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Introduction to Forensics

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					Introduction to
   Forensics
   What it encompasses
Forensics


  application of science to law
Branches of forensics

   Pathology
   Fingerprints
   Toxicology
   Entomology
   Anthropology
   Botany
   Odontology
Branches of Forensics

   Serology
   DNA electrophoresis
   Document examination
   Impression evidence
       Toolmarks
       Tire prints
       Shoe prints
   Computer analysis
   Arson
Branches of Forensics

   Profiling
   Environmental forensics
   Wildlife forensics
   Firearms/Ballistics
   Trace Evidence
       Hair
       Fibers
       Soil
       glass
   Engineering
Branches of Forensics

   Photography
   Polygraphs
   Audio specialists/Voiceprints
   Video analysis
   Psychiatry
     Competence
     State of mind

     profiling
Locard Exchange Principle



  When two objects come into
  contact, material is exchanged.
Expert witnesses



   Allowed to offer an opinion
    during testimony

   1923 Frye Standard (general
    acceptance)
   1993 Daubert Standard
Daubert vs Merrell Dow

   morning sickness drug caused
    birth defects
   plantiffs had many experts
   court ruled against the experts
    saying the methods were not
    generally accepted within the
    profession
Daubert standards

   Judge determines who is an expert:

   A) Has the expert’s scientific method
    been tested?
   B) Has the expert’s method been the
    subject of peer review and testing
   C) What is the actual or potential
    rate of error?
   D) do other scientists generally
    accept the expert’s methods?
Who runs forensic labs?

    private
    Police
    coroner/medical examiner
    state
    university
    Secret Service
    FBI
    ATF
What keeps crime labs the
busiest?
1.   Drugs
2.   DNA

				
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