate” from the pull down menus. Click OK. 4. Click the box labeled “Mode” on the right side of the screen. For Photogate Mode, choose “Gate” from the pull down menu. 5. In the box labeled “Length of object”, enter the width of the flag on top of your cart, in meters. (These brackets have a width of 1.6 cm = 0.016 m.) Click OK. 6. To start collecting data, click the green arrow in the bottom left of the screen. 7. You should ignore everything on the data collection screen EXCEPT the boxes labeled “velocity” on the right side of the screen. Do not pay any attention to the graphs, or to the “Gate Time” or “Time” boxes. 8. You can (and should) run multiple trials. To see the velocities for all your trials, click on the Table tab at the top of the screen. 9. When you have collected all the data you want, click the red square in the bottom left of the screen to stop collecting data. PART III: ANALYSIS Analysis for this lab is very different than the other labs we have done. There is nothing to graph, only masses and speeds to compare. To help you come up with a general rule, we’re going to draw diagrams with carts and velocity vectors. You’ll be drawing vectors for situations that you tested, and also for other combinations that you did not test. Do the diagrams on pages 4, 5, and 6 before going on to Part IV on this page. PART IV: DRAWING CONCLUSIONS Our goal in this lab is to be able to make predictions about the motion of two objects after they collide if we know their motion before they collide. What we want is to be able to make one general statement that will cover all the cases you tested in Part II (and more). This should be in the form of a rule or formula: if the carts are doing X, then Y will happen. Your rule should be specific enough to answer the following questions: o A 1-kg cart is moving at 4 m/s. How fast would a 0.5-kg cart have to move in the other direction for them to hit each other and both come to a stop? o A 1-kg cart is moving at 6 m/s. It hits a 2-kg cart moving the other direction at 1 m/s and sticks to it. How fast and in what direction does the combined cart move after the collision? 3 (a) Both moving, stopping after colliding For each of the situations shown here, draw a vector on the red cart to indicate how fast it would have to be going in order to stop the blue cart. Remember that the length of your arrow should indicate the speed of the cart. The situations shown here are not the ones you tested in your experiment. If you can figure out the speeds for the red cart in order to stop the blue cart, you have generalized your rule to make predictions about other collisions. What about the two carts has to be the same in order for them to stop when they collide? (Look at your pictures above.) Describe your rule for part (a) in “If-then” format (“If [something], then the carts will stop when they collide.”): 4 (b) Initially at rest, pushing off each other For each of the situations shown here, draw a vector on the red cart to indicate how fast it would be going after the two carts have pushed off of each other. Remember that the length of your arrow should indicate the speed of the cart. The situations shown here are not the ones you tested in your experiment. If you can figure out the speeds for the red cart after pushing off the blue cart, you have generalized your rule to make predictions about other explosions. What about the two carts is the same after they push off of each other from rest? (Look at your pictures above.) Describe your rule for part (a) in “If-then” format (“If the two carts are at rest and push off of each other, then [something].”): 5 (c) One cart moving, the other at rest Before collision After collision For each of the situations shown here, draw a vector on the combined cart to indicate how fast it would be going after the collision. Remember that the length of your arrow should indicate the speed of the cart. This is a more difficult rule to figure out. Let’s try to go back to parts (a) and (b) and redraw those situations in the same “Before/After” table like we have here. Before After from part (a) from part (a) from part (b) from part (b) How can you make a rule about the number of arrows before and after the collision (or explosion) for each of these cases? Does that help you make a rule for before and after the collisions in part (c)? 6

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posted: | 3/6/2012 |

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