It is made upo of mild steel material. The base of machine is holed
centrally and it is attached with compound rest of lathe. The motor is
engaged with base plate. The whole construction of machine is placed on
the base plate. The base plate is drilled centrally, and attached with the
compound rest of lathe.
The grinding tool is screwed to the main spindle which is driven
through the V belt drive transmission from the motor. This motor with the
belt drive mechanism is mounted in base plate.
The job to be ground is fixed in the lathe chuck. The chuck will be
rotated at the front side. The swivel base is fixed over the tool post. The
feed is given by carriage at the same time the depth of cut is given by
swivel base by moving the cross slide.
The stone is fixed in the spindle and rotated by motor. The saddle
is moved from the metal removing operation in the job.
LIST OF TABLES
CHAPTER NO. TITLE PAGE NO.
5.1 List of materials 13
6.1 Cost Estimation 15
LIST OF FIGURES
CHAPTER NO. TITLE PAGE NO.
6.1 Plummer block 16
6.2 Inspection before installation 17
6.3 Plummer block assembly 21
6.4 lathe 22
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER NO. TITLE
LIST OF TABLES vi
LIST OF FIGURES vii
1. INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Grinding is mainly used for the following
1.2 Manufacture of grinding wheel
1.3 Precautions before selection of the project.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW 4
2.1 Concept of the project 4
2.2 Project capacity 4
2.3 Design and drawing 4
2.4 Material requirement 5
2.5 Operation planning 5
2.6 Machine loading 5
2 .7 Purchase consideration 5
2.8 Equipment procedure 6
3 FABRICATION OF PART DETAILS 8
3.1 Bed 8
3.1.1 Machine vice 8
3.1.2 Swivel base 8
3.2 Tools 8
3.2.1 Grinding stone 8
4 MECHANISM OF GRINDING ATTACHEMENT 10
5 LIST OF MATERIALS 12
6 COST ESTIMATION 14
6.1 Plummer block 15
6.2 Handling the Plummer block and bearing 16
6.2.1 Inspection before installation 16
6.2.2 Preparation for installing the bearing 18
6.3 Plummer block assembly 20
6.4 Lathe 21
7 CONCLUSION 23
Grinding can also be considered as a machining process. It is a
process of Removing metal, but comparatively in smaller volume.
Grinding means to wear away be “friction” or “ to sharpen”. In grinding,
the material is removed by means of a rotating abrasive wheel. The action
grinding wheel is very similar to that of a milling cutter.
The wheel is made up of a large number of cutting tools constituted
by projected abrasive particles in the grinding wheel. Elongated metal
chips varying in size from 0.4 to 0.8 mm. can be seen by examing the
material removed under the microscope.
1.1 GRINDING IS MAINLY USED FOR THE FOLLOWING
I. To remove a very small amount metal from the work piece
to bring its dimension within very close tolerances after
all the rough finishing and heat treatment operation have
been carried out.
II. It is sometimees used to obtain better finish on the surface.
III. Sometimes it is used for machining those hard surfaces
which are otherwise difficult to be machined by the high
speed steel tools or carbide cutters.
IV It is also used for sharpening the cutting tools.
V It is also used for grinding threads in order to have close
Tolerances and better finish.
VI. Sometimes it is also applied for higher material removal
rates (abrasive machining).
1.2 MANUFACTURE OF GRINDING WHEEL
1. The abrasive particles are first crushed to powder form
and passed over magnetic separators for removing iron
II. These are then washed with water to remove foreign
elements like dust or impurity and then with chemical
compound to remove grease.
III. The particles are then graded according to their grain size
passing through proper sieves.
IV. Abrasive particles are then mixed with proper bonding
V. After drying, it is baked (heating depends upon process
used). After baking the binding material becomes set and
holds the particles together.
VI. It is then cut and given final shape.
VII. Lastly it is tested for crackers, leakage and balance.
1.3 PRECAUTION BEFORE SELECTION OF THE PROJECT
Before rushing out of buy the material for the component first
determine the Size of material required for lathe. Obviously the first thing
to look at is whether lathe having easier provisions to attach the
attachment or what extent we modify this. If the lathe having easier
provision for fit the attachment and then try.
Chapter : 2
2.1 CONCEPT OF THE PROJECT
Before starting every project its planning is to be done. Planning a
project is a very important task and should be taken up with great care as
the efficiency of the whole project largely depends upon its planning,
while planning a project each and every detail should be worked out in
anticipation should be carefully considered with all the relative provisions
The capacity of the project must be decided considering the amount
of money which can be invested. The availability of material and machines
and usefulness of the project.
2.3 DESIGN AND DRAWING
Having decided about the project to be
manufactured at must be designed. Design work should be done very
considering all the relevant factors. After design the project detailed
drawing are prepared. Detailed Specification for raw material and
finished products should be decided carefu lly along with the specification
of the machine required for the manufacture.
2.4 MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
The list of material required for manufacture is prepared from the
drawing. The list is known as “Bill of materials”. Availability of these
materials is surveyed and purchased from the market.
2.5 OPERATION PLANNING
Next work of planning is to “select the best method” manufacture
the product, so that the wastage of materials, labor, machines and time can
be eliminated by considering various methods. The best method is to be
selected for fabrication and other works. The proper method and proper
person and the purposes of operation, necessity operation, proper machine
planning. The best method is the developmed and is applied to fabricate
2.6 MACHINE LOADING
While planning proper care should be taken to find the machining
time for the operation as correct as possible. So that arrangement of full
use of machines can be made and the machine loading program can be
2.7 PURCHASE CONSIDERATION
It is difficult to manufacture all the components needed for the
project in the machine shop. In each case, we should decide whether to
make or buy about a particular item. It is decide d during the planning
after making a complete study of relative merits and demertis.
2.8 EQUIPMENT PROCEDURE
Results obtained from “Operation planning: and machine loading
help in calculating the equipment require Specification of the equipment
should be laid down by considering then drawings. Drawings will also
help in deciding the necessary requirement of tools and accessories.
3. FABRICATION OF PARTS DETAILS
It is made up of mild steel material. The base of machine is holed
centrally and its attached with compound rest of lathe. The motor is
engaged with base plate. All the parts for milling attachment are mounted
on base plate or bed.
3.1.1. MACHINE VICE
The machine vice is used to hold the job. It is attached with the
swivel base. It is made up of cast iron.
3.1.2 SWIVEL BASE
The swivel base is fixed with L-angel. It is used to fix the machine
vice and used to change the angel for machining. It moves up -and down
wards direction feel is given.
3.2.1 GRINDING STONE
The stone is fixed in the spindle and rotated by motor. The saddle
is moved from the metal removing operation in me job.
4. MECHANISM OF GRINDING ATTACHMENT
The whole construction of machine is placed on the base plate. The
base plate is drilled centrally, is attached with the compound rest of lathe.
The tool is fixed in the chuck. The chuck will be rotated at the front side
the swivel base is fixed over the tool post. In the swivel base the machine
vice is fixed on the front. The job is fixed on the machin e vice. The feed
is given by carriage at the same time the depth time the depth of cut is
given by swivel base by moving up-wards The grinding attachment in the
used for key way cutting in the shaft.
5.LIST OF MATERIALS
S.NO COMPONENT MATERIAL QUANTITY NO.
1 L.ANGLE CAST IRON 1
2 PLUMBER BLOCK CAST IRON 4
3 PULLEY CAST IRON 2
4 SPINDLE(SHAFT) CAST IRON 1
5 END GRINDING ABRASIVE 2
S.NO COMPONENT MATERIAL QUANTITY COST
1 L-ANGLE CAST IRON 1 50
2 MOTOR - 1 1000
3 GRINDING ABRASIVE 1 50
4 V-BELT ABRASIVE 1 50
5 PLUMBER CAST IRON 2 400
6 SPINDLE CAST IRON 1 300
7 BOLDS&NUTS CAST IRON - 50
8 PULLEYS HSS 2 100
9 PAINT - ILT 150
10 GURD(SIDE) HSS 1 250
6.1 PLUMMER BLOCK
6.2 HANDLING THE PLUMMER BLOCK AND BEARING
Rolling bearings are precision components. To maintain
accuracies, they must be handled very carefully. In particulars, they
must be kept clean, not be subjected to long impact, and be protected
against possible rusting.Plummer blocks also need similar handling
6.2.1 INSPECTION BEFORE INSTALLATION
Before installation a bearing and a plummer block, the
blowing point must be thoroughly checked and inspected.
INSPECTION BEFORE INSTALLATION
* Prepare installation tools, measured instruments, oil stone, lubricant
and factory cloth. Before the installation work, remove dust and im
purities from these tools.
* Make Sure that the shaft is free from from bends or other damages
and that it has been dimensioned and formed as a specified.
* Remove dent marks even thro ugh very small from the mating faces
with an oil stone or fine emery paper. Check that the contact face to
the seal has specified surface roughness. Wipe dust away from the
shaft with clean factory cloth.
* Remove possible dust and metal chips fro m the inside of plumber
* Check the flatness of the mounting face of the plummer block. When
placed on a frame, the plummer block must be stably seated.
6.2.2. PREPARATION FOR INSTALLING THE BEARING
* Unpack the bearing just before the installation work.
* If the bearing is to be grease-lubricated, the rust-proof coating on it
may remain un removed. If it is to be oil -lubricated, remove the
coating with benzene or kerosene.
6.3 PLUMMER BLOCK ASSEMBLY
We are fitting the grinding attachment in the center lathe to enable the
machine to perform one additional operation. At present this attachment is purely
operated and controlled by means of mechanical and manual. The present
made can eliminate the rescue work of the operator and make a way to semi-
skilled operator can also perform the counter making operation and at the same
time increase the productivity of the ame machine. We present out idea
for mechanism in manual namely “Grinding Attachment” has been completed
successfully to our entire satisfaction. While processing his project, we happen to
visit number of libraries and industries to collect information. We got an
opportunity to meet a few experienced people in this field. This
experience have also enriched our knowledge both the erotically and
practically creating confidence. This would be useful in my future span of
METAL FORMING PROCESS : R.S.KHURMI
MANUFACTURING PROCESS : K.RAMACHANDRAN
MACHINE DRAWING : BUTT.