Exploration Self regulation Identity Prosocial moral framework Core belief system by PBKjj6

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									              Attachment
• A deep and enduring connection
  established between a child and caregiver
  in the first several years of life.
               Attachment
•   Basic trust and reciprocity
•   Exploration
•   Self-regulation
•   Identity
•   Prosocial moral framework
•   Core belief system
•   Defense against stress/trauma
               Attachment
• Established in the context of a relationship
  that includes:
• touch
• eye contact
• smile and positive affect
• need fulfillment
             Secure Attachment
•   Self-esteem
•   Independence/autonomy
•   Resilience
•   Impulse control
•   Long-term friendships
•   Relationships with authority figures (including parents)
•   Prosocial coping skills
•   Trust, intimacy and affection
•   Positive belief systems
•   Empathy, compassion, and conscience
•   Behavioral performance and academic success
•   Promote secure attachment with own children
           Disrupted Attachment
•   Low self-esteem
•   Needy, clingy or pseudo-independent
•   Decompensate under stress
•   Lack self-control
•   Unable to develop/maintain friendships
•   Alienated from/oppositional with parents other authority
    figures
•   Antisocial attitudes/behaviors
•   Aggression/violence
•   Incapable of genuine trust, intimacy, affection
•   Negative, hopeless, pessimistic view
•   Lack empathy, compassion, remorse
•   Behavior/academic problems
•   Perpetuate cycle
  History of Attachment Theory
• John Bowlby
• Affectionless/homeless children
• Ethology
• Bowlby conclusions:
• instinctual behaviors keep mother close
• smile is a social releaser
• certain conditions increase attachment
• maternal deprivation/separation traumatic
• loss causes pathological mourning
        Attachment History
• David Levy
• Loretta Bender
• Harry Bakwin
• Rene Spitz
• James Robertson- stages of emotional
  reaction to loss/separation
• Harry Harlow
        History of Attachment
• Mary Ainsworth
• Uganda Study
• Secure Base
• Phases of Attachment
•    undiscriminating
•    differential responsiveness
•    separation anxiety
•    active initiation
•    stranger anxiety
            Mary Ainsworth
• Strange Situation
• Attachment Patterns
• Secure
• Insecure
•     Resistant/Ambivalent
•     Avoidant
• Parenting Dimensions: acceptance,
  cooperation, sensitivity, and availability
      Developmental Studies
• Mary Main longitudinal study
• disorganized attachment
• internal working model
• Allan Sroufe
• High risk population
         Cultural Variations
• In U.S., one-third (middle class families)
  insecurely attached
• Percentage higher in high-risk families
• Results consistent in all cultures
• Universal and culture-specific aspects of
  attachment
• German replication: avoidant attachment
• Israeli kibbutzim: ambivalent attachment
         Romantic Attachment
•   Adult Attachment Interview (Mary Main)
•   Secure- balance attachment/autonomy
•   Preoccupied- abandonment, anxiety/anger
•   Dismissing- compulsively self-reliant
•   Fearful- self-doubt, lack of strategies
             Childhood Peers
• Important for social development
• Piaget: equal power among peers
  – Requires cooperation, negotiation
    skills
• Sullivan: Peers important after age 6
  – Changing interpersonal needs
• Harris: Parental influence is overrated
  – Peers more important for
    development
        Peer Relations
• 18 mo: first peers
  – Turn taking
  – Reciprocal play
• Age 2-12: increasing time spent
  – Same sex peers
  – Similar age and play preferences
      Peer Acceptance
• Sociometric techniques
  – Most popular kids
    • Attractive, intelligent
    • Socially competent
  – Rejected kids
    • Highly aggressive
    • Socially isolated, overly sensitive,
      submissive
                    Play
• Age 1-2: Pretend play
• Age 2-5: Social play
• Age 5-6: Rule-based games
• By age 11-2: Rule flexibility
• Play is beneficial
  – Cognitive development
  – Social skills


								
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