Docstoc

LITERATURE REVIEW

Document Sample
LITERATURE REVIEW Powered By Docstoc
					Effect of “coupling”.


As we know, nowadays “couple” had become a trend among students or teenagers in most

universities especially in well-known university. “Couple” in Malaysia is describing as teenagers

in different genders are in love and dating and also goes out together. Previously, we rarely saw

this situation among the college students or university students. It only happens at the big

university in this world for example in United States. But nowadays, this situation happens at

almost university especially in Malaysia. We can see this situation anywhere although at villages

and it becomes a problem when this “coupling” brings affects to the university and the student or

teenager themselves. Furthermore all university faces the same problems especially in University

Malaysia Pahang. We can see the “couple” always meet together especially at night in the

cafeteria and having some dinner together and going out during weekend together. Therefore, a

research will be conducted by us in University Malaysia Pahang with 60 participants from the

Computer Science and Networking course second year student of Faculty of Science Computer

and Software Engineering. We will contribute a set of questionnaire to the participants to

investigate our research.


The main objective of this research is to study the reasons why university students choose to

have “coupled” during their study year. Other objective is to investigate the affect from this

“couple” activity. In addition, we also study about their expectations on their partner for their

future marriage plan. In my research objective, I have to research about the affect of “couple”

activity or it is also called as “puppy love”. My research question is “What are the effects from

this “couple” activity?”. To found out the resource about my research objective, I had found four

different articles about the effects of “couple” among students at Google Scholar.



                                                  1
According to the first article (Fincham, Owen, Rhoades & Stanley 2008) from their discussion,

they suggest that woman will feel more upset than men when hooking up together. Furthermore,

they also found that many women will feel more upset than men after hooking up or “dating”

together (as cited in Glenn & Marquardt, 2001). They state that woman will tend more risk of

feeling upset about their relationship. Moreover, this statement also similar as the second article

(Capaldi & Kim, 2007). They state that the couple will have lowers relationship satisfaction.

Although their article is about cohabiting couple, we also can assume that in our situation

because this situation also can happen in big city and big university such as at Kuala Lumpur. As

we know, our university also will face the same problem in the future as we have our main

university that is located at the Pekan, Pahang. They found that married couples are different

with cohabiting couples in many aspects and cohabiting couples seem had encountered many

problems than married couple.


The “couple” also may feel hurt and confuse about their relationship. As in the first article

(Fincham , Owen, Rhoades & Stanley 2008) state that the “couple” will feel hurt after going out

or dating together and they feel confuse about their future relationship with their partner. In the

other article (Jezl, Molidor, Psy.D. & Wright 1996) according to the previous study, also agree

that the “couple” will feel confuse, anxiety and tension in their relationship. They cannot

guarantee how far their relationship will last. They also not sure about their partner plan in the

future. They confuse about their partner intention on their relationship whether it is just for fun

or they will end it with marriage. This proves that this activity or “coupling” bring negative

effects on students or teenagers lifestyles. This effect will make their head mixed with all

feelings and they cannot think normally about their future life. This will makes their attitude




                                                  2
more complicated. This will be a big problem for the university when their attitude cannot be

control anymore especially for the students that stay outside hostel.


“Couple” also can affect the students’ psychological well-being. In the first article (Fincham,

Owen, Rhoades & Stanley 2008) state that the students will have lower psychological well-

being. They feel regret after dating and this will makes them more to depressive symptom. They

did not benefit their mental health mannerly and this will lead them to the lower psychological

well-being. This statement is similar as statement in an article (Jezl, Molidor, Psy.D. & Wright

1996) state that the student will have psychological maltreatment. Although this article about 14

years ago, but the result is the same as the latest research. That means that this activity or

“couple” had this problem. They found that the levels of women and men that will experience

this psychological maltreatment are nearly the same. They also will face psychological crippling.

Furthermore, they also found that the psychological maltreatment and physical abuse are related

in the teenage relationship. In addition, in the other article, Myra J. Hird (2000) state that the

“couple” will experience psychological aggression that will cause them having highly stressful

and damaging (as cited in Pagelow, 1981). The most frequent was name-calling. Girls are

subjected to name-calling rather than boys and the most word that they used are “slag”, “tart”

and “bit” which referred to “promiscuous” or “frigid” sexual behavior.


Next, “couple” also will affect students’ education. In the first article (Fincham, Owen, Rhoades

& Stanley 2008) state that “couple” will affect students’ academic or education and also their

social functioning. In addition, they found that one of the factor from the many, “couple” lead to

the findings that 90% of students report feeling stressed while in college and nearly 40% students

being so distressed in college that will disturb their academic and social functioning (as cited in

American College Health Association, 2007; Owen & Rodolfa, in press). Moreover, this effect

                                                  3
also mention in the article (Jezl, Molidor, Psy.D. & Wright 1996) that the students especially

male students did not cooperate in their study. They also did not answer the questionnaires

according their true experience on “couple”. This shows that when the students start to “couple”,

they will have a problem with their study. Their reputation of study will be low because they

spent much more time with their partner rather than studying.


Physical aggression is one of the effects of “couple”. In the Myra J. Hird (2000) article, she

mentioned that the “couple” will experience the physical aggression in their relationship.

Physical acts such as pushing, grabbing or shoving, slapping, kicking, biting and also hitting with

a fist are common and “normal” in “couple” relationship. Most of the girls reported that they had

been hit by their boyfriend. This will lead to the serious injured and harm the girl if we do not

take a serious action about it. Furthermore, in the other article (Jezl, Molidor, Psy.D. & Wright

1996), they also discovered that the “couple” will experience physical violence. It stated that

13.4% of the “couples” remain in the physical violence in their relationships. They also found

that girl was highly percentage that remains in the physical violence in their relationship rather

than men. In addition, they also mentioned that the “couple” will experience physical aggression

at some. As I had mentioned above, the psychological aggression is related with the physical

aggression. This means that the higher psychological aggression that the “couple” experience,

the higher physical aggression that happens to them.


Next, sexual aggression is also one of the effects of “couple”. In the Myra J. Hird (2000) article,

she stated that majority the girls mentioned that they were being pressured or forced by their

partner to engage in some of sexual activity. The most sexual activity that the girls hate is

unwanted touching by their partner or boyfriend. This could happen mostly when they date or in

social events such as in party. This statement is same as statement (Jezl, Molidor, Psy.D. &

                                                  4
Wright 1996) that “couples” bring them to the sexual aggression or sexual abuse. They found

that percentage of female that had experienced sexual abuse or aggression is consistent with the

findings in the dating violence literature. But, the percentage of male that experienced this

situation is higher than the previous dating violence literature, Molidor and Tolman (1995) that

discovered only one man that having sexual aggression. However, the current study found that

12% of male had reported of experience sexual aggression or sexual abuse.




                                                 5
Conclusion


Previous researches show that “couple” or “puppy love” among students in the university has

badly or negative affects to them. As we discuss earlier, “couple” especially girls will feel upset

after dating or going out together with their partner and they also will experience lower

relationship satisfaction. In addition, the “couple” also feels hurt after hooking up together and

confuse about their relationship with her/his partner. They also did not know about their future

plan with their partner whether their relation is just for fun or will lead them to marriage. The

other effect of “couple” is lower psychological well-being. The “couple” feels regret after dating

together because they did not satisfied with their partner. Moreover, “puppy love” also

interferences with the students’ academic and social functioning. They could not focus on their

study because they pay more attention to their partner rather than studying. This situation always

happens at the male students rather than female students. Next, the “couple” will experience

physical aggression. Girls have the higher percentage in experience physical aggression rather

than men. This situation will lead them to the bad consequences and also injured. This should not

be happen in this era. After that, sexual aggression is also one of the effects of “puppy love”.

This becomes a serious problem nowadays because it can lead to the sexual abuse and also

pregnancy among the girls’ students before they married. Girls have more percentage of having

or experience sexual aggression rather than men. They are forced to do sexual activity that they

do not like or hate such as sexual touching. According to the previous researches, we can

conclude that “couple” has the negative effects to the students and we must take an action to

encounter this problem before it becomes worst. This will need the future study to investigate

further about this issue.




                                                  6
References


David R. Jezl,Psy.D., Cristian E. Molidor, Ph.D, and Tracy L. Wright (1996), Physical, Sexual

and Psychological Abuse in High School Dating Relationship: Prevalence Rates and Self-Esteem

Issues.


Hyoun K. Kim and Deborah M. Capaldi (2007), Generalizability Issues in Observational Studies

of Couples: Sample Characteristic and Task Design, J Marriage Fam. 2007 February; 69(1):86-

91.


Jesse J. Owen and Galena K. Rhoades and Scott M. Stanley and Frank D. Fincham (2008),

“Hooking Up” Among College Students: Demographic and Psychosocial Correlates, Arch Sex

Behav (2010) 39:653-663.


Myra J. Hird (2000), An Empirical study of adolescent dating aggression in the U.K., Journal of

Adolescence 2000, 23, 69-78.




                                               7

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:23
posted:3/6/2012
language:
pages:7