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					GPS NAVIGATION

                                                       GPS NAVIGATION
Technical Seminar Presentation 2004




                                                             Presented by

                                      Tapaswini Mishra                  Roll No.#200157166


                                                       Under the guidance of
                                                       Mr G.V. Kiran Kumar


                                      Presented by – Tapaswini Mishra
GPS NAVIGATION
                                                     INTRODUCTION
Technical Seminar Presentation 2004




                                      • The GPS is a satellite based Radio Navigation system, that
                                        utilizes precise range measurements from the GPS satellites
                                        to determine precise position anywhere in the world.




                                      Presented by – Tapaswini Mishra
GPS NAVIGATION
                                                           NAVIGATION
Technical Seminar Presentation 2004




                                      • Navigation is used for
                                        estimating the position of a
                                        vehicle on sea, in air or and on           NAVIGATION
                                        land to ensure that the chosen
                                        route is followed accurately.

                                      • GPS satellites constellations
                                                                               TWO                  PATH
                                        orbit consists of 24 satellites    DIMENTIONAL           NAVIGATION

                                        orbiting in 6 orbits, 4each.they
                                                                                   Fig 3.3 Navigation Lay out
                                        are orbiting around earth in
                                        every 12 hours emitting
                                        continuous navigation signals.

                                       Presented by – Tapaswini Mishra
GPS NAVIGATION
                                                   HOW DOES IT WORK?
Technical Seminar Presentation 2004




                                      • GPS provides specially
                                        coded satellite signals that
                                        can be processed in a GPS
                                        receiver, enabling the
                                        receiver to compute
                                        position, velocity and time.

                                      • Four GPS satellite signals
                                        are used to compute
                                        positions in three
                                        dimensions and the time
                                        offset in the receiver clock.
                                       Presented by – Tapaswini Mishra
GPS NAVIGATION
                                           SEGMENTS OF NAVIGATION
Technical Seminar Presentation 2004




                                                                This Navigation system is divided into
                                                                 three important segments.
                                                                   Space Segment
                                                                   Control Segment
                                                                   User Segment

                                                                   GPS Positioning Services Specified
                                                                    in the Federal Radio navigation
                                                                    Plan Provides two types of
                                                                    services:
                                                                      • Precise Positioning Service
                                                                        (PPS)
                                                                      • Standard Positioning Service
                                                                        (SPS)

                                      Presented by – Tapaswini Mishra
GPS NAVIGATION
                                                 SATELLITE NAVIGATION
Technical Seminar Presentation 2004




                                      • This is based on
                                        measurement of the times of
                                        arrival of the time signals
                                        received from 3 or more
                                        orbiting satellites, whose
                                        positional coordinates in
                                        space are also transmitted.

                                      • The limiting pulses are sent
                                        out by each satellite in the L-
                                        Band, using spread spectrum
                                        modulation and are received
                                        by the GPS Receivers in
                                        aircrafts or ships.
                                       Presented by – Tapaswini Mishra
GPS NAVIGATION

                                             SATELLITE TRANSMISSION
Technical Seminar Presentation 2004




                                      • The space vehicles transmit two microwave carrier signals.
                                        The L1 frequency ranging about 1575.42 MHz carries the
                                        navigation message and the SPS code signals. The L2
                                        frequency about 1227.60 MHz is used to measure the
                                        ionospheric delay by PPS equipped receiver.

                                      • Three types of binary codes are there which shifts the L1
                                        and/or L2 carrier phase.
                                               • The C/A Code (Coarse Acquisition)
                                               • The P-Code (Precise)
                                               • The Navigation Message

                                       Presented by – Tapaswini Mishra
GPS NAVIGATION
                                                 MARINE NAVIGATION
Technical Seminar Presentation 2004




                                      Some important words used in marine navigation are
                                               • Track
                                               • Course
                                               • Bearing
                                               • Heading
                                               • Turn




                                      Presented by – Tapaswini Mishra
GPS NAVIGATION
                                           POSITION & TIME FROM GPS
Technical Seminar Presentation 2004




                                      • CODE PHASE TRACKING (NAVIGATION):
                                      • PSEUDO-RANGE NAVIGATION
                                      • CARRIER PHASE TRACKING (SURVEYING)




                                       Presented by – Tapaswini Mishra
GPS NAVIGATION

                                       RECEIVER POSITION, VELOCITY
Technical Seminar Presentation 2004




                                                AND TIME




                                                      GPS RECEIVER
                                      Presented by – Tapaswini Mishra
GPS NAVIGATION

                                      POSITION &TIME DETERMINATION
Technical Seminar Presentation 2004




                                      Presented by – Tapaswini Mishra
GPS NAVIGATION
                                                  RADIO NAVIGATION
Technical Seminar Presentation 2004




                                      • Radio navigation is the navigation of mobile robot
                                        or Autonomous Guided Vehicle – AGV.

                                      • Here global refers to the ability to discover ones
                                        position at any unknown location on the planet
                                        known as position fix, and update that knowledge
                                        while moving to fulfill some other objective e.g.
                                        follows way-points of a map.




                                      Presented by – Tapaswini Mishra
GPS NAVIGATION
                                                   RADIO NAVIGATION
Technical Seminar Presentation 2004




                                      • The basis of Global Navigation for an AGV is reliably
                                        gaining a co-ordinate of vector describing where the
                                        vehicle is in relation to a fixed point on the globe.

                                      • This point is generally taken to be the intersection of the
                                        Greenwich meridian and the equator line of latitude, at sea
                                        level - in accordance with standard geographical practice.

                                      • Using this position information, with reference to a map or
                                        otherwise, a list of waypoints can be generated and
                                        followed to allow the vehicle to navigate between end
                                        points of a journey.

                                       Presented by – Tapaswini Mishra
GPS NAVIGATION
                                            HYPERBOLIC NAVIGATION
Technical Seminar Presentation 2004




                                      Presented by – Tapaswini Mishra
GPS NAVIGATION

                                                   RADIO NAVIGATION
Technical Seminar Presentation 2004




                                      • Methods employed in tracking an AGV’s
                                        positioning.

                                      • Dead-Reckoning

                                      • Inertial Navigation Systems (INS):

                                      • INS Integration with GPS:

                                       Presented by – Tapaswini Mishra
GPS NAVIGATION

                                                  WAYPOINT NAVIGATION
Technical Seminar Presentation 2004




                                      • A waypoint is an “address” which defines starting
                                        point, expected destination point, a place to avoid
                                        or sometimes the intermediate position along the
                                        way.

                                      •   The Destination Waypoint
                                      •   Routes
                                      •   Mob (man over board) position waypoint
                                      •   Navigating To Single Way Point
                                          Presented by – Tapaswini Mishra
GPS NAVIGATION
                                                        CONCLUSION
Technical Seminar Presentation 2004




                                      • Though Navigation was someday an unsolved
                                        mystery but GPS made it possible in all types of
                                        Navigation such as Space, Ground and Marine
                                        Navigations.

                                      • further researches are making it day by day more
                                        useful and the prediction says that all the
                                        problems regarding position fixing and
                                        determination will be solved by the development
                                        of GPS efficiency


                                       Presented by – Tapaswini Mishra
GPS NAVIGATION
Technical Seminar Presentation 2004




                                      Presented by – Tapaswini Mishra

				
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