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Pennsylvania's ATV Riders and their Needs

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					            Pennsylvania’s ATV Riders and their Needs

                            Purchase Order 4500044818
             Pennsylvania’s Recreational Needs – Registered ATV Users




Submitted to: Vanyla Tierney
              Bureau of Recreation and Conservation
              PA Dept. of Conservation and Natural Resources
              P.O. Box 8475
              Harrisburg, PA 17105-8475




Submitted by: Bruce E. Lord
              William F. Elmendorf
              Charles H. Strauss
              School of Forest Resources
              The Pennsylvania State University
              206 Ferguson Bldg.
              University Park, PA 16802-4301



              May 31, 2004
ii
                                                                                            iii


Executive Summary
All Terrain Vehicle (ATV) riding in Pennsylvania is a fast growing activity. Much of the
riding is taking place on private land, but the availability of that land is declining. With
the establishment of an ATV registration system, an expectation was created that more
trails would be made available.

This project surveyed 1,357 registered ATV owners to solicit the views and attitudes of
ATV owners as to the needs of ATV riders in Pennsylvania. The principal need
expressed by ATV owners was for more trails and trail access.

Currently the majority of riding is taking place on home lands. Problems with the
availability and accessibility of trails and riding opportunities were of primary
importance to ATV owners throughout the survey. New trails received the highest
attention. Long and medium trails were more important than short trails and play areas.
The highest priority was attached to trails accessible to a variety of riding skills. ATV
owners also desired riding places close to home and the opening of municipal and other
secondary roads.

The majority of riders are white, male, and rural, with no college degree. Riding with
family and friends was the number one reason given for recreational ATV riding (70% of
riders). The age profile shows that there are a lot of family aged adults and young people
riding. The age profile seems to indicate that ATVing is a family activity for a many
people. The years of experience indicate that new people are moving into the sport. The
low priority attached to race courses, racing, and aggressive riding may be a further
indication of the family orientation of many riders.

It seems that safety is not a great concern of ATV owners. About 36% of the respondents
indicated that they had completed a safety course and about 50% indicated that safety
courses should be required. Members of an ATV organization and older people were
more likely to say that a safety course should be required. Respondents indicated a fairly
small number of accidents, though young riders and urban riders were more likely to
report an accident.

Riders were fairly satisfied with the components of the riding areas that were available,
but not well satisfied with their ATV riding experience in the Commonwealth. Trail
design (32%), access (28%), and signing (28%) were most often cited as needing to be
improved. Fifty-two percent of the owners were satisfied with their riding experience in
the Pennsylvania. Again, not enough public trails played a major part in riding
dissatisfaction in the state. Problems with trespass, riding in illegal areas, and issues with
property owners may be associated with the lack of legal riding opportunities.

The attitudes of younger and older people were different. Younger people were more
likely to report an accident and to think that problems such as trespass and unsafe riding
were less important than older.
                                                                                                                                       iv




Table of Contents
Executive Summary ........................................................................................................... iii
Table of Contents............................................................................................................... iv
List of Tables ...................................................................................................................... v
List of Figures .................................................................................................................... vi
Introduction......................................................................................................................... 1
   Growth of ATV use in PA and nationally ...................................................................... 1
   Current riding opportunities............................................................................................ 1
   DCNR ATV policy ......................................................................................................... 1
Objectives ........................................................................................................................... 1
Procedures........................................................................................................................... 2
   Survey design.................................................................................................................. 2
Results................................................................................................................................. 2
   Pennsylvania ATV riders................................................................................................ 2
     Number of ATVs and number riders .......................................................................... 2
     Demographics ............................................................................................................. 2
     Rider Activities ........................................................................................................... 5
   Safety .............................................................................................................................. 7
   Needs .............................................................................................................................. 8
     Trail amenities ............................................................................................................ 8
     Trail length................................................................................................................ 11
     Trail grade ................................................................................................................. 12
     Ride characteristics ................................................................................................... 13
     Features ..................................................................................................................... 16
   Satisfaction.................................................................................................................... 21
   Problems and conflicts.................................................................................................. 22
   Tourism and economic impacts .................................................................................... 24
     Information source .................................................................................................... 24
     Number of ATV trips................................................................................................ 24
     Gasoline .................................................................................................................... 28
     Economic significance .............................................................................................. 28
     Policy ........................................................................................................................ 29
     Funding, laws, and regulations ................................................................................. 29
     Willingness to pay..................................................................................................... 30
Conclusions....................................................................................................................... 32
   Summary....................................................................................................................... 32
   ATV organizations........................................................................................................ 33
   Recommendations......................................................................................................... 33
References......................................................................................................................... 33
Appendix A – Tourism Promotion Regions ..................................................................... 34
Appendix B – Regional Needs.......................................................................................... 35
Appendix C – The Survey Form....................................................................................... 38
                                                                                                                                    v


List of Tables
Table 1. Favorite riding areas in the Hershey/Gettysburg/Dutch Country Region............ 6
Table 2. Favorite riding areas in the Allegheny National Forest Region. ......................... 6
Table 3. Favorite riding areas in the Erie Region. ............................................................. 6
Table 4. Favorite riding areas in the Susquehanna Region................................................ 6
Table 5. Favorite riding areas in the Philadelphia Region................................................. 6
Table 6. Favorite riding areas in the Laurel Highlands Region......................................... 6
Table 7. Favorite riding areas in the Pittsburgh Region. ................................................... 7
Table 8. Favorite riding areas in the Pocono Region......................................................... 7
Table 9. Ranking of ATV trail features on a scale of 1 to 5. ............................................ 8
Table 10. ATV needs by length of trail on a scale of 1 to 5. ........................................... 11
Table 11. Averge ranking of trail needs by grade............................................................ 12
Table 12. ATV organization members ranking of trail grade.......................................... 13
Table 13. Agreement on desired trail characteristics (1 – strongly disagree, 5 – strongly
    agree)......................................................................................................................... 13
Table 14. Features most needing increase. ...................................................................... 17
Table 15. Features needing improvement........................................................................ 18
Table 16. Features deemed adequate. .............................................................................. 20
Table 17. ATV trail features considered inadequate. ...................................................... 20
Table 18. Top reasons for being dissatisfied with ATV riding in Pennsylvania. ............ 22
Table 19. Top reasons for being satisfied with ATV riding in Pennsylvania.................. 22
Table 20. Best source of information about riding opportunities in Pennsylvania......... 24
Table 21. Number of day trips in Pennsylvania in last year, by region........................... 25
Table 22. Number of day trips outside Pennsylvania in the last year, by region............. 25
Table 23. Most common destination for out-of-state ATV riding, by region.................. 26
Table 24. Number of overnight trips per year within Pennsylvania, by region............... 26
Table 25. Most common destination for overnight out-of-state trips, by region............. 27
Table 26. Number of overnight trips per year outside of Pennsylvania, by region. ........ 27
Table 27. Average number of trips over 50 miles, by region. ......................................... 28
Table 28. ATV trip expenditures. .................................................................................... 29
Table 29. How often were ATVs purchased?.................................................................. 29
Table 30. Tourism promotion regions ............................................................................. 34
Table 31. ATV trail features considered adequate, by region. ........................................ 35
Table 32. ATV trail features needing to be improved, by region. ................................... 36
Table 33. ATV trail features needing to be improved, by region. ................................... 37
                                                                                                                                       vi


List of Figures
Figure 1. Proportion of Pennsylvania ATV riders by age and gender............................... 3
Figure 2. Annual family income of registered ATV owners. ............................................ 4
Figure 3. Highest level of education for registered ATV owners...................................... 4
Figure 4. Importance of the need to construct new trails and riding areas, by region....... 9
Figure 5. Importance of the need to have access to secondary roads to link trails, by
    region. ....................................................................................................................... 10
Figure 6. Importance of the need to increase law enforcement in riding areas, by region.
    ................................................................................................................................... 10
Figure 7. Importance of long trails, by region. ................................................................ 11
Figure 8. Importance of play areas, by region. ................................................................ 12
Figure 9. Agreement with the desire for riding ATVs on municipal and State Forest/Park
    roads, by region........................................................................................................ 14
Figure 10. Agreement with a desire for a place to arrive in the early morning and spend
    the day, but not stay overnight, by region................................................................. 15
Figure 11. Agreement with using multiple-use trails and sharing trails with motorcycles
    and mountain bikes, by region. ................................................................................. 15
Figure 12. Agreement with the desire for weekend opportunities to set up camp or stay in
    a nearby motel, riding multiple trails from the same location, by region. ................ 16
Figure 13. Proportion of registered ATV owners needing more trail availability, by
    region. ....................................................................................................................... 18
Figure 14. Proportion of registered ATV riders citing trail access as needing to be
    improved, by region. ................................................................................................. 19
Figure 15. Overall satisfaction with ATV experience in Pennsylvania........................... 21
Figure 16. Average willingness to pay for an annual riding pass, by region................... 30
Figure 17. Average willingness to pay for an annual riding pass, by income. ................ 31
Figure 18. Average willingness to pay for a weekend pass, by age. ............................... 31
             Pennsylvania’s ATV Riders and their Needs
                                    Bruce E. Lord
                                William F. Elmendorf
                                  Charles H. Strauss
                              School of Forest Resources
                           The Pennsylvania State University

Introduction
Growth of ATV use in PA and nationally

As of June 30, 2003, Pennsylvania had 173,626 registered all terrain vehicles (ATVs).
Nationally, ATV sales have been increasing for the last twelve years. In 2003, an
estimated 886,000 ATVs were sold, an increase of 3.8 percent over the previous year. In
2003, Pennsylvania was 3rd nationally in sales of ATVs (Yager 2004)

Current riding opportunities

Much ATV riding in Pennsylvania currently takes place on private land. However, there
are some public riding opportunities available, including 229 miles of trails currently in
place on State Forest lands. In addition, a well developed system of 108 miles of trails
and facilities is available on the Allegheny National Forest (ANF). Both the current and
past Secretaries of the Department of Conservation and Natural Resources (DCNR) have
indicated that the future of ATV trail development will not be on Department lands. In
addition, the Pennsylvania Game Commission has a policy of excluding ATVs from their
lands, except for use by disabled hunters.

DCNR ATV policy

In 2001, Chapter 77 of the Pennsylvania Vehicle Code was amended to require the
registration of ATVs. In conjunction with this, the Snowmobile and ATV Advisory
Committee (SAAC) was created to advise DCNR on snowmobile and ATV recreation.
Simultaneously, expectations were crested with the public that more ATV riding
opportunities would be created.

Objectives
In order to better understand and manage ATV usage in the Commonwealth, the SAAC
contracted with the School of Forest Resources at Penn State to survey registered ATV
owners. The survey was designed to ascertain the views and attitudes of ATV owners as
to the needs of ATV riders in Pennsylvania. In addition, demographic data was collected
to characterize this audience. A further goal of the survey was to maintain statistical
reliability down to eight tourism promotion regions in the state.
                                                                                            2


Procedures
Survey design

The survey was created by Penn State in consultation with DCNR and the SAAC. A
random selection of registered ATV riders was contacted by mail using a modified
Dillman protocol (Dillman 1978). A six-page survey accompanied by a pre-addressed,
postage paid return envelope was sent to 3,000 ATV owners using a mailing list provided
by DCNR during the first week of October, 2003. The following week, a postcard
reminder was sent to all those who had not responded. This was followed a week later by
another mailing of the survey and a return envelope to those who had yet to respond.

Results
Pennsylvania ATV riders

A total of 1,357 usable returns were obtained by this procedure. Only a small number
(less than 100) of the original 3,000 addresses were returned undeliverable. A response
rate of 47% was obtained, net of the undeliverable addresses.

In addition to reporting on the average response to the survey, the results are presented by
region, gender, age, education, household income, and membership in an ATV
organization where the differences are both significant and substantive.

Number of ATVs and number riders

The average ATV household had 1.6 ATVs and 2.4 riders. Households where women
responded reported more ATVs (1.9 ATVs). Fewer machines were owned in households
where the respondent was over 60 years of age (1.3 machines). Geographically, the
number of ATVs per household was fairly consistent with no significant differences
being observed across the Commonwealth. Members of ATV clubs or organizations
owned an average of 2.2 ATVs per household.

Demographics

Age/Gender profile

Registered ATV owners tended to White males. Just over 2% of the respondents
indicated a race other than White. Almost 90% of the respondents indicted their gender
as male. In contrast, total ridership was estimated to be 37% female. Rider ages ranged
from 5 years of age to over 70. While most riders were in the 30 to 49 year range, a
sizable number of riders were in the 5 to 15 age group, indicating the family orientation
of many participants (Figure 1).
                                                                                       3



Figure 1. Proportion of Pennsylvania ATV riders by age and gender.



         20%
         18%
         16%
         14%
         12%
         10%
          8%
          6%
          4%
          2%
          0%
                5-9    10-15 16-20 21-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69       70+
                                              Age

                                      Male      Female


Regional breakdown

Seventy-two percent of the respondents lived in Pennsylvania. The majority of
respondents (62%) indicated they lived in rural areas.

Education and income

Over half of the ATV owners had family incomes over $50,000 range per year (Figure 2).
The most common income cohort was the $50,000 to $75,000 per year (31%) and the
second most common was $35,000 to $50,000 per year (20%). Half of the registered
owners had obtained a high school diploma, but had no further college or technical
education (Figure 3). Eighty-four percent of the registered riders had no college degree.
                                                                             4



Figure 2. Annual family income of registered ATV owners.



                         35%

                         30%

                         25%

                         20%

                         15%

                         10%

                          5%

                          0%
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                                        24

                                        34

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                                           Annual Family Income




Figure 3. Highest level of education for registered ATV owners.



                50%
                45%
                40%
                35%
                30%
                25%
                20%
                15%
                10%
                 5%
                 0%
                      Non high High         Some Two year Four       Post
                       school school       college or tech  year     grad
                        grad   grad                degree college   degree
                                                           degree
                                             Education
                                                                                         5


Rider Activities

ATV activities

ATV owners were asked to describe the use of ATVs in their household. Trail and
leisure riding was the number one activity, checked by 86% of the respondents. This was
followed by utility and work (61%) and hunting (58%). Fewer people indicated sport
riding (32%), aggressive recreation riding (21%), transportation (16%), and fishing
(16%). Racing and competition (4%) and commercial use (2%) were negligible.

When ask to describe their recreational riding, 70% responded that they were spending
time with family and friends and 68% indicated that wildlife viewing was an important
feature. Vistas and scenery (60%) and adventure (50%) were also key features of
recreational riding. Lower ratings were attached to challenge (28%) and photography
(15%).

Other activities

When asked what other recreation activities they participated in, 70% responded hunting,
54% fishing, 52% camping, 52% scenic drives, 33% boating and watching wildlife, 30%
hiking, 21% mountain biking and snowmobiling, and 10% off-road motorcycle riding.

Miles of riding

The median distance ridden by the respondents in the previous year was 150 miles. One-
quarter of registered ATV owners rode 50 miles of less during the prior year. Another
quarter rode between 50 and 150 miles. The next quarter had ridden between 150 and
400 miles during the previous twelve months and the last quarter indicated over 400
miles of ATV riding in the last year.

Years of experience

Half of the ATV riders had nine years or less experience riding an ATV and one-quarter
had four years or less experience. Of the remainder, one-quarter had between nine and
16.5 years riding experience and the remaining 25% had 16.5 years of more of riding in
their background.

ATV organizations

Only 8.5 % of registered ATV owners indicated that they were members of an ATV
organization. The two most popular ATV organizations were ATV Traction and the
American Motorcycle Association (11% each).
                                                                                                 6

Favorite riding areas in PA

Respondents were asked to identify their favorite riding areas (Tables 1-8). Home was
the number one riding area in all regions except Pittsburgh, where it was number two
after the Allegheny National Forest. The ANF was among the top two in four of the eight
regions. Friends and family properties were often used, as were camp lands. Abandoned
strip mine areas and coal pits were popular where available. In addition, people cited a
variety of State Forest and State Park lands as riding areas. It should be noted, in the case
of the latter two, that the public is often confused as to who manages public lands and
open space and may not be responding accurately.



Table 1. Favorite riding areas in the
Hershey/Gettysburg/Dutch Country Region.          Table 4. Favorite riding areas in the
                                                  Susquehanna Region.
Home                        14.9%
Tower City                   8.1%                 Home               8.7%
Friend/Relative              6.8%                 Friends/Family     8.7%
Camp                         5.6%                 Farm               6.7%
Michaux State Park           5.0%                 Haneyville         4.8%
Mountains                    4.4%                 Strippings         2.9%
Allegheny National Forest    3.7%                 State Game Lands   2.9%
Rausch Creek                 2.5%                 Snow Shoe          2.9%
Sproul State Forest          2.5%                 Camp               2.9%
State Forest                 2.5%
                                                  Table 5. Favorite riding areas in the
Table 2. Favorite riding areas in the             Philadelphia Region.
Allegheny National Forest Region.
                                                  Home                        16.8%
Home                        12.3%                 Tower City                   7.4%
Allegheny National Forest   11.0%                 Camp                         6.3%
Friend/Relative              2.7%                 Sproul State Forest          4.2%
Kersey                       2.7%                 Friends/Family               4.2%
Camp                         2.1%                 Susquehannock S.F.           2.1%
                                                  Paragon                      2.1%
Table 3. Favorite riding areas in the Erie        Jack Frost                   2.1%
Region.                                           Allegheny National Forest    2.1%
                                                  Hazleton                     2.1%
Home                        20.6%
Allegheny National Forest   13.5%                 Table 6. Favorite riding areas in the Laurel
Rocky gap                    4.8%                 Highlands Region.
Friend/Relative              4.0%
Camp                         4.0%                 Home                        11.4%
Cochranton Area              3.2%                 Allegheny National Forest    9.8%
Warren                       2.4%                 Woods                        4.5%
Franklin area                2.4%                 Strip Mines                  3.8%
                                                  Friends/Family               3.8%
                                                                                                7

Table 7. Favorite riding areas in the            Table 8. Favorite riding areas in the Pocono
Pittsburgh Region.                               Region.

Allegheny National Forest   30.1%                Home                  12.3%
Home                        12.5%                Abandoned RR Beds      6.9%
Woods                        3.7%                Coal Pits              3.1%
Friends/Family               3.7%                Woods                  2.3%
Camp                         3.7%                Newport Twp.           2.3%
                                                 Friends/Family         2.3%
                                                 Forest City            2.3%
Safety

Thirty-five percent of the respondents indicated that they had completed a safety course.
Among all riders in the household, seventeen percent had completed a safety class. Of
these, 13% were males and 4% were females.

The quality of safety classes was generally good, with 1% of those having completed a
course indicated the class was poor, 16% indicating the class was fair, 56% indicating the
class was good, and 25% indicating the class was excellent.

When asked if a safety course should be required, 53% of the respondents indicated yes
and 47% indicated no. There was a significant difference between members and non-
members of an ATV organization. Sixty-two percent of ATV organization members
favored required safety courses, while only 52% of non-members favored required safety
courses. There was a significant difference in opinion by age. Agreement that safety
courses should be required increased with age. The highest agreement was 65% by
people in the 70 to 79 year age class; the lowest was 33% in the 19 and under age class.

When asked about their willingness to pay for a safety class, 73% of the respondents
indicated less than $25.00 dollars, 21% indicated between $25.00 and $49.00 dollars, 4%
indicated between $50.00 and $74.00 dollars, and 1% indicated they would be willing to
pay more than $75.00 for a safety course. ATV organizational members were willing to
pay significantly more for a class ($25.26 average) than non-members ($20.59 average).

When questioned about accidents, 29% of the respondents indicated they had overturned,
19% indicated a household member had overturned, 17% indicated they had had a
collision with an obstacle, 14% indicated they a household member had had a collision
with an obstacle, 3% indicated they had had a collision with a vehicle, 3% indicated that
a household member had had a collision with a vehicle, 2% indicated they had had an
accident while loading or unloading, and 2% indicated that a household member had had
an accident while loading or unloading.

There were a number of significant differences when looking at accidents. Reports of
collisions were significantly different for the various tourism promotion regions. Thirty
percent of the respondents in the Philadelphia and Pittsburgh Regions had had a collision
while only 14% in the Allegheny National Forest, Erie, and Susquehanna Regions
indicated they had had a collision. ATV members were significantly more likely (34%)
                                                                                               8

to have a collision than non-members (16%). Collisions decreased with age. The lowest
reported collisions was in the 60 to 69 age class (3%), the highest reported collisions was
in the under 19 age class (50%).

Age class proved to be a significant indicator in other accidents. Younger riders were
more likely than older to have a collision with another vehicle. The highest collision rate
was 10% for people in the 20 to 29 age class, the lowest collision rate was for people in
the 50 to 59 age class (1%) and 60 to 69 age class (3%). There was a significant
difference in overturning accidents by age class. Younger riders were more likely to
overturn than older. The highest overturn rate was 52% for people in the 20 to 29 age
class; the lowest overturn rate was for people in the 70 to 79 age class (6%).

Needs

The heart of the survey inquired into the rider’s assessment of the trail and facility needs
facing ATV riders in the Commonwealth.

Trail amenities

Respondents were asked to indicate the importance they attached to a menu of trail
features. Ranked on a scale from 1 (very unimportant) to 5 (very important), new trails
led the list with an average ranking of 4.3 (Table 9). Also ranked as very important were
three allied features: maintaining existing trails (4.1), enhancement of trail systems (4.1),
and access to secondary roads (4.1). Clearly, trail availability was of primary importance
to registered ATV owners.

A second tier of features of moderate importance included support facilities (3.6),
increased maps and signage (3.6), and increased safety (3.5). Marginal importance was
attached to trails with camping areas (3.2), camping areas at trailheads (3.2), and access
to communities (3.0). Increased law enforcement was rated as marginally unimportant
(2.7).


Table 9. Ranking of ATV trail features on a scale of 1 to 5.

New Trails                     4.3
Maintaining existing trails    4.1
Enhancement of trail systems   4.1
Access to secondary roads      4.1
Support facilities             3.6
Increased maps, signage        3.6
Increased trail safety         3.5
Trails with camping areas      3.2
Camping areas at trailheads    3.1
Access to communities          3.0
Increased law enforcement      2.7
                                                                                                        9

New trails received the highest ranking in the Philadelphia and Laurel Highlands Regions
and the lowest in the Erie and Allegheny National Forest Regions (Figure 4). The
importance of new trails was generally higher among ATV organization members,
younger riders, and those with higher incomes.

Access to secondary roads was more important to those living in the Pocono, Laurel
Highlands, and Pittsburgh Regions (Figure 5). The importance was somewhat lower in
the Erie and Hershey, Gettysburg, and Dutch Country Regions. Access to secondary
roads was significantly higher among ATV organization members and younger riders.

Increased law enforcement received the strongest support in the Pocono Region and the
weakest support in the Erie, Allegheny National Forest, and Pittsburgh Regions (Figure
6). Older riders tended to support increased law enforcement.




Figure 4. Importance of the need to construct new trails and riding areas, by region.




                     Susquehanna Region

                           Pocono Region

                         Pittsburgh Region

                       Philadelphia Region

                   Laurel Highlands Region

  Hershey/Gettysburg/Dutch Country Region

                               Erie Region

          Allegheny National Forest Region

                                         3.7   3.8   3.9      4    4.1   4.2   4.3    4.4   4.5   4.6

                                                           Average Importance Level
                                                                                                      10



Figure 5. Importance of the need to have access to secondary roads to link trails, by region.




                     Susquehanna Region

                            Pocono Region

                          Pittsburgh Region

                        Philadelphia Region

                    Laurel Highlands Region

   Hershey/Gettysburg/Dutch Country Region

                                Erie Region

           Allegheny National Forest Region

                                          3.7   3.8     3.9        4        4.1       4.2       4.3

                                                      Average Importance Level




Figure 6. Importance of the need to increase law enforcement in riding areas, by region.




                     Susquehanna Region

                            Pocono Region

                          Pittsburgh Region

                        Philadelphia Region

                    Laurel Highlands Region

   Hershey/Gettysburg/Dutch Country Region

                                Erie Region

           Allegheny National Forest Region

                                          3.7   3.8     3.9       4.0       4.1       4.2       4.3

                                                      Average Importance Level
                                                                                                         11


Trail length

Trail length was also measure on a scale of 1 to 5. Registered ATV owners tended to
favor medium and longer trails over shorter trails and large play areas (Table 10).

Long trails received the greatest support in the Philadelphia and Pocono Regions and the
lowest in the Erie Region (Figure 7). Support was highest among the members of ATV
organizations, younger riders, and those with higher family incomes.

Play areas received stronger support in the Philadelphia, Hershey/Gettysburg,/Dutch
Country, and Pocono Regions (Figure 8). Lower support was reported in the Allegheny
National Forest, Erie, and Pittsburgh Regions. ATV organization members, younger
riders, and those with higher family incomes expressed significantly higher support for
play areas then did the general population.




Table 10. ATV needs by length of trail on a scale of 1 to 5.

Importance of medium trails         3.9
Importance of long trails           3.7
Importance of short trails          3.3
Importance of large play areas      3.0


Figure 7. Importance of long trails, by region.




                     Susquehanna Region

                            Pocono Region

                          Pittsburgh Region

                        Philadelphia Region

                    Laurel Highlands Region

   Hershey/Gettysburg/Dutch Country Region

                                Erie Region

           Allegheny National Forest Region

                                          3.20   3.30   3.40   3.50   3.60   3.70   3.80   3.90   4.00

                                                          Average Importance Level
                                                                                                                12



Figure 8. Importance of play areas, by region.




                     Susquehanna Region

                            Pocono Region

                          Pittsburgh Region

                        Philadelphia Region

                    Laurel Highlands Region

   Hershey/Gettysburg/Dutch Country Region

                                Erie Region

           Allegheny National Forest Region

                                         2.40   2.50   2.60    2.70   2.80   2.90   3.00   3.10   3.20   3.30

                                                              Average Importance Level




Trail grade

The respondents were asked to rank in order the types of trail grade they preferred. The
highest priority was attached to trails accessible to a variety of riding skills. The lowest
priority was attached to race courses and extremely difficult terrain (Table 11).


Members of ATV organizations attached a higher priority to trails with diverse skill and
riding experiences as well as the more difficult types of trail grade (Table 12)




Table 11. Averge ranking of trail needs by grade.

Relatively flat and wide with gradual grade changes                   3.4
Tighter trails with abrupt grade changes and minimal clearances       2.8
Tight trails with lots of grade changes and off cambers               2.9
Race course with lots of jumps                                        1.9
Trails with diverse skill and riding experiences                      3.5
                                                                                                         13


 Table 12. ATV organization members ranking of trail grade.

                                                        ATV organization          Not an ATV organization
                                                        member                    member
 Trails with diverse skill and riding experiences       3.9                       3.4

 Relatively flat and wide with gradual grade            3.1                       3.5
 changes
 Tighter trails with abrupt grade changes and           3.3                       2.7
 minimal clearances
 Tight trails with lots of grade changes and off        3.2                       2.8
 cambers
 Race course with lots of jumps                         2.1                       1.9


Ride characteristics

ATV owners were asked to indicate their agreement with a series of statements regarding
trail characteristics (Table 13). There was strong agreement with riding places close to
home and riding on back roads. The desire for places to ride close to home was strongest
with younger riders and those without a college education. There were no significant
differences between geographic regions. The desire to ride on municipal, State Forest,
and State Park roads was strongest in the Philadelphia Region and weakest in the
Pittsburgh Region (Figure 9). Members of ATV organizations and younger riders were
more likely to desire access to back roads for ATV riding.


Table 13. Agreement on desired trail characteristics (1 – strongly disagree, 5 – strongly agree).

I desire a place close to home where I can ride a couple of hours when I have the time                   4.4
I want to ride my ATV on municipal and State Forest/Park roads                                           4.3
I desire a place where I can arrive in the early morning and spend the day, but I am not interested in   3.7
staying overnight
I would be willing to use multiple-use trails and share trails with motorcycles and mountain bikes       3.7
I desire weekend opportunities where I can set up camp or stay in a nearby motel, riding multiple        3.3
trails from the same location
I would be willing to volunteer to assist in education, patrol, or trail maintenance at a public ATV     3.3
area
I desire multiple day excursions, riding for miles and staying in different places along the way         2.8
                                                                                                         14



Figure 9. Agreement with the desire for riding ATVs on municipal and State Forest/Park roads, by
region.




                    Susquehanna Region

                           Pocono Region

                         Pittsburgh Region

                       Philadelphia Region

                   Laurel Highlands Region

  Hershey/Gettysburg/Dutch Country Region

                               Erie Region

          Allegheny National Forest Region

                                        3.95   4   4.05     4.1   4.15   4.2   4.25   4.3   4.35   4.4

                                                          Average Agreement Level




Moderately strong desire was indicated for all day riding opportunities, especially among
younger riders (Figure 10). There were no significant geographic differences for this
question. Equally strong was the willingness to use multiple-use trails, shared with
motorcycles and mountain bikes. This willingness was highest among members of ATV
organizations, younger riders, and those from families with higher incomes. ATV
owners residing in the Pocono, Philadelphia, Allegheny National Forest, and Laurel
Highlands Regions were most likely to be willing to use multiple-use trails (Figure 11).
                                                                                                           15

Figure 10. Agreement with a desire for a place to arrive in the early morning and spend the day, but
not stay overnight, by region.




                     Susquehanna Region

                           Pocono Region

                         Pittsburgh Region

                       Philadelphia Region

                   Laurel Highlands Region

  Hershey/Gettysburg/Dutch Country Region

                               Erie Region

          Allegheny National Forest Region

                                          3.5      3.55        3.6     3.65      3.7        3.75     3.8

                                                              Average Agreement Level




Figure 11. Agreement with using multiple-use trails and sharing trails with motorcycles and
mountain bikes, by region.




                    Susquehanna Region

                           Pocono Region

                         Pittsburgh Region

                       Philadelphia Region

                   Laurel Highlands Region

  Hershey/Gettysburg/Dutch Country Region

                               Erie Region

          Allegheny National Forest Region

                                             0   0.5      1      1.5     2     2.5      3      3.5    4

                                                              Average Agreement Level
                                                                                                      16

There was modest desire for weekend riding opportunities. This was significantly higher
among members of ATV organizations as well as with younger riders and those from
families with higher incomes. There was also modest willingness to volunteer for
education, patrol, or trail maintenance at public riding areas. This was lowest in the Erie
and Pittsburgh Regions and highest in the Philadelphia, Pocono, and Susquehanna
Regions (Figure 12). Positive agreement was observed from ATV organization
members, younger riders, those with more education, and men.

There was little desire for multiple day trips involving a variety of overnight spots.
However among members of ATV organizations and among younger riders, there was
slight agreement with a desire for multiple day trip opportunities.

Features

Respondents were asked to evaluate 26 ATV features as adequate, needing improvement,
or needing increase. A complete set of responses by region is provided in Appendix B.

Needing Increase

Registered ATV owners’ principal desire was for more trails. An increase in trail
availability was the number one need, with 65% of respondents indicating agreeing
(Table 14). This was followed by medium trails (60% requesting an increase), trail
access (53%), long trails (52%), and short trails (51%). Half the respondents also cited
needs for increased provision of trailhead restrooms and safe riding courses for youth.

Figure 12. Agreement with the desire for weekend opportunities to set up camp or stay in a nearby
motel, riding multiple trails from the same location, by region.




                     Susquehanna Region

                            Pocono Region

                          Pittsburgh Region

                        Philadelphia Region

                   Laurel Highlands Region

  Hershey/Gettysburg/Dutch Country Region

                                Erie Region

           Allegheny National Forest Region

                                          2.9   3   3.1   3.2    3.3   3.4   3.5    3.6   3.7   3.8

                                                          Average Agreement Level
                                                                                           17



Table 14. Features most needing increase.

Trail availability           65%
Medium trails                60%
Trail access                 53%
Long trails                  52%
Short trails                 51%
Trailhead restrooms          50%
Safe riding for youth        50%
Trail map availability       47%
Info available on internet   46%
Campground areas             44%
Trailhead loading            43%
Camping on trails            42%
Play areas                   42%
Environmental stewardship    40%
Trail signing                40%


Next in the list of priorities for increase were two informational items: trail map
availability (47%) and information on the internet (46%).


Increased trail availability was most likely to be requested by ATV organization members
(75%) and riders with higher family incomes (67% of those earning over $50,000 per
year versus 49% of those earning under $25,000 per year). The desire for increased trail
availability was highest in the Pocono and Erie Regions and lowest in the Philadelphia
Region (Figure 13).

The need for an increased availability of trailhead restrooms was universal with no
significant differences between user groups or across the region. The need for safe riding
courses was uniform across the Commonwealth and among most user groups. The one
exception was with respect to age, where older riders were more likely to identify a need
for increased rider safety courses.

The desire for increased trail information from signing, map availability, and internet-
based information was also universal across all regions and among all user groups.

Needing Improvement

When asked to identify which ATV trail features were most in need of improvement,
many of the same characteristics were cited. However, the number of people noting a
need for improvement was generally lower than the number requesting an increase in
provision. I.e., people were satisfied with the quality of what was available, but wanted
more.
                                                                                                               18



Figure 13. Proportion of registered ATV owners needing more trail availability, by region.




                   Susquehanna Region



                          Pocono Region



                        Pittsburgh Region



                      Philadelphia Region



                  Laurel Highlands Region



 Hershey/Gettysburg/Dutch Country Region



                              Erie Region



         Allegheny National Forest Region



                                            0%    10%   20%   30%        40%           50%   60%   70%   80%
                                                                    Percent Agreeing




Trail design (32%) was most often cited as the attribute needing to be improved (Table
15). This was followed by access, signing, and map availability (28% each). Also
identified as needing improvement were trail maintenance (27%) and trail availability
(25%).


Table 15. Features needing improvement.

Trail design                                32%
Trail access                                28%
Trail signing                               28%
Trail map availability                      28%
Trail maintenance                           27%
Trail availability                          25%
Emergency response                          24%
Info available on internet                  21%
Trailhead restrooms                         21%
Trailhead loading                           21%
Safe riding for youth                       21%
Long trails                                 20%
Safety of riding areas                      20%
Medium trails                               18%
Campground areas                            18%
                                                                                                     19

Trail design was more likely to be identified as needing to be improved by ATV
organization members (48%), younger riders (35% of those under 50 versus 26% of those
50 and above). There were no significant differences by region.

Trail access was more likely to be cited as needing improvement by ATV organization
members (32%) and by those living in the Philadelphia, Laurel Highlands, and
Susquehanna Regions (Figure 14).

Figure 14. Proportion of registered ATV riders citing trail access as needing to be improved, by
region.




                   Susquehanna Region

                          Pocono Region

                       Pittsburgh Region

                      Philadelphia Region

                 Laurel Highlands Region

 Hershey/Gettysburg/Dutch Country Region

                             Erie Region

         Allegheny National Forest Region

                                        0%   5%   10%   15%       20%        25%   30%   35%       40%

                                                         Needing to be Improved




There were no significant regional differences in the reporting of needed improvements
for trail maintenance, signing, or maps.

Adequate

The features most likely to be cited as adequate included race courses (70%), policing
and enforcement of rules and regulations (62%), and ATV dealer education (59%) (Table
16). Over half of the riders also felt that riding area safety, safety courses for adults, and
the challenge of existing trails were adequate.
                                                                                         20



Table 16. Features deemed adequate.

Race courses                  70%
Policing, enforcement         62%
ATV dealer education          59%
Safety of riding areas        54%
Safe riding for adults        52%
Challenge existing trails     50%
Water features                47%
Play areas                    43%
Environmental stewardship     43%
Safety and etiquette          43%
Trail maintenance             41%
Camping on trails             41%
Emergency response            41%
Campground areas              37%
Trail design                  36%


Inadequate


The converse of adequate is the combination of features needing to be either increased or
improved. This list largely follows the order of features needing increase, but is
somewhat more comprehensive (Table 17). Over 90% of registered ATV owners
consider trail availability to be inadequate and 80% consider trail access to be inadequate.
Medium trails were cited as being in need more often than long or short trails (78%
versus 72% and 68% respectively). Other features considered inadequate included trail
maps (74%), trail signing (67%), and information on the Internet (67%). Trailhead
restrooms (71%) and safe riding courses for youth (71%) were the two other features
deemed in need by over two-thirds of the respondents.




Table 17. ATV trail features considered inadequate.

Trail availability           90%
Trail access                 80%
Medium trails                78%
Trail map availability       74%
Long trails                  72%
Trailhead restrooms          71%
Safe riding for youth        71%
Short trails                 68%
Trail signing                67%
Info available on internet   67%
                                                                                         21


Satisfaction

Registered ATV owners in Pennsylvania were split in their satisfaction with their riding
experience in the State, with 55% indicating that they were generally unsatisfied or very
unsatisfied, while another 45% indicated that they were either satisfied or very satisfied
(Figure 15).


Figure 15. Overall satisfaction with ATV experience in Pennsylvania.



          Very Satisfied                                            Very
               9%                                                Dissatisfied
                                                                    16%




    Satisfied
     43%                                                               Dissatisfied
                                                                          32%




Almost three-quarters of those unsatisfied with their ATV riding experience in
Pennsylvania cited not enough public trails as the reason (Table 18). Another 5% quoted
over regulation as the reason for their unsatisfied experience. People not obeying ATV
laws was the reason given by 2% of the unsatisfied respondents. Too high fees and over
priced license were each cited by another 2% of the unsatisfied ATV owners.
                                                                                        22



 Table 18. Top reasons for being dissatisfied with ATV riding in Pennsylvania.

 Not enough public trails         73%
 Over regulation                   5%
 Other                             3%
 People not obeying ATV laws       2%
 Fees too high                     2%
 Over priced license               2%
 Have good place to ride           2%
 General negative                  2%


One-quarter of the satisfied ATV owners indicated that they had a good place to ride
(Table 19). Perhaps reflecting the strength of the desire for more trails, 21% of the
satisfied ATV owners still indicated that there were not enough public trails. Some of the
satisfied riders (16%) indicated that they only rode on their own property. Generally
positive comments (6%) and an indication of fun and enjoyment (6%) were also cited as
reasons for satisfaction with ATV riding in Pennsylvania.

Problems and conflicts

Problems

When asked about the severity of 14 ATV issues the following responses were provided:
trespass, 65%; riding in illegal areas, 65%, lack of parent supervision, 44%;
irresponsible/reckless riding, 44%, failure to comply with rules and regulations, 42%;
alcohol and drugs 41%; excessive speed 39%; riding without head protection, 39%;
campground and trailhead speed, 34%; riding in streams, 32%; environmental
degradation, 29%; crowding 28%; and too much noise 21%.

When looking at significant differences in problems, the following relationships were
identified:


Trespass- Older people (80% for ages 70-79) were more likely than younger (55% for
those under 19) to say trespass was a problem. Males (66%) were more likely than



 Table 19. Top reasons for being satisfied with ATV riding in Pennsylvania.

 Have good place to ride          24%
 Not enough public trails         21%
 Only ride on personal property   16%
 General positive                  6%
 Fun, enjoyment                    6%
 Other                             5%
 Enjoy scenery, wildlife           4%
                                                                                       23

females (50%) to say trespass was a problem.

Riding in Illegal Areas- Older people (80% for ages 70 – 79) were more likely than
younger (61% for those under 19) to say riding in illegal areas was a problem.

Lack of Parent Supervision- Older people (64% for ages 70 – 79) were more likely than
younger (28% for those under 19) to say riding in illegal areas was a problem.

Reckless Riding- Older people (67% for ages 70 – 79 were more likely than younger
(34% for ages 20 – 29); non-members of an ATV organization were more likely (52%)
than ATV organization members to (31%); and males (44%) were more likely than
females (32%) to say reckless riding was a problem.

Failure to Comply with Rules- Older people (71% for ages 70 – 79) were more likely that
younger (17% for those under 19) tO say failure to comply was a problem.

Riding Under the Influence- People in the Susquehanna (31%) and Harrisburg,
Hershey/Gettysburg/Dutch Country (35%) Regions were less likely than people in the
Allegheny National Forest (48%) and Erie (44%) Regions to say riding under the
influence was a problem. Older people (64% for ages 70 – 79 were more likely than
younger (35% for ages 20 – 29) to say riding under the influence was a problem.

When asked to indicate the three most important problems facing ATVs in an open-ended
question, the following responses were provided: lack of trails, 44%; poor trail
maintenance, 7%; open game lands, 6%; inconsiderate riders, 6%; trespass, 5%; over-
regulation, 4%; lack of information, 4%; and travel to areas, 2%. Environmental issues,
noise, and drunk driving were all 1% or less.

When asked to provide a solution for each of the above identified problems, the
following were identified: more riding areas, 33%; better law enforcement, 11%; more
information, 5%; better trail maintenance, 4%; open secondary roads, 4%; decrease
regulations, 3%; open coal lands, 2%; open game lands, 2%; and more parent control,
1%.

When asked if they had ever been involved in a significant conflict with another person
who was not an ATV rider, respondents indicated the following: issues with a property
owner, 42%; angry neighbors, 11%; inconsiderate riders, 8%; issues with horses on trail,
6%; and disagreement with hunter, 6%. There was no significant difference between
tourism promotion regions in the replies to this question.

When asked what they would do if they came upon another person on the trail,
respondents indicated the following.

Horseback Rider- 24% would slow down, 34% would stop, and 41% would shut off
ATV.
                                                                                      24

Mountain Biker- 1% would maintain speed, 76% would slow down, 22% would stop, and
.04% would shut off ATV.

Hiker- 7% would maintain speed, 82% would slow down, 17% would stop, and .08%
would shut down ATV.

Tourism and economic impacts

Information source

Word of mouth was cited as the best source of information about ATV riding
opportunities by 72% of registered ATV owners (Table 20). The internet was cited by
only 17% of owners, a result which was consistent with 67% of the respondents
indicating that Internet information was not adequate. Only 4% of owners indicated that
dealers were the best source of riding place information. There were no significant
differences in information sources across the regions.

Number of ATV trips

Registered ATV owners reported an average of 9 day trips in the last year for ATV riding
in Pennsylvania. There were significant differences by region (Table 21). Riders living
in the Pocono and the Allegheny National Forest Regions reporting the most day trips (17
and 13 trips/year), while those in the Philadelphia, Erie, and Hershey/Gettysburg/Dutch
Country Regions reported the least (6 trips/year).


Day trips outside of the Commonwealth were much less common (1.4 trips/year), but
also varied greatly by region. Riders in the urban Philadelphia Region averaged over 3
daytrips per year outside of Pennsylvania (Table 22). Next were the Pittsburgh and
Hershey/Gettysburg/Dutch Country Regions (2.1 and 2.0 trips/year respectively). The
fewest such trips were reported by residents of the Allegheny National Forest Region (0.3
trips/year), a region with an abundance of opportunities. Members of ATV organizations
had taken an average of 3 day trips outside the Commonwealth in the previous year.




Table 20. Best source of information about riding opportunities in Pennsylvania.

Word of mouth   72%
Internet        17%
Other            7%
Dealers          4%
                                                                                       25



Table 21. Number of day trips in Pennsylvania in last year, by region.

Region                              Trips/yr.
Pocono                                    17
Allegheny National Forest                 13
Susquehanna                                9
Pittsburgh                                 8
Laurel Highlands                           8
Philadelphia                               6
Erie                                       6
Hershey/Gettysburg/Dutch Country           6
Total                                      9


The favorite destination for out-of-state day trips was influenced by the location of the
riders. New York was the most favorite destination for 40% of all respondents, led by
100% of riders from the Susquehanna Region, 79% of those from the Pocono Regions,
63% of those from the Allegheny National Forest Region, and 60% of Erie Region’s
riders (Table 23). Riders from the Philadelphia Region were most likely to choose New
Jersey (50%). Pittsburgh Region riders were pretty evenly split between West Virginia
(53%) and Ohio (47%). West Virginia was also a priority destination for riders from the
Laurel Highlands Region (70%) and the Hershey/Gettysburg/Dutch Country Region
(44%).


The average Pennsylvania rider took 2.3 overnight trips per year within the
Commonwealth. The pattern for overnight trips within Pennsylvania followed the same
general pattern as day trips outside of the state, perhaps reflecting a similar travel
commitment (Table 24). Riders from the Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, and


Table 22. Number of day trips outside Pennsylvania in the last year, by region.

Region                              Trips/yr.
Philadelphia                              3.1
Pittsburgh                                2.1
Hershey/Gettysburg/Dutch Country          2.0
Pocono Region                             1.5
Laurel Highlands                          1.4
Erie                                      1.0
Susquehanna                               1.0
Allegheny National Forest                 0.3
Total                                     1.4
                                                                                                                       26



Table 23. Most common destination for out-of-state ATV riding, by region.

State most traveled   ANF   Erie   HGD   Laurel Highlands   Philadelphia   Pittsburgh   Pocono   Susquehanna   Total



New York              63%   60%    22%               10%           25%           0%       79%          100%    40%
West Virginia         25%   30%    44%               70%           17%          53%        0%            0%    31%

Ohio                  13%   10%     0%               20%            0%          47%        7%            0%    15%
New Jersey             0%   0%     11%               0%            50%           0%        7%            0%     9%

Maryland               0%   0%     11%               0%             8%           0%        7%            0%     3%
Delaware              0%    0%     11%               0%             0%           0%        0%            0%     1%



Hershey/Gettysburg/Dutch Country Regions averaged 3.5, 3.1, and 3.1 such trips
respectively. Susquehanna Region riders took an average of 2.2 overnight trips within
Pennsylvania. The remainder of the regions took 1.3 to 1.6 such trips per year. Members
of ATV organizations took significantly more overnight trips within Pennsylvania than
did non members (3.6 versus 2.2 trips/year).


Pennsylvania riders took an average of only 1.1 overnight trips outside of the state during
the last year. Riders from the Philadelphia and Hershey/Gettysburg/Dutch Country
Regions took almost twice as many overnight trips (2.0 and 2.1 trips/year respectively)
(Table 26). The fewest overnight trips were observed in the Laurel Highlands and Erie
Regions (0.5 trips/year respectively). Members of ATV organizations took twice as
many overnight trips as did non members (2.1 versus 1.0 trips/year).


The most common destination for out-of-state overnight trips also reflected the
availability of opportunities (Table 25). West Virginia was the favorite destination of
41% of Pennsylvania ATV riders traveling overnight for out-of-state riding. West


Table 24. Number of overnight trips per year within Pennsylvania, by region.

Region                                   Trips/yr.
Pittsburgh                                    3.5
Philadelphia                                  3.1
Hershey/Gettysburg/Dutch Country              3.1
Susquehanna                                   2.2
Laurel Highlands                              1.6
Allegheny National Forest                     1.4
Erie                                          1.4
Pocono                                        1.3
Total                                         2.3
                                                                                                       27



Table 26. Number of overnight trips per year outside of Pennsylvania, by region.

Region                             Trips/yr.
Philadelphia                            2.1
Hershey/Gettysburg/Dutch Country        2.0
Pocono                                  1.5
Allegheny National Forest               1.1
Pittsburgh                              0.9
Susquehanna                             0.8
Laurel Highlands                        0.5
Erie                                    0.5
Total                                   1.1

Virginia was the lead destination for riders from the Laurel Highlands (93%), Pittsburgh
(63%), Erie (55%), Allegheny National Forest (38%), and Hershey/Gettysburg/Dutch
Country Regions (35%). Next most popular was New York (27%) which was the
number one destination for riders from the Pocono (82%), Susquehanna (50%), and
Philadelphia (33%) Regions.


The respondents were also asked how often they traveled over 50 miles to ride their
ATV. The average Pennsylvania rider traveled this distance 5 times during the prior
year. The Pittsburgh and Pocono Regions had the highest average, with 7 such trips per
year (Table 27). At the other end of the spectrum were the Laurel Highlands, Allegheny
National Forest, and Erie Regions, with an average of three overnight trips per year.
Once again, the members of ATV organizations were atypical, averaging twice as many
trips over 50 miles (5 trips/year) as other Pennsylvania riders.



Table 25. Most common destination for overnight out-of-state trips, by region.

               ANF   Erie   HGD       Laurel        Philadelphia   Pittsburgh   Pocono   Susquehanna   Total
                                     Highlands
West           38%   55%    35%              93%           27%          63%        0%           13%    41%
Virginia
New York        0%    9%    26%                0%          33%           0%       82%           50%    27%
Ohio           25%    9%     4%                0%           0%          13%        0%            0%     5%
Michigan        0%    0%     4%                0%           7%          13%        0%           13%     4%
Colorado        0%    0%     4%                0%           0%           0%        0%           25%     3%
Virginia        0%    0%     9%                0%           7%           0%        0%            0%     3%
Wyoming        13%    9%     0%                0%           0%           0%        6%            0%     3%
Alabama         0%    0%     4%                7%           0%           0%        0%            0%     2%
Florida        13%    9%     0%                0%           0%           0%        0%            0%     2%
Maine          13%    0%     0%                0%           7%           0%        0%            0%     2%
Maryland        0%    0%     4%                0%           0%           0%        6%            0%     2%
                                                                                       28



Table 27. Average number of trips over 50 miles, by region.

Region                                   Trips/yr.
Pittsburgh                                       7
Pocono                                           7
Hershey/Gettysburg/Dutch Country                 6
Philadelphia                                     5
Susquehanna                                      5
Laurel Highlands                                 3
Allegheny National Forest                        3
Erie                                             3
Total                                            5


Gasoline

Registered ATV owners reported significant purchases of fuel for transporting and riding
their vehicles. The average owner reported purchasing 47 gallons of fuel for their ATV.
Those that transported their ATV to other riding areas reported spending an additional 84
gallons per year. Those taking out-of-state trips reported purchasing 12 gallons per year
of ATV fuel outside of the Commonwealth. These people also used 36 gallons purchased
outside of the state to transport their ATV to the riding location. As might be expected,
members of ATV organizations reported purchasing significantly more fuel per year.
They reported twice the average purchases within Pennsylvania, with 92 gallons
consumed annually for riding in the Commonwealth and 176 gallons per year for
transporting their machines within the state. ATV organization members taking out-of-
state trips reported purchasing 47 gallons of ATV fuel and 97 gallons for transporting
their machines in other states. Other factors such as age, gender, income, education, and
residence tended to be insignificant with respect to the amount of fuel purchased.


Economic significance

ATV riders spend sizable amount of money pursuing their sport (Table 28). The typical
ATV trip within Pennsylvania involved over $200 of expenditures. This included $38.24
for ATV fuel and $45.44 for other transportation. Maintenance and repair was reported
to cost $62.54 per trip. Food and lodging averaged $38.72 and $19.72 respectively.1
Miscellaneous costs added another $8.91 to the trip expenditures. When combined with
the average number of trips taken within Pennsylvania, each ATV owner is estimated to
spend almost $2,500 annually while ATVing in the state.



1
    The lodging expense is an average for all trips, either single day or overnight.
                                                                                      29



Table 28. ATV trip expenditures.

Expense                       PA Trip   Out-of-state
Gasoline for ATV               $38.24       $45.12
Gasoline for transportation    $45.44      $124.95
Repairs/Maintenance            $62.54       $30.64
Food                           $38.72      $112.47
Lodging                        $19.72      $161.23
Miscellaneous                   $8.91       $27.54
Total                         $213.57      $501.95

Expenditures for ATV trips out-of-state were noticeably higher, with an average of just
over $500 per trip (Table 28). ATV fuel expenditures averaged $45.12 per trip.
Transportation expenditures were $124.95 per out-of-state trip. Repairs and maintenance
expenditures averaged $30.64; lower than for in-state trips. Food expenditures were
$112.47 per trip and lodging costs added $161.23 to the trip costs. Miscellaneous
expenditures averaged $27.54 per trip. With the average ATVer reporting 2.5 out-of-
state trips, each registered ATV owner is estimated to spend $1,275 per year to ride
outside of Pennsylvania.


When asked how much their household had spent on ATVs and equipment during the
previous year, those responding averaged $2,996 on vehicles and another $700 on
equipment. Over 40% of owners purchased an ATV every 1 to 5 years (Table 29).

Policy

Funding, laws, and regulations


The respondents were asked their opinion on several policy questions. Almost half
(48%) agreed that state funds should be used to develop riding areas on private property,
while 34% disagreed. However, contrary to the rest of the state, riders in the
Susquehanna Region demonstrated a much lower level of support with only 32%
agreeing and 46% disagreeing. Higher levels of agreement were observed with ATV
organization members (66% agreed). Agreement was higher with younger riders (51% of
those under 50 agree) than with older participants (only 37% of those over 50 agreed).


Table 29. How often were ATVs purchased?

Every year or less     5%
Every 1 to 5 years    40%
Every 5 to 10 years   17%
Every 10+ years       21%
Other                 17%
Do not know            0%
                                                                                                                   30

When asked whether state laws and programs should be created to protect and encourage
riding areas on private property, 56% agreed and 25% disagreed. Agreement was
strongest in the Philadelphia and Pocono Regions (63% agreed). Agreement was also
strong with ATV organization members, where 74% were in agreement. Age also was
significant, with 60% of those under 50 years of age agreeing, while only 50% of those
over 50 agreed.

Agreement was very strong for the proposition that municipal zoning regulations should
be changed to support construction and use of ATV areas (76% agreed and 10%
disagreed). Agreement was lower in the Allegheny National Forest Region where only
64% agreed and higher in the Philadelphia Region where 83% agreed. The strongest
agreement was with the members of ATV organizations (92% agreed). Younger rider
tended to agree more than did older riders; 82% of those under 50 agreed, while only
83% of those over 50 agreed.

Willingness to pay

When asked how much they would be willing to pay for a pass to ride their ATV in a
public facility, registered ATV owners indicated an average value of $59.48 for a
seasonal pass and $11.64 for a weekly pass.

There was a great deal of variation in the amounts riders were willing to pay for an
annual pass. Regionally, this varied from a low of $35 in the Erie Region to a high of
$102 in the Philadelphia Region (Figure 16). ATV organization members indicated a
willingness to pay $82 for an annual pass. There as also a strong positive relationship
between annual family income and willingness to pay for an annual pass (Figure 17).


Figure 16. Average willingness to pay for an annual riding pass, by region.




                   Susquehanna Region

                          Pocono Region

                       Pittsburgh Region

                      Philadelphia Region

                 Laurel Highlands Region

 Hershey/Gettysburg/Dutch Country Region

                             Erie Region

         Allegheny National Forest Region

                                       $0.00   $20.00   $40.00        $60.00          $80.00   $100.00   $120.00

                                                                 Willingness to Pay
                                                                                                                                            31




Figure 17. Average willingness to pay for an annual riding pass, by income.



                                $80.00

                                $70.00

                                $60.00

                                $50.00

  Willingness to Pay $40.00

                                $30.00

                                $20.00

                                $10.00

                                 $0.00
                                          Less than   $10,000 to $15,000 to   $25,000 to   $35,000 to $50,000 to   $75,000 to $100,000 or
                                           $10,000      14,999    24,999       34,999       49,999     74,999        99,999      more

                                                                         Annual Family Income




There were no significant regional differences in the willingness to pay for a weekend
pass. Members of ATV organizations were willing to pay $17 for a weekend pass. There
was a strong negative relationship between age and willingness to pay for weekend
opportunities, with a high of $21 per weekend for those under 20 years of age and a low
of $3 per weekend for those over 80 years of age (Figure 18)


Figure 18. Average willingness to pay for a weekend pass, by age.


                       $25.00




                       $20.00




                       $15.00

  Willingness to Pay

                       $10.00




                        $5.00




                        $0.00
                                  10-19       20-29         30-39        40-49         50-59         60-69         70-79        80-89
                                                                              Age Class
                                                                                           32


Conclusions
Summary

There is increasing ATV riding in Pennsylvania providing the state with increasing
values. There is a significant purchase of fuel for transporting and riding and owners
spend a sizable amount of money pursuing the sport. Day and overnight trips outside the
Commonwealth were less common than in-state trips. Most common destination was
New York for day trips and West Virginia for overnight trips, but varied greatly by
region.

Currently the majority of riding is taking place on home lands. Problems with the
availability and accessibility of trails and riding opportunities were of primary
importance to ATV owners throughout the survey. New trails received the highest
attention. Long and medium trails were more important than short trails and play areas.
The highest priority was attached to trails accessible to a variety of riding skills. ATV
owners also desired riding places close to home and the opening of municipal and other
secondary roads.

The majority of riders are white, male, and rural, with no college degree. Riding with
family and friends was the number one reason given for recreational ATV riding (70% of
riders). The age profile shows that there are a lot of family aged adults and young people
riding. The age profile seems to indicate that ATVing is a family activity for a many
people. The years of experience indicate that new people are moving into the sport. The
low priority attached to race courses, racing, and aggressive riding may be a further
indication of the family orientation of many riders.

It seems that safety is not a great concern of ATV owners. About 36% of the respondents
indicated that they had completed a safety course and about 50% indicated that safety
courses should be required. Members of an ATV organization and older people were
more likely to say that a safety course should be required. Respondents indicated a fairly
small number of accidents, though young riders and urban riders were more likely to
report and accident.

Riders were fairly satisfied with the components of the riding areas that were available,
but not well satisfied with their ATV riding experience in the Commonwealth. Trail
design (32%), access (28%), and signing (28%) were most often cited as needing to be
improved. Fifty-two percent of the owners were satisfied with their riding experience in
Pennsylvania. Again, not enough public trails played a major part in riding
dissatisfaction in the state. Problems with trespass, riding in illegal areas, and issues with
property owners may be associated with the lack of legal riding opportunities.

The attitudes of younger and older people were different. Younger people were more
likely to report an accident and to think that problems such as trespass and unsafe riding
were less important than older.
                                                                                           33


ATV organizations

Members of ATV organizations only made up 8% of the responding registered ATV
owners. However, their opinions were often significantly different from the other riders.
In general, they had stronger opinions, desired more challenging opportunities, and
expressed greater needs. Since representatives of these organizations often are called
upon to offer policy advice, it is important that their leaders be cognizant of these
differences and strive to represent the larger riding public than just their own constituents.

A further caution stemming from the significant differences in the opinions and activities
of ATV organization members comes from surveying such groups and applying the
results to the entire ATV riding public. A recent study by Raffield and Berwager (2001)
used a mailing list of the Pennsylvania Off-Highway Vehicle Association membership to
collect data and then extended the results to all ATV riders in Pennsylvania. At the
results of this study show, certain biases are unavoidable with this methodology.

Recommendations

The availability of land for riding is dropping due to increasing fragmentation and
parcelization of forest land, public land restrictions, and increased caution by private land
owners due to litigation trends. Meanwhile Pennsylvania’s residents are buying ATVs in
growing numbers with an expectation that they will be able to continue enjoying their
chosen activity. Quite simply, people desire more motorized trails. It seems that they
don’t care whether the trails are public or private, but rather how accessible they are. It
also seems that they are aware of the potential conflicts that ATV riding can cause. It is
the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania’s job to define policy that will allow its citizens to
participate in this activity in a manor that, provides for a safe experience, is harmonious
with nature, and minimizes conflicts with the other uses of the resource.

References
Dillman, D. A. 1978. Mail and Telephone Surveys: The Total Design Method. John
      Wiley & Sons. New York.

Yager, Tom. 2004. Personal communication with Tom Yager, Vice President Specialty
       Vehicle Association of America. March, 2004.

Raffield III, B. T. and S. A. Berwager. 2001. Off-Highway Vehicles in Pennsylvania –
An Economic Impact Study and OHV User Survey.
                                                                        34


Appendix A – Tourism Promotion Regions




Table 30. Tourism promotion regions

    Short Name         TPA region
1   Erie               Lake Erie Region
2   ANF                Allegheny National Forest Region
3   Susquehanna        Valleys of the Susquehanna
4   Pocono             Pocono Mountains/Endless Mountains
5   Pittsburgh         Pittsburgh Region
6   Laurel Highlands   Laurel Highlands/Southern Alleghenies
7   HGD                Hershey/Gettysburg/Dutch Country
8   Philadelphia       Philadelphia and its Countryside/Lehigh Valley
                                                                                                                 35


Appendix B – Regional Needs
Table 31. ATV trail features considered adequate, by region.

Feature                     ANF   Erie   HGD    Laurel       Philadelphia   Pittsburgh   Pocono   Susquehanna   Total
                                               Highlands
Race courses                75%   81%    68%           68%          57%          77%       70%           65%    70%
Policing, enforcement       73%   53%    62%          64%           62%          65%       54%           53%    62%
ATV dealer education        61%   56%    63%          61%           49%          63%       59%           63%    59%
Safety of riding areas      63%   54%    55%          50%           45%          68%       43%           51%    54%
Safe riding for adults      54%   52%    56%          48%           51%          57%       48%           52%    52%
Challenge existing trails   62%   47%    59%          49%           44%          57%       42%           38%    50%
Water features              59%   52%    49%          44%           32%          45%       37%           45%    47%
Play areas                  58%   51%    33%          43%           33%          48%       46%           37%    43%
Environmental               48%   37%    44%          50%           36%          48%       37%           35%    43%
stewardship
Safety and etiquette        49%   42%    47%          46%           38%          53%       28%           40%    43%
Trail maintenance           48%   40%    41%          41%           32%          50%       31%           43%    41%
Camping on trails           47%   43%    49%          33%           29%          43%       37%           38%    41%
Emergency response          49%   33%    42%          36%           39%          42%       41%           40%    41%
Campground areas            41%   32%    40%          34%           29%          41%       35%           39%    37%
Trail design                45%   36%    34%          34%           35%          44%       29%           37%    36%
Trailhead loading           42%   33%    40%          34%           26%          46%       32%           31%    36%
Info available on           36%   29%    35%          35%           25%          38%       28%           30%    33%
internet
Trail signing               37%   30%    36%          40%           23%          41%       27%           28%    33%
Short trails                39%   33%    30%          28%           25%          36%       29%           32%    32%
Safe riding for youth       35%   24%    34%          29%           23%          33%       20%           27%    29%
Trailhead restrooms         30%   28%    29%          29%           18%          30%       36%           23%    29%
Long trails                 33%   31%    37%          27%           21%          32%       22%           23%    28%
Trail map availability      33%   27%    29%          25%           17%          31%       22%           23%    26%
Medium trails               35%   21%    24%          22%           18%          19%       15%            8%    22%
Trail access                28%   22%    25%          20%           12%          21%        9%           11%    20%
Trail availability          16%   12%    11%           8%            9%           8%        9%            5%    10%
                                                                                                                 36




Table 32. ATV trail features needing to be improved, by region.

Feature                     ANF   Erie   HGD    Laurel       Philadelphia   Pittsburgh   Pocono   Susquehanna   Total
                                               Highlands
Trail design                26%   36%    28%           38%          40%          36%       33%           28%    32%
Trail access                24%   26%    21%          34%           39%          30%       26%           35%    28%
Trail map availability      22%   26%    29%          26%           35%          30%       23%           27%    28%
Trail signing               27%   29%    28%          25%           36%          31%       21%           29%    27%
Trail maintenance           25%   31%    27%          29%           38%          22%       32%           22%    27%
Trail availability          20%   17%    21%          32%           37%          24%       19%           32%    25%
Emergency response          18%   26%    23%          22%           37%          29%       24%           19%    24%
Info available on           18%   21%    25%          22%           26%          23%       20%           21%    21%
internet
Trailhead restrooms         18%   21%    21%          23%           30%          18%       14%           16%    21%
Trailhead loading           17%   20%    21%          28%           28%          18%       14%           20%    21%
Safe riding for youth       14%   19%    21%          20%           26%          21%       29%           19%    20%
Long trails                 16%   19%    14%          22%           26%          15%       22%           20%    20%
Safety of riding areas      10%   21%    17%          25%           34%          13%       20%           25%    19%
Medium trails               12%   19%    17%          21%           25%          19%       10%           26%    18%
Campground areas            17%   12%    18%          21%           26%          15%       16%           16%    18%
Safety and etiquette        14%   16%    16%          24%           22%          22%       20%           18%    18%
Short trails                13%   17%    18%          18%           23%          15%        9%           20%    17%
Environmental               15%   23%    15%          17%           25%           9%       18%           12%    17%
stewardship
Challenge existing trails   10%   11%    15%          21%           21%          20%       14%           20%    17%
Camping on trails           14%   10%    15%          21%           24%          15%       15%           14%    16%
Policing, enforcement        8%   17%    14%          18%           21%          15%       16%           19%    15%
ATV dealer education        13%   14%    15%          16%           25%          13%       17%            7%    15%
Play areas                   6%   15%    19%          15%           25%           8%       18%           14%    15%
Water features               9%   16%    16%          16%           28%          15%       12%            8%    15%
Safe riding for adults      12%   12%    14%          16%           22%          12%       18%           10%    15%
Race courses                 4%    6%     9%          12%           18%           7%        9%           12%     9%
                                                                                                                 37




Table 33. ATV trail features needing to be improved, by region.

Feature                     ANF   Erie   HGD    Laurel       Philadelphia   Pittsburgh   Pocono   Susquehanna   Total
                                               Highlands
Trail availability          64%   71%    68%           61%          54%          68%       72%           63%    65%
Medium trails               53%   60%    59%          58%           57%          62%       75%           65%    60%
Trail access                48%   51%    53%          45%           49%          49%       65%           54%    53%
Long trails                 51%   50%    49%          50%           53%          53%       57%           58%    52%
Short trails                48%   50%    52%          54%           52%          48%       62%           48%    51%
Trailhead restrooms         52%   51%    50%          48%           52%          52%       50%           60%    50%
Safe riding for youth       52%   56%    45%          50%           51%          46%       51%           54%    50%
Trail map availability      45%   47%    42%          49%           49%          38%       56%           49%    47%
Info available on           46%   49%    40%          43%           49%          40%       52%           49%    45%
internet
Campground areas            42%   56%    42%          46%           45%          44%       49%           46%    44%
Trailhead loading           42%   48%    40%          39%           46%          36%       54%           49%    43%
Camping on trails           40%   48%    36%          47%           47%          41%       47%           49%    42%
Play areas                  36%   35%    47%          42%           42%          44%       37%           49%    41%
Environmental               37%   40%    41%          33%           40%          42%       46%           53%    40%
stewardship
Safety and etiquette        37%   41%    37%          31%           41%          25%       51%           42%    39%
Trail signing               36%   40%    36%          35%           41%          28%       52%           43%    39%
Water features              32%   32%    35%          41%           39%          40%       51%           47%    39%
Emergency response          33%   41%    35%          41%           24%          30%       35%           42%    35%
Safe riding for adults      34%   36%    31%          36%           27%          31%       34%           38%    34%
Challenge existing trails   28%   41%    27%          30%           34%          23%       44%           43%    33%
Trail design                29%   28%    38%          28%           25%          20%       38%           36%    32%
Trail maintenance           27%   29%    33%          30%           30%          27%       37%           35%    31%
Safety of riding areas      27%   25%    28%          25%           21%          19%       37%           25%    26%
ATV dealer education        26%   30%    22%          23%           25%          23%       24%           30%    25%
Policing, enforcement       19%   30%    24%          17%           18%          19%       30%           28%    23%
Race courses                21%   13%    23%          20%           25%          16%       22%           23%    20%
                               38


Appendix C – The Survey Form
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