Contemporary Security Studies Alan Collins

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					Contemporary Security Studies
       Alan Collins

      Traditional Security
   The Role of Intelligence in
       National Security
                       Introduction

      The Role of Intelligence in National Security

The collection, analysis, and use of intelligence is ubiquitous

Intelligence has been used by rulers and generals from earliest
times to the present

The information available and means to collect and analyse it, has
changed in the information age
The Role of Intelligence in National
              Security




   Definitions and Theory of
           Intelligence
             Defining Intelligence


Intelligence refers to:
Defining needs
Collecting and analysing information
Providing information to policy makers
The process by which this is done
The people and institutions that do it
Use of secret activities to influence a foreign state's policies
            Intelligence Theories


The theory of ‘Cybernetics’ assumes that the intelligence

 process is part of the flow of information that then acts

as feedback to maximise a state’s efficiency in achieving

                 its foreign policy goals
The Role of Intelligence in National
              Security




   Intelligence Services of
       Different Nations
          Intelligence Services

                Intelligence
                Community




Foreign and      Electronic       Military
 Domestic      Communication      Support
 Agencies        Agencies         Agencies
              Intelligence Services

        National Intelligence Organizations

                  Early Twentieth Century
  National global civilian intelligence organizations with global
                        operations appeared

                   Late Twentieth Century
Intelligence services began to have statutory authorizations and fall
            under some degree of legislative supervision
    The Intelligence Community of the
              United Kingdom

                       Supervisory
                        Structure


 Military                 Foreign               Domestic
Intelligence            Intelligence           Intelligence
   (DI6)                   (MI6)                 (MI5)


  Defence                                     National Criminal
                 Signals       Metropolitan
 Geographic                                      Intelligence
 & Imagery     Intelligence       Police           Service
 The Role of Intelligence in National
               Security




Intelligence Collection Disciplines
                and the
        Intelligence Process
         Intelligence Services

               Collection
               Disciplines



HUMINT          TECHINT          PHOTINT




                 SIGINT
The Intelligence Process


 Decision
                    Critical
  Makers
               Intelligence Needs
 Informed




Information       Collection
  Analysis        Processes
         The Intelligence Process

    The intelligence cycle in theory informs the policy
     making process and enhances national security

Breakdowns often result from a failure to coordinate
between agencies and sub-agencies
Breakdowns occur at virtually every stage of the process
 Most failures occur at the analysis stage, the most
important phase in the process
The Role of Intelligence in National
              Security




   Intelligence and Security
     Post-World War Two
        Intelligence and Security:
           Post-World War Two

The first US peacetime intelligence agency (the CIA)
The formalization of intelligence cooperation between the
UK and US
The growth of spy-counterspy and ‘eyes in the sky’
surveillance
Overhead satellite reconnaissance became valuable in
stabilizing and reducing the tension
       Legal and Ethical Issues

The ubiquity of intelligence suggests that nations do
  not consider it to be a violation of domestic law

The legality of intelligence activities that violate
sovereignty require more sophisticated justification
Many treaties and agreements between nations tacitly
acknowledge the use of NTM for treaty verification
Intelligence collection techniques for verification
purposes would make treaties non-viable
                  Covert Action

                     Covert Actions
 Secret activities by one state to influence political and
  economic developments in another state without the
          source of the influence being known
The majority of Covert Actions are benign and
constitute a small part of operations
Some clearly violate the sovereignty of the target state:
e.g. assassinations or provision of military resources and
                  personnel in civil wars
               Covert Action

                 Covert Actions:
Does ‘the Gap Theory’ justify Covert Actions?

 Others believe the Just War Theory can be
adapted to evaluate the ethicality of Covert Actions
The Role of Intelligence in National
              Security




     Terrorism and Iraq:
 The Contemporary Security
            Climate
       The Contemporary Security
               Condition

               Anti-Terror Tactics




  Creation of New             Allocation of Large
Intelligence Agencies             Resources

However: the response diminishes coordination and
          correlation between agencies
The Iraqi war and Intelligence Condition


The assumption that the next terrorist attack will
be the same prevents intelligence developments

The 2003 Iraqi war was initiated on the basis of
faulty intelligence resulting from political will to use
raw, unprocessed, intelligence to support their views
 Was the Iraq War an intelligence failure or a policy
                      failure?

				
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