DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid �The Blueprint of Life�

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DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid �The Blueprint of Life� Powered By Docstoc
					DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid
   “The Blueprint of Life”
A. What is DNA?
1. Organic
molecule

2. Nucleic
acid
B.Where is it located?
 1. Nucleus
                    DNA
 2. In the
 Chromosomes
Chromosomes in Nucleus
 C. Structure of DNA
1. Nucleotides
   a. Phosphate
   b. Deoxyribose sugar
   c. Nitrogenous bases:
     Adenine-Thymine
     Guanine-Cytosine
2. Ladder Shape
3. Double strand, helix
   twist
 Ladder Shape (Sides & Rungs)
Sides:
 Phosphate
 Sugar
 Phosphate
Rungs:
 A-T
 T-A
 G-C
 C-G
Watson & Crick’s Double helix:
D. What is DNA’s Function?
                Hereditary
                Instructions
                Chemical
                code for
                every trait
                “Blueprint”
                for making
                Proteins
Chromosome DNA Code:
Genes =                Hair
                       Color
 Segments
 of DNA
 Code for              Eye
 a trait               Color
   DNA Chromosome Code:
Acid      Acid    A triplet of
Sugar-T-A-Sugar   bases code for
Acid       Acid   an amino acid
Sugar-G-C-Sugar
Acid       Acid   A series of
Sugar-C-G-Sugar   amino acids
                  code for a
                  protein
                  The protein
                  codes for a
                  Trait
 DNA Chromosome Code:
Like Morse Code: Hair   *** *- ** *-*
=                             Or DNA

                              A-T
                              A-T
                              G-C
                              C-G
                              T-A
                              C-G
DNA Replication
Chromosomes
double
Interphase
                       1N
S or Synthesis
stage             2N
 E. Steps for DNA Replication:
1. DNA untwists
2. DNA unzips-hydrogen bonds are broken
   by enzyme
3. Corresponding nucleotides
   line up and hydrogen
   bonds form between
   nitrogen bases
4. 2 strands twist into helix
5. Result is 2 chromosomes-      Identical
   part old and part new         Strand
 A. What is RNA?
1.Organic
   Molecule
2.Nucleic Acid
3. Types:
mRNA=messenger
tRNA=transfer
rRNA=ribosomal
  B.   Where is RNA located?
1. mRNA in
   nucleus &
   cytoplasm
2. tRNA only in
   cytoplasm
3. rRNA at the
   ribosomes
B. What is RNA’s structure?
             1. Nucleotides=
Phosphate       a. Phosphate
Sugar-Base      b. Ribose sugar
Phosphate       c. Nitrogenous
Sugar-Base         Bases:
Phosphate        Adenine-Uracil
Sugar-Base      Guanine-Cytocine
Phosphate    2. Single Strand
Sugar-Base   3. No Twisted helix
Comparison of RNA & DNA:
  Single Stranded               Double Stranded
Phosphate           Phosphate      Phosphate
Sugar-Base          Sugar----Bases----Sugar
Phosphate           Phosphate      Phosphate
  Ribose
Sugar-Base
                    Sugar----Bases----Sugar
Phosphate
                    Phosphate      Phosphate
Sugar-Base            Deoxy-
Phosphate           Sugar----Bases----Sugar
                      ribose

Sugar-Base          Phosphate      Phosphate
    RNA                  DNA Ladder
D. What are RNA’s functions:
1.mRNA=
 Copies the DNA
 code
 Deliveries
 message to
 Ribosome
 Ribosomes-
 Protein Factories
Why not send the original
DNA code out?
DNA might be    Original DNA
damaged!
mRNA
components          mRNA copy
are reused
To copy more
messages
 RNA function cont.
       Amino   2. tRNA:
       acid       in cytoplasm
                  Picks up an
                  amino acid
                  “Taxis” the
tRNA              aa to the
                  Ribosome
                  protein
                  factories
III. Protein Synthesis
Assembling Proteins from
the DNA Instructions
  A. Transcription:
1. mRNA is copied
   off of DNA
2. In nucleus
3. Steps:
   DNA untwists
   DNA unzips
   RNA codons line
   up
 Transcription:   mRNA has:
                   Ribose
           mRNA    sugar
    A              Uracil
           U       instead of
    T
                   thymine
           A
    C              bases
           G       Nuclear
    G              membrane
           C       allows it to
DNA Code           leave!
      Transcription in
      The nucleus


DNA      mRNA copy
B. Translation =
                   Conversion of
                   the message
                   (mRNA Code)
                   Into a protein
                   By the
                   ribosome
                   factories
                       tRNA taxi
 B.Translation         A
1. mRNA arrives at
   the Ribosome
2. tRNA picks up an    U
   amino acid
3. tRNA delivers the
   aa to the                       C
   ribosome                            G
4. aa are assembled    U A G C
   into polypeptide
   proteins             mRNA code
               4. Polypeptide
               Chain of
               amino
               acids grows




               2. Peptide
• tRNA         bond forms
  delivers     3. tRNA leaves
  amino acid   ribosome
 Summary:        Protein
                    Synthesis:
DNA              1. Transcrition:
 Replication:       Make mRNA
 Make               From DNA
 duplicate DNA   2. Translation:
 In nucleus        Make protein
 Copy the          Off mRNA
 chromosomes       code
                   Using amino
 For Mitosis
                   acids

				
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posted:3/5/2012
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