INTERNAL-GRINDING-IN-LATHE

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					ABSTRACT




                              ABSTRACT

It is made upo of mild steel material.   The base of machine is holed

centrally and it is attached with compound rest of lathe.   The motor is

engaged with base plate. The whole construction of machine is placed on
the base plate. The base plate is drilled centrally, and attached with the

compound rest of lathe.

      The grinding tool is screwed to the main spindle which is driven

through the V belt drive transmission from the motor. This motor with the

belt drive mechanism is mounted in base plate.

      The job to be ground is fixed in the lathe chuck. The chuck will be

rotated at the front side. The swivel base is fixed over the tool post. The

feed is given by carriage at the same time the depth of cut is given by

swivel base by moving the cross slide.

      The stone is fixed in the spindle and rotated by motor. The saddle

is moved from the metal removing operation in the job.




                     (V)
              LIST OF TABLES


CHAPTER NO.        TITLE          PAGE NO.

5.1           List of materials    13

6.1           Cost Estimation      15




              vi
                      LIST OF FIGURES
CHAPTER NO.                 TITLE              PAGE NO.
6.1           Plummer block                     16
6.2           Inspection before installation    17
6.3           Plummer block assembly            21
6.4           lathe                             22




                           vii




                           TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER NO.                 TITLE
                            PAGE NO.
                 ABSTRACT                                                v

                 LIST OF TABLES                                          vi

                 LIST OF FIGURES                                         vii


    1.       INTRODUCTION                                                1

    1.1          Grinding is mainly used for the following

                 process:

    1.2          Manufacture of grinding wheel

    1.3      Precautions before selection of the project.


    2.       LITERATURE REVIEW                                   4
             2.1     Concept of the project                          4
             2.2      Project capacity                               4

           2.3     Design and drawing                        4

            2.4      Material requirement                            5

            2.5 Operation planning                                   5

            2.6       Machine loading                                5

            2 .7      Purchase consideration                     5

            2.8       Equipment procedure                        6

3           FABRICATION OF PART DETAILS                          8

            3.1         Bed                                      8

            3.1.1       Machine vice                             8

            3.1.2       Swivel base                              8

            3.2         Tools                                    8

            3.2.1       Grinding stone                           8



4         MECHANISM OF GRINDING ATTACHEMENT 10

5         LIST OF MATERIALS                                      12

6         COST ESTIMATION                                        14
    6.1 Plummer block                              15

          6.2 Handling the Plummer block and bearing 16

    6.2.1 Inspection before installation            16

    6.2.2 Preparation for installing the bearing    18

    6.3     Plummer block assembly                  20

    6.4     Lathe                                   21

7   CONCLUSION                                      23




          Chapter-1
INTRODUCTION




Chapter -1

1. INTRODUCTION
      Grinding can also be considered as a machining process.             It is a

process of Removing metal, but comparatively in smaller volume.

Grinding means to wear away be “friction” or “ to sharpen”. In grinding,

the material is removed by means of a rotating abrasive wheel. The action

grinding wheel is very similar to that of a milling cutter.

      The wheel is made up of a large number of cutting tools constituted

by projected abrasive particles in the grinding wheel.        Elongated metal

chips varying in size from 0.4 to 0.8 mm. can be seen by examing the

material removed under the microscope.

1.1 GRINDING IS MAINLY USED FOR THE FOLLOWING

PROCESS:

      I.    To remove a very small amount metal from the work piece

            to bring its dimension within very close tolerances after

            all the rough finishing and heat treatment operation have

            been carried out.

      II.   It is sometimees used to obtain better finish on the surface.

      III. Sometimes it is used for machining those hard surfaces

            which are otherwise difficult to be machined by the high

            speed steel tools or carbide cutters.

      IV It is also used for sharpening the cutting tools.

      V     It is also used for grinding threads in order to have close

            Tolerances and better finish.

       VI. Sometimes it is also applied for higher material removal

            rates (abrasive machining).



1.2 MANUFACTURE OF GRINDING WHEEL


                                       2
      1.    The abrasive particles are first crushed to powder form

            and passed over magnetic separators for removing iron

            impurties.

      II.   These are then washed with water to remove foreign

            elements like dust or impurity and then with chemical

            compound to remove grease.

      III. The particles are then graded according to their grain size

            passing through proper sieves.

      IV. Abrasive particles are then mixed with proper bonding

            material.

      V.    After drying, it is baked (heating depends upon process

            used). After baking the binding material becomes set and

            holds the particles together.

      VI. It is then cut and given final shape.

      VII. Lastly it is tested for crackers, leakage and balance.

1.3 PRECAUTION BEFORE SELECTION OF THE PROJECT

      Before rushing out of buy the material for the component first

determine the Size of material required for lathe. Obviously the first thing

to look at is whether lathe having easier provisions to attach the

attachment or what extent we modify this.         If the lathe having easier

provision for fit the attachment and then try.




                                       3
  Chapter: 2




 Project
planning


  Chapter : 2



          4
                       PROJECT PLANNING


2.1 CONCEPT OF THE PROJECT



      Before starting every project its planning is to be done. Planning a

project is a very important task and should be taken up with great care as

the efficiency of the whole project largely depends upon its planning,

while planning a project each and every detail should be worked out in

anticipation should be carefully considered with all the relative provisions

aspects.



2.2PROJECT CAPACITY

      The capacity of the project must be decided considering the amount

of money which can be invested. The availability of material and machines

and usefulness of the project.

2.3 DESIGN AND DRAWING

                          Having   decided     about   the   project   to   be

manufactured at must be designed.        Design work should be done very

considering all the relevant factors.     After design the project detailed

drawing are prepared.     Detailed Specification for raw       material and

finished products should be decided carefu lly along with the specification

of the machine required for the manufacture.




2.4 MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS




                                     5
       The list of material required for manufacture is prepared from the

drawing. The list is known as “Bill of materials”. Availability of these

materials is surveyed and purchased from the market.

2.5 OPERATION PLANNING

       Next work of planning is to “select the best method” manufacture

the product, so that the wastage of materials, labor, machines and time can

be eliminated by considering various methods. The best method is to be

selected for fabrication and other works. The proper method and proper

person and the purposes of operation, necessity operation, proper machine

planning. The best method is the developmed and is applied to fabricate

the project.



2.6 MACHINE LOADING

       While planning proper care should be taken to find the machining

time for the operation as correct as possible. So that arrangement of full

use of machines can be made and the machine loading program can be

decided.

2.7 PURCHASE CONSIDERATION

       It is difficult to manufacture all the components needed for the

project in the machine shop. In each case, we should decide whether to

make or buy about a particular item.     It is decide d during the planning

after making a complete study of relative merits and demertis.




2.8 EQUIPMENT PROCEDURE


                                     6
      Results obtained from “Operation planning: and machine loading

help in calculating the equipment require Specification of the equipment

should be laid down by considering then drawings.      Drawings will also

help in deciding the necessary requirement of tools and accessories.




                                    7
   Chapter-3


FABRICATION
  DETAILS




    Chapter :3

         8
                   FABRICATION DETAILS
3. FABRICATION OF PARTS DETAILS

3.1 BED

      It is made up of mild steel material. The base of machine is holed

centrally and its attached with compound rest of lathe.     The motor is

engaged with base plate. All the parts for milling attachment are mounted

on base plate or bed.

3.1.1. MACHINE VICE

      The machine vice is used to hold the job. It is attached with the

swivel base. It is made up of cast iron.

3.1.2 SWIVEL BASE

      The swivel base is fixed with L-angel. It is used to fix the machine

vice and used to change the angel for machining. It moves up -and down

wards direction feel is given.

3.2 TOOLS

3.2.1 GRINDING STONE

      The stone is fixed in the spindle and rotated by motor. The saddle

is moved from the metal removing operation in me job.




                                     9
               Chapter:4




MECHANISM OF
  GRINDING




4. MECHANISM OF GRINDING ATTACHMENT

                        10
      The whole construction of machine is placed on the base plate. The

base plate is drilled centrally, is attached with the compound rest of lathe.

The tool is fixed in the chuck. The chuck will be rotated at the front side

the swivel base is fixed over the tool post. In the swivel base the machine

vice is fixed on the front. The job is fixed on the machin e vice. The feed

is given by carriage at the same time the depth time the depth of cut is

given by swivel base by moving up-wards The grinding attachment in the

used for key way cutting in the shaft.




                                     11
            CHAPTER:5



     LIST
      OF
   MATERIALS




5.LIST OF MATERIALS


                      12
S.NO      COMPONENT                MATERIAL   QUANTITY NO.

 1     L.ANGLE                    CAST IRON        1

 2     PLUMBER BLOCK              CAST IRON        4

 3     PULLEY                     CAST IRON        2

 4     SPINDLE(SHAFT)             CAST IRON        1

 5     END GRINDING               ABRASIVE         2

       STONE



                 Table 5.1




               Chapter:6
                             13
   COST
ESTIMATION




    14
6.COST ESTIMATION



S.NO     COMPONENT      MATERIAL   QUANTITY   COST

1        L-ANGLE        CAST IRON 1           50

2        MOTOR          -          1          1000

3        GRINDING       ABRASIVE   1          50

         STONE

4        V-BELT         ABRASIVE   1          50

5        PLUMBER        CAST IRON 2           400

         BLOCK

6        SPINDLE        CAST IRON 1           300

         (SHAFT)

7        BOLDS&NUTS CAST IRON -               50

8        PULLEYS        HSS        2          100

9        PAINT          -          ILT        150

10       GURD(SIDE)     HSS        1          250

                                   TOTAL      2400



                      Table 6.1




                            15
6.1 PLUMMER BLOCK




               Figure 6.1




                            16
6.2 HANDLING THE PLUMMER BLOCK AND BEARING

        Rolling bearings are precision components.            To maintain

accuracies, they must be handled very carefully. In particulars, they

must be kept clean, not be subjected to long impact, and be protected

against possible rusting.Plummer blocks also need similar handling

practices.

6.2.1 INSPECTION BEFORE INSTALLATION

        Before installation a bearing and a plummer block, the

blowing point must be thoroughly checked and inspected.




                     Figure 6.2

INSPECTION BEFORE INSTALLATION

* Prepare installation tools, measured instruments, oil stone, lubricant

and factory cloth. Before the installation work, remove dust and im

purities from these tools.




                                     17
* Make Sure that the shaft is free from from bends or other damages

and that it has been dimensioned and formed as a specified.




* Remove dent marks even thro ugh very small from the mating faces

  with an oil stone or fine emery paper. Check that the contact face to

  the seal has specified surface roughness. Wipe dust away from the

  shaft with clean factory cloth.

* Remove possible dust and metal chips fro m the inside of plumber

  block.




                                    18
                              Figure 6.3

* Check the flatness of the mounting face of the plummer block. When

placed on a frame, the plummer block must be stably seated.



6.2.2. PREPARATION FOR INSTALLING THE BEARING

* Unpack the bearing just before the installation work.

* If the bearing is to be grease-lubricated, the rust-proof coating on it

 may remain un removed. If it is to be oil -lubricated, remove the

 coating with benzene or kerosene.




                                      19
          Figure 6.4




6.3 PLUMMER BLOCK ASSEMBLY




                       Figure 6.5




                                20
6.4 LATHE




                 Figure 6.6




            Chapter:7




CONCLUSION
                     21
7. CONCLUSION

         We are fitting the grinding attachment in the center lathe to enable the

machine to perform one additional operation. At present this attachment is purely

operated and controlled by means of mechanical and manual. The present

made can eliminate the rescue work of the operator and make a way to semi-

skilled operator can also perform the counter making operation and at the same

time increase the productivity of the ame machine. We present out idea

for mechanism in manual namely “Grinding Attachment” has been completed

successfully to our entire satisfaction. While processing his project, we happen to

visit number of libraries and industries to collect information.      We got an

opportunity to meet a few experienced people in this field.                  This

experience have also enriched our knowledge both the erotically and



                                        22
practically creating confidence. This would be useful in my future span of

life.




                          REFERENCES



METAL FORMING PROCESS             :        R.S.KHURMI

MANUFACTURING PROCESS :                    K.RAMACHANDRAN

MACHINE DRAWING                   :        BUTT.




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