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Thomas Jefferson

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					 Thomas Jefferson
   What happens when a
Democratic-Republican becomes
      the “Big Cheese”?
            Revolution of 1800
   By 1800, Federalist power was slipping, Dem-
    Reps won control of Congress.
   T.J. was accused of being a God-less radical
    (Deist) who would bring revolution to the U.S.
   However, the presidency turned out to be
    chaotic affair. The Federalists lost.
   But, Dem-Rep candidates: Jefferson/Burr tied 73
    electoral votes. Who would be president/vice-
    president?
   If a tie, the House of Representatives would
    decide.
   35 votes later, no results
   Hamilton convinced Federalist Congressmen to
 To   prevent future crises, the Twelfth
    Amendment was added to the
    Constitution. Electors vote for a
    president and vice president on
    separate ballots.

   1804- Hamilton publicly criticized Burr who was
    running for governor of New York. Burr’s
    demand for an apology led to a duel in which
    Hamilton was shot and killed.
     The Jefferson Presidency
 Inaugural address: “We are all
  Democratic-Republicans; we are all
  Federalists.”
 First President to be inaugurated in DC
 “Peaceful revolution”-restore Republican
  ideals of 1776 to America/Lessen the
  power of the central government.
 He replaced Federalist officials with Dem-
  Reps.
       Simplifying the Presidency
-Walked to his own inauguration. Rode on horseback.
-Took off his powdered wig/Wore old and
  simple clothing and slippers.
-Allowed anybody to see him in the White House.
-Gov’t best which governs least/Cut his own powers.
-Got rid of and pardoned Alien & Sedition prisoners.
-Allowed people to criticize him openly.
-Reduced size of the army/expansion of navy.
-Lowered expenses for government social functions.
-Eliminated all internal taxes to reduce the Bank of the United State’s
    power.
-He believed in free-trade (No gov’t intervention) w/ Europe.
-Albert Gallatin: Secretary of Treasury- national
debt more dangerous than foreign aggression
-He cut the debt in half.
-T.J. didn’t create the “radical” presidency
that scared the Federalist.
Southern Dominance of Politics
   First president to work in Washington, DC
   Showed importance of the South in national
    politics (The next presidents from VA) and the
    declining influence of New England and the
    Federalists in political life.
   Why?
   1)-Federalists did not want to campaign to the
    common people
   2)-National expansion to the west
    (Settlers/farmers tended to be Dem-Reps)
    John Marshall and the Supreme
                Court
 Federalists still had influence with the
  judicial branch.
 Adams had appointed John Marshall
  (Federalist) as Chief Justice.
 Served 30 years/Handed many impt.
  decisions that strengthened the judicial
  branch.
   Some of Adams other appointments didn’t work
    as well.
   Before leaving office, Adams pushed for the
    Judiciary Act of 1801 which increased the
    number of federal judges by 16. He then began
    to fill these new positions with Federalists
    (Packed the courts).
   Called Midnight Judges (He signed on the last
    day of his administration).
   Angered Dem-Reps and Jefferson.
   Not delivered before Adams left office/Jefferson
    said they were invalid.
   Marbury v. Madison (1803)
 Led to the most important Supreme Court
  decision of all time.
 Affirmed judicial review-the ability of the
  Supreme Court to declare an act of
  Congress as unconstitutional.
      The U.S. Expands West
Westward expansion across the
 Appalachians, through the Cumberland
 Gap through Kentucky.
 (1775 Daniel Boone led the clearing of a
 road from VA through this gap called the
 Wilderness Road)
     The Louisiana Purchase
 1800 Napoleon persuaded Spain to return
  the Lousiana Territory it received from
  France after the French and Indian War.
 Scared Americans/Forced to make an
  alliance with Britain.
 Jefferson wanted to resolve this problem
  by buying New Orleans and Florida from
  France.
 He sent James Monroe to France.
 Before Monroe arrived, Napoleon had given up his
  dreams for an American Empire after losing Saint
  Doningue (Haiti).
 He needed money, so Napoleon decided to sell the
  entire Louisiana Territory.
 No time to consult their gov’t, Monroe made deal for $15
  million.
 Jefferson (Strict Constructionist) thought it was
  unconstitutional.
 But he utilized the Elastic Clause.
 The size of the U.S. Doubled.
 Classical Republicanism/virtue/farmers
               Lewis and Clark
   Jefferson wanted to explore the new territory.
   Lewis and Clark prepared in Philadelphia.
   1803 Corps of Discovery- St. Louis to the Pacific.
   Collect scientific info. and learn more about the
    Native Americans.
   50 soldiers
   Sacajawea-interpreter and guide.
   Two years and four months and only one man
    died.
Barbary Pirates
   -Primary Source: A quote from Thomas
    Jefferson...

   "I know of no safe depository of the ultimate powers of
    the society but the people themselves; and if we think
    them not enlightened enough to exercise their control
    with wholesome discretion, the remedy is not to take it
    from them, but to inform their discretion by education.
    This is the true corrective of abuses of constitutional
    power."
   Mr. President

   To messers Nehemiah Dodge, Ephraim Robbins, & Stephen S. Nelson a committee of the
    Danbury Baptist association in the state of Connecticut
   .Gentlemen:

   The affectionate sentiments of esteem & approbation which you are so good as to express
    towards me, on behalf of the Danbury Baptist association, give me the highest satisfaction. my
    duties dictate a faithful & zealous pursuit of the interests of my constituents, and in proportion as
    they are persuaded of my fidelity to those duties, the discharge of them becomes more & more
    pleasing. Believing with you that religion is a matter which lies solely between man & his god,
    that he owes account to none other for his faith or his worship, that the legitimate powers of
    government reach actions only, and not opinions, I contemplate with sovereign reverence that
    act of the whole American people which declared that their legislature should make no law
    respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, thus building a
    wall of separation between church and state. [Congress thus inhibited from acts respecting
    religion, and the Executive authorised only to execute their acts, I have refrained from presenting
    even occasional performances of devotion presented indeed legally where an Executive is the
    legal head of a national church, but subject here, as religious exercises only to the voluntary
    regulations and discipline of each respective sect.] Adhering to this expression of the supreme will
    of the nation in behalf of the rights of conscience, I shall see with sincere satisfaction the
    progress of those sentiments which tend to restore to man all his natural rights, convinced he has
    no natural right in opposition to his social duties.I reciprocate your kind prayers for the protection
    and blessing of the common Father and creator of man, and tender you for yourselves and your
    religious association, assurances of my high respect & esteem.(signed)

   Thomas Jefferson
Jan.1.1802.
Jefferson’s tombstone

				
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