AP European History Study Guide Chapter 17 by PBKjj6


									AP European History Study Guide Chapter 17

This study guide is to help you get ready for the test. Some of the information asked is found in the notes, and some
in the textbook. This is typical of MOST college classes and this style of study guide is designed to prepare you!
Also, while most test questions come from this guide, anything in the notes and textbook could be on the test!

You MUST do this study guide for points! You may NOT type this study guide out! You also MUST do the
practice for the essay questions. Write the answers in YOUR OWN WORDS. This will help you to remember and
understand the material. To receive full credit, you must do all parts of the question, not just the first basic question.

This test WILL have an essay. You MUST do the brainstorming for points!

Review Questions
Formative Influences on the Enlightenment
   1) Which two individuals had the biggest influence on Enlightenment ideals?
           a. Why?
   2) After 1688 (the Glorious Revolution), how progressive was England?
           a. Who were they not tolerant to?
           b. How did England compare to other European countries?
   3) How did the print culture change in the 18th century?
   4) How did literacy rates change in the 18th century?
           a. What did people read?
   5) Explain the new force of public opinion.
The Philosophes
   6) Who were the philosophes?
           a. How did they differ from formal philosophers of the past?
           b. What did they all have in common?
   7) Who was Voltaire (1694-1778)?
           a. Where was he from?
           b. What country did he most admire?
           c. What books did he write? (describe them)
           d. What were his beliefs?
           e. Famous quotes?
The Enlightenment and Religion
   8) Why did the philosophes criticize the Christian church?
   9) What were the beliefs of the deists?
           a. What did they hope for?
   10) Who was David Hume (1711-1776)?
           a. What did he write?
           b. What did he believe?
   11) Who was Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677)?
           a. What did he write?
           b. What did he believe?
   12) Who was Moses Mendelsohn (1729-1786)?
           a. What did he believe?
           b. What was his nickname?
   13) How did Christians view Islam in the 18th century?
The Enlightenment and Society
   14) What was the Encyclopedia?
           a. Who published it?
           b. What information did it contain?
            c. What did it do for learning?
    15) Who was Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794)?
            a. What did he write?
            b. What did he believe?
    16) Who were the physiocrats?
            a. What did they believe?
    17) Who was Adam Smith (1723-1790)?
            a. What did he write?
            b. What did he argue?
            c. What is he the founder of?
    18) What was Adam Smith’s four-stage theory?
Political Thought of the Philosophes
    19) Where did the most important political thought occur?
            a. Why?
    20) Who was Montesquieu (1689-1755)?
            a. Where was he from and what did he write?
            b. What were his political beliefs?
            c. Why did he admire Great Britain?
    21) Who was Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)?
            a. What did he write (2)?
            b. What did he believe and what were his quotes?
            c. What was “the general will”?

Women in the Thought and Practice of the Enlightenment
   22) What role did salons play during the Enlightenment?
   23) Generally, how did the philosophes feel about women, and their roles in society?
   24) Who was Mary Wollstonecraft?
           a. What did she write?
           b. Who did she oppose and why?
Rococco and Neoclassical Styles in 18th Century Art
   25) Briefly describe Rococco and Neoclassical styles.
Enlightened Absolutism
   26) How did the philosophes (especially Voltaire) feel about monarchies?
   27) Who was Frederick the Great of Prussia?
           a. What phrase did he use to describe himself?
           b. What policies did he enact that qualified him as being “enlightened”?
   28) Who was Joseph II of Austria?
           a. What “enlightened” policies did he enact?
   29) Who was Catherine the Great of Russia?
           a. What “enlightened” policies did she enact?
   30) Why was Poland partitioned in 1772?

Possible Essay Topics:
Here is how this is going to work: not all of these topics will appear but, three WILL appear of the four.
You must brainstorm for them – give definitions, terms that are related, and possible questions I might
ask in relation to the topic.

Religion and Science in the Enlightenment
The Philosophes
Women in the Enlightenment
Enlightened Absolutism (despotism)

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