Immigration Options for the Entrepreneur (PowerPoint download) by ewghwehws

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									                     Visa and Permanent
                   Residence Options for the
                    Entrepreneurial Student
                            Harvard Business School
                  H. Ronald Klasko, Esq.
Klasko, Rulon, Stock and Seltzer, LLP
Philadelphia                      New York
1800 JFK Blvd. Suite 1700         317 Madison Ave. Suite 1518
Philadelphia, PA 19103            New York, NY 10017
215.825.8600                      212.796.8840
www.klaskolaw.com
                   H. Ronald Klasko, Esq.
 Ron Klasko is the Managing Partner of Klasko, Rulon, Stock & Seltzer, LLP and has
  been providing immigration assistance and solutions to universities, hospitals, and
  research institutions for over 25 years.

 Ron is a past National President of the American Immigration Lawyers Association and
  served for 3 years as the bar association’s General Counsel. His firm is the first
  immigration law firm global partner of NAFSA: Association of International Educators.
  Mr. Klasko has been invited by more than 25 universities and hospitals to address
  students and scholars.

 Ron has been selected as one of six top tier immigration lawyers in the US by The
  Chambers Global Guide. He is selected annually for inclusion in Best Lawyers in
  America. The International Who’s Who of Business Lawyers 2007 and 2008 Corporate
  Immigration Law edition selected Ron as the “most highly regarded” immigration lawyer
  in the world. He is a frequent author and lecturer on hospital and university-related
  immigration law topics and is a former Adjunct Professor of Immigration Law at Villanova
  University Law School.

 Ron is a graduate of the University of Pennsylvania School of Law


   Klasko, Rulon, Stock & Seltzer, LLP
                                          2009 Issues

■     Fewer job offers
■     H-1B quota
■     Impact of layoffs
■     Increased opportunities for investors and
      entrepreneurs




    Klasko, Rulon, Stock & Seltzer, LLP
                     Employment Options
                      for the F-1 Student
■   20 hours per week on campus
■   OPT after complete studies
■   Options for the entrepreneur
      On-campus employment must be services for
       students
      OPT employment must be related to studies

      See “Murky F-1 Employment Issues”
        (http://www.klaskolaw.com)
Klasko, Rulon, Stock & Seltzer, LLP
H-1B Issues for Start-Up Business

 Must establish company with employer tax
     I.D. number
    Company can be 100% owned by H-1B
     employee
        Must be W-2 employee
        Company separate entity from
         owner/employee


    Klasko, Rulon, Stock & Seltzer, LLP
H-1B Issues for Start-Up Business
                                                         (cont’d)


   Company must prove
     Financial                  ability to pay salary
            Profits           and/or capitalization
     Real job to be done by H-1B
     Place of business




Klasko, Rulon, Stock & Seltzer, LLP
H-1B Issues for Start-Up Business
                                                              (cont’d)

    Importance of business plan/financial
     projections
    Other employees helpful – not required
    Prevailing Wage
        CEO              vs. function-descriptive position




    Klasko, Rulon, Stock & Seltzer, LLP
H-1B Issues for Start-Up Business
                                                        (cont’d)
    “Specialty Occupation”
        Use           of concepts learned in courses
    H-1B Quota
        Past            years
        2009
        What it means
        Employment during “cap gap”


    Klasko, Rulon, Stock & Seltzer, LLP
H-1B Issues for Start-Up Business
                                                                      (cont’d)

    Quota-exempt                        H-1B
           Non-profit                company
                   “Affiliated” with university
                   Research organization

           Employed                  “at” university or other quota- exempt
            employer
           Concurrent employment

           Previous H-1B



Klasko, Rulon, Stock & Seltzer, LLP
Other Nonimmigrant (Temporary) Options
                                   Treaty (E) Visas

 ■ Must be national of treaty country
      http://www.travel.state.gov./visa

 ■ Company must be owned at least 50% by
   treaty country nationals



  Klasko, Rulon, Stock & Seltzer, LLP
Other Nonimmigrant (Temporary) Options
                                   Treaty (E) Visas
                                                      (cont’d)


  Visa for 1 to 5 years
       Each  entry limited to two years
       Visa and entry can be extended indefinitely

  No quota
  Spouse can work

  Klasko, Rulon, Stock & Seltzer, LLP
Other Nonimmigrant (Temporary) Options
                                   Treaty (E) Visas
                                                      (cont’d)

 ■ Treaty traders (E-1)
       “Substantial” import or export
       Majority between U.S. and treaty country

       Can be manager, supervisor or “essential
        skill” employee



  Klasko, Rulon, Stock & Seltzer, LLP
Other Nonimmigrant (Temporary) Options
                                    Treaty (E) Visas
                                                             (cont’d)
 ■ Treaty investors (E-2)
    “Substantial” investment
              No exact amount
              Varies depending upon type of investment
              Relevant issues
                 Amount of investment
                 Number of employees
                 Needs of business
                 Likely profitability and growth potential
              Business plan and financial projections critical

  Klasko, Rulon, Stock & Seltzer, LLP
Other Nonimmigrant (Temporary) Options
                                        Treaty (E)
                                                           (cont’d)

           ■ Visa applicant can be
                            or
                    Investor

                    Manager, supervisor or essential employee




  Klasko, Rulon, Stock & Seltzer, LLP
Intracompany Transferee (L-1) Visas
 ■ National of any country
 ■ No quota
 ■ Length of visa
        Startup 1 year
        Established business 3 years
        Maximum length 7 years




 Klasko, Rulon, Stock & Seltzer, LLP
Intracompany Transferee (L-1) Visas
                                                 (cont’d)

■ Spouse can work
■ Must be “international” business
       Business outside U.S. with at least 50% common
        ownership
       Must be employed by that business one year

■ Type of employment (in U.S. and overseas
  companies)
       Manager   or executive
       “Specialized knowledge” employee


Klasko, Rulon, Stock & Seltzer, LLP
Intracompany Transferee (L-1) Visas
                                                   (cont’d)

    Start-up issues
        Place of business
        Employees
        Capitalization
        Need for “manager”
        Business plan and financial projections




    Klasko, Rulon, Stock & Seltzer, LLP
Extraordinary Ability (O-1) Visas
■ National or international renown
■ “One of a few at the top of his peers”
■ Must be employer or agent
       Can           be own company
■ Length of visa
      3  years
       1 year extensions
       Can extend indefinitely

Klasko, Rulon, Stock & Seltzer, LLP
       Permanent Resident Status

       Family
       Employment
       Investment
       Asylum
       Lottery



Klasko, Rulon, Stock & Seltzer, LLP
                                          Quotas

    Per country of birth, per preference category,
     per fiscal year
    Filing date is “priority date”
    EB-1 (extraordinary ability, outstanding
     researcher, multinational manager)
        No        quota wait




    Klasko, Rulon, Stock & Seltzer, LLP
                                      Quotas
                                                                 (cont’d)
   EB-2
     Nationalinterest waiver
     Labor certification requiring
              Masters degree
              Bachelors degree plus 5 years progressive experience, or
              Exceptional ability
     No        quota wait, except China and India
   EB-3
     Labor certification requiring bachelors or 2 years
      experience
     Long quota wait for all countries

Klasko, Rulon, Stock & Seltzer, LLP
                               Investment (EB-5)
               http://www.eb5immigration.com


 No quota delay
 Amount of investment
        $1,000,000 or
        $500,000 in “targeted employment area”




    Klasko, Rulon, Stock & Seltzer, LLP
                               Investment (EB-5)
                                                   (cont’d)


    Type of investment
        Generally                    cash
        “Atrisk”
        Cannot use debt with investment enterprise
         as collateral




    Klasko, Rulon, Stock & Seltzer, LLP
                            Investment (EB-5)
                                                             (cont’d)

 Type of business
   Active business
   New business or expansion of existing
    business
            40%          increase in net worth or number of employees




 Klasko, Rulon, Stock & Seltzer, LLP
                           Investment (EB-5)
                                               (cont’d)


 Employment creation
   10 new or 10 additional full-time jobs
   U.S. citizens or permanent residents
   Saving 10 jobs in “troubled business”




 Klasko, Rulon, Stock & Seltzer, LLP
                            Investment (EB-5)
                                                    (cont’d)


 Lawful source of funds
    Extensive documentation required
    Can be gift
             Must prove giftor's source of funds
     Can borrow money




 Klasko, Rulon, Stock & Seltzer, LLP
                            Investment (EB-5)
                                                    (cont’d)


 Nature of investor’s relationship to business
   Do not have to be employee (but can)
   Do not have to be owner (but can)
            Cannot             be purely passive
                      Limited partner ok




 Klasko, Rulon, Stock & Seltzer, LLP
                           Investment (EB-5)
                                                              (cont’d)
 Two possibilities
   Individual investment
              See         above
      Regional                   center investment
              Approximately           30 USCIS – approved regional
               centers
              Mostly $500,000 investment

              Indirect employment creation ok



Klasko, Rulon, Stock & Seltzer, LLP
                           Investment (EB-5)
                                                        (cont’d)

    Some               have long, successful history – some
     do not
    Pilot program

    Choosing a regional center
              Due diligence list at
               http://www.eb5immigration.com/choosing-a-
               regional-center.php



Klasko, Rulon, Stock & Seltzer, LLP
                           Investment (EB-5)
                                                  (cont’d)


  Choosing     between individual and regional
      center investment
          http://www.eb5immigration.com/regional-centers-
             vs-individual-eb-5.php




Klasko, Rulon, Stock & Seltzer, LLP
     Permanent Resident Status
           Employment

   Employer-sponsored or self-sponsored
   Labor certification or extraordinary/national
    interest/exceptional
   Multiple petitions




Klasko, Rulon, Stock & Seltzer, LLP
    Permanent Resident Status
          Employment
                                                   (cont’d)


    Self-Sponsored
       Extraordinary                 ability
               EB-1
               Extensive documentation required

               Reference letters critical




Klasko, Rulon, Stock & Seltzer, LLP
     Permanent Resident Status
           Employment
                                                                (cont’d)
       National                  Interest Waiver
               EB-2
               Standard
                      Exceptional ability or advanced degree
                      National priority

                      National impact

               Extensive documentation required
               Reference letters critical



Klasko, Rulon, Stock & Seltzer, LLP
     Permanent Resident Status
           Employment
                                                                (cont’d)
   Employer-Sponsored
     Outstanding                     Researcher or Professor
            EB-1
            “Permanent position”

            Similar to extraordinary ability

     Multinational                   Manager
            EB-1
            Same as L-1 except must be manager or executive
             overseas
Klasko, Rulon, Stock & Seltzer, LLP
      Permanent Resident Status
            Employment
                                                                   (cont’d)
 Labor          Certification Application (PERM)
     EB-2 or EB-3
     Employer must:
            Pay attorney fees and advertising costs
            Define “minimum requirements”
            Engage in required recruitment (approximately 4-5 months)
            Interview U.S. worker applicants
            Prove unavailability of qualified, interested, and available
             U.S. worker
            Pay prevailing wage

     Not        available to owner of business
 Klasko, Rulon, Stock & Seltzer, LLP
     Permanent Resident Status
           Employment
                                      (cont’d)


       Timing
           Electronic  filing
           Possibility of audit
           First of three steps




Klasko, Rulon, Stock & Seltzer, LLP
         Permanent Resident Status
               Employment
                                                               (cont’d)
   I-140 Petition
      1ststep for EB-1 and national interest waiver
      2nd step for PERM
                Employee documents education and experience
      If adjustment of status, file concurrently with I-485 if
       quota current
      If consular immigrant visa processing, approval sent to
       National Visa Center


    Klasko, Rulon, Stock & Seltzer, LLP
         Permanent Resident Status
               Employment
                                                     (cont’d)

   I-485 (Application for Adjustment of Status to
    Permanent Resident)
      Cannot file until quota is current
      Importance of filing
             Do not need to maintain visa status
             Can file for spouse and child

             Can get Employment Authorization Document (EAD)


    Klasko, Rulon, Stock & Seltzer, LLP
     Permanent Resident Status
           Employment
                                                              (cont’d)
            Can get advance parole travel document
                 Eliminate need to obtain visas
                 Can still maintain and extend H-1B status

            Can leave employer if
                 I-140 approved
                 I-485 pending 180 days

                 Similar occupation

          Permanent resident upon approval
          Timing and delay issues


Klasko, Rulon, Stock & Seltzer, LLP
                                  Questions?
Klasko, Rulon, Stock & Seltzer, LLP
          For Further Information
                               H. Ronald Klasko, Esq.
                           Klasko, Rulon, Stock & Seltzer, LLP

                                rklasko@klaskolaw.com

                               215-825-8600 (Philadelphia)
                                212-796-8840 (New York)
                                www.klaskolaw.com
                              www.eb5immigration.com

Klasko, Rulon, Stock & Seltzer, LLP

								
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