THE PARTICULATE NATURE OF MATTER by dffhrtcv3

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									THE
PARTICULATE
NATURE OF
MATTER
Learning Objectives
      1. Properties of the three states
         of matter

      2. The Kinetic Particle Theory

      3. Explain the change in states
         using the Kinetic Theory and
         the energy involved
Properties of the Three States of Matter
         All matter has mass and occupies space

              Solids           Liquids          Gases

Shape         Fixed shape      No fixed shape. No fixed shape.
                               Takes the shape Takes the shape
                               of its container of its container.

Volume        Fixed volume     Fixed volume     No fixed
                                                volume. Takes
                                                the volume of
                                                its container
Compressible? Incompressible   Incompressible   Very
                                                compressible
The Kinetic Theory
       Why did the three states of matter appear
                         this way?
      The Kinetic Theory suggests that all matter is
       made up of extremely small particles that
                 are in constant motion.
       These particles can be atoms, molecules or
                           ions.
                Solid               Liquid            Gas

Diagram


Arrangement of Packed closely       Packed closely    Far apart in an
particles      in an orderly        in a disorderly   disorderly
               arrangement          arrangement       arrangement

Forces of       Very strong         Strong forces of Weak forces of
attraction      forces of           attraction       attraction
between         attraction
particles
Movement of     Particles vibrate   Particles can    Particles are in
particles       and rotate          move and         random motion
                about fixed         exchange
                positions           positions within
                                    the liquid
Changes in States

      1.   Melting and Freezing
      2.   Boiling and Condensation
      3.   Evaporation
      4.   Sublimation
Changes in States
    Changes in state are due to the particles
    absorbing or losing energy.

    As a substance get heated, it absorbs energy
    and when it cools it loses energy.

                                  Gas
                       Boiling            Condensation
         Energy
         of the                  Liquid
         particles     Melting            Freezing

                                 Solid
Melting

    Melting takes place when the particles in
         a solid absorb enough energy to
       overcome the forces holding them in
    fixed positions and rearrange themselves
                  to form a liquid.


                    Gains energy
Melting
  Temperature
  (oC)                                                  D
    Melting
    point of
                           B               C
    substance

            A



                                                  Time from start (min)
   AB : Substance is in solid state. Particles absorbed heat energy and
   their vibration increases.
   BC : Melting occurs. Substance becomes a mixture of solid and liquid.
   Heat energy absorbed by particles is used to overcome forces of
   attraction between the particles.
   CD : Substance is in liquid state. Heat energy absorbed by particles
   and their kinetic energy increases. Temperature increases.
Freezing

      Freezing takes place when the liquid
       particles loses energy to rearrange
       themselves to form back the solid
                    structure.



                   Loses energy
Freezing                                                 Freezing point and
                                                         melting point the
  Temperature                                            same temperature for
  (oC)
            A
                                                         the same substance?
    Freezing
    point of            B                      C
    substance
                                                           D



                                                   Time from start (min)
   AB : Substance is in liquid state. Particles loses kinetic energy due to
   cooling.
   BC : Freezing occurs. Substance becomes a mixture of liquid and
   solid. Liquid particles rearrange themselves to form a solid structure
   upon further cooling.
   CD: Substance is in solid state. Particles loses energy upon cooling
   and their vibration decreases. Temperature drops.
Boiling

        Boiling takes place when the liquid
         particles gains enough energy to
        overcome the forces holding them
      together and move apart to form a gas.



                    Gains energy
Boiling
  Temperature
  (oC)

    Boiling                                                D
    point of
    substance             B                    C
             A



                                                   Time from start (min)

   AB : Substance is in liquid state. Particles gain kinetic energy due to
   heating.
   BC : Boiling occurs. Substance becomes a mixture of liquid and gas.
   Liquid particles gain energy to overcome the forces holding them
   together and move apart to form a gas.
   CD: Substance is in gaseous state. Particles gain energy upon further
   heating and move further apart. Temperature increases.
Condensation

     Condensation takes place when the gas
      particles loses energy and move close
     together to reform the liquid structure.




                    Loses energy
Condensation                                           Boiling point and
                                                       condensation point the
  Temperature                                          same temperature for
  (oC)
            A
                                                       the same substance?
 Condensation
 point of               B                      C
 substance
                                                           D



                                                   Time from start (min)

    AB : Substance is in gaseous state. Particles loses kinetic energy due
    to cooling and move closer together.
    BC : Condensation occurs. Substance becomes a mixture of gas and
    liquid. Gas particles loses energy and move close together to
    reform the liquid structure.
    CD: Substance is in liquid state. Particles loses kinetic energy upon
    cooling. Temperature drops.
Heating and Cooling Curves
  Temperature
  (oC)                                                        gas
                                          Boiling
                                                                            Heating
                                      liquid                                Curve
                    Melting

                 solid



   Temperature                                          Time from start (min)
   (oC)
                 gas

                                                                            Cooling
                       Condensation
                                               liquid                       Curve

                                                   Freezing         solid


                                                         Time from start (min)
Evaporation

      Evaporation is a physical process that
          changes a liquid into a gas.

           Boiling              Evaporation
    Occurs at boiling point Occurs at any
                            temperature below
                            boiling point
    Occurs throughout the Occurs only at the
    liquid                  surface of the liquid
    Bubbles observed        No bubbles observed
    Occurs rapidly          Occurs slowly
Sublimation

      Sublimation takes place when a solid
      changes into a gas directly, without
        going through the liquid state.



    Examples:
    •Solid carbon dioxide (dry ice)
    •iodine crystals
    •moth balls
Summary
 Solid particles vibrate about a fixed position
 Liquid particles move about within the liquid
 Gas particles move energetically and apart from each
 other

                       HEATING CURVE
             Melting                       Boiling
 Solid particles vibrate fasterLiquid particles gain kinetic
                               energy
 Gain enough energy to         Gain enough energy to
 overcome forces of attraction overcome forces of attraction
 between particles             between particles
 Rearrange to become liquid Move apart to become gas
                       COOLING CURVE
       Condensation                      Freezing
Gas particles loses kinetic   Liquid particles loses kinetic
energy                        energy
Move close together           Rearrange to form solid
                              structure
Reform liquid structure
               GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION
          Single State       Multiple States (Change in
                                         State)
solid, liquid or gas        solid – liquid, liquid - gas
Increase or decrease in     Temperature remain the
temperature with time       same with time
Curve or straight line      Horizontal line

								
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