# THE PARTICULATE NATURE OF MATTER by dffhrtcv3

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```									THE
PARTICULATE
NATURE OF
MATTER
Learning Objectives
1. Properties of the three states
of matter

2. The Kinetic Particle Theory

3. Explain the change in states
using the Kinetic Theory and
the energy involved
Properties of the Three States of Matter
All matter has mass and occupies space

Solids           Liquids          Gases

Shape         Fixed shape      No fixed shape. No fixed shape.
Takes the shape Takes the shape
of its container of its container.

Volume        Fixed volume     Fixed volume     No fixed
volume. Takes
the volume of
its container
Compressible? Incompressible   Incompressible   Very
compressible
The Kinetic Theory
Why did the three states of matter appear
this way?
The Kinetic Theory suggests that all matter is
made up of extremely small particles that
are in constant motion.
These particles can be atoms, molecules or
ions.
Solid               Liquid            Gas

Diagram

Arrangement of Packed closely       Packed closely    Far apart in an
particles      in an orderly        in a disorderly   disorderly
arrangement          arrangement       arrangement

Forces of       Very strong         Strong forces of Weak forces of
attraction      forces of           attraction       attraction
between         attraction
particles
Movement of     Particles vibrate   Particles can    Particles are in
particles       and rotate          move and         random motion
positions           positions within
the liquid
Changes in States

1.   Melting and Freezing
2.   Boiling and Condensation
3.   Evaporation
4.   Sublimation
Changes in States
Changes in state are due to the particles
absorbing or losing energy.

As a substance get heated, it absorbs energy
and when it cools it loses energy.

Gas
Boiling            Condensation
Energy
of the                  Liquid
particles     Melting            Freezing

Solid
Melting

Melting takes place when the particles in
a solid absorb enough energy to
overcome the forces holding them in
fixed positions and rearrange themselves
to form a liquid.

Gains energy
Melting
Temperature
(oC)                                                  D
Melting
point of
B               C
substance

A

Time from start (min)
AB : Substance is in solid state. Particles absorbed heat energy and
their vibration increases.
BC : Melting occurs. Substance becomes a mixture of solid and liquid.
Heat energy absorbed by particles is used to overcome forces of
attraction between the particles.
CD : Substance is in liquid state. Heat energy absorbed by particles
and their kinetic energy increases. Temperature increases.
Freezing

Freezing takes place when the liquid
particles loses energy to rearrange
themselves to form back the solid
structure.

Loses energy
Freezing                                                 Freezing point and
melting point the
Temperature                                            same temperature for
(oC)
A
the same substance?
Freezing
point of            B                      C
substance
D

Time from start (min)
AB : Substance is in liquid state. Particles loses kinetic energy due to
cooling.
BC : Freezing occurs. Substance becomes a mixture of liquid and
solid. Liquid particles rearrange themselves to form a solid structure
upon further cooling.
CD: Substance is in solid state. Particles loses energy upon cooling
and their vibration decreases. Temperature drops.
Boiling

Boiling takes place when the liquid
particles gains enough energy to
overcome the forces holding them
together and move apart to form a gas.

Gains energy
Boiling
Temperature
(oC)

Boiling                                                D
point of
substance             B                    C
A

Time from start (min)

AB : Substance is in liquid state. Particles gain kinetic energy due to
heating.
BC : Boiling occurs. Substance becomes a mixture of liquid and gas.
Liquid particles gain energy to overcome the forces holding them
together and move apart to form a gas.
CD: Substance is in gaseous state. Particles gain energy upon further
heating and move further apart. Temperature increases.
Condensation

Condensation takes place when the gas
particles loses energy and move close
together to reform the liquid structure.

Loses energy
Condensation                                           Boiling point and
condensation point the
Temperature                                          same temperature for
(oC)
A
the same substance?
Condensation
point of               B                      C
substance
D

Time from start (min)

AB : Substance is in gaseous state. Particles loses kinetic energy due
to cooling and move closer together.
BC : Condensation occurs. Substance becomes a mixture of gas and
liquid. Gas particles loses energy and move close together to
reform the liquid structure.
CD: Substance is in liquid state. Particles loses kinetic energy upon
cooling. Temperature drops.
Heating and Cooling Curves
Temperature
(oC)                                                        gas
Boiling
Heating
liquid                                Curve
Melting

solid

Temperature                                          Time from start (min)
(oC)
gas

Cooling
Condensation
liquid                       Curve

Freezing         solid

Time from start (min)
Evaporation

Evaporation is a physical process that
changes a liquid into a gas.

Boiling              Evaporation
Occurs at boiling point Occurs at any
temperature below
boiling point
Occurs throughout the Occurs only at the
liquid                  surface of the liquid
Bubbles observed        No bubbles observed
Occurs rapidly          Occurs slowly
Sublimation

Sublimation takes place when a solid
changes into a gas directly, without
going through the liquid state.

Examples:
•Solid carbon dioxide (dry ice)
•iodine crystals
•moth balls
Summary
Solid particles vibrate about a fixed position
Liquid particles move about within the liquid
Gas particles move energetically and apart from each
other

HEATING CURVE
Melting                       Boiling
Solid particles vibrate fasterLiquid particles gain kinetic
energy
Gain enough energy to         Gain enough energy to
overcome forces of attraction overcome forces of attraction
between particles             between particles
Rearrange to become liquid Move apart to become gas
COOLING CURVE
Condensation                      Freezing
Gas particles loses kinetic   Liquid particles loses kinetic
energy                        energy
Move close together           Rearrange to form solid
structure
Reform liquid structure
GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION
Single State       Multiple States (Change in
State)
solid, liquid or gas        solid – liquid, liquid - gas
Increase or decrease in     Temperature remain the
temperature with time       same with time
Curve or straight line      Horizontal line

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