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The Disintegration of Yugoslavia


									The Disintegration of
                           Ethnic Map of
                          former Yugoslavia

Political Map of Serbia
• Western Europe =
• Eastern Europe =
  (Greek) Orthodox
• Middle East =
                     Greek Orthodox Church
• Terrorists from the
  Black Hand
  Archduke Franz

• This was the “spark”
  that caused WWI.

• The Allies forced the diverse groups into
  Yugoslavia. The SERBS tended to dominate
  the new government.
       • Yugoslavia was
         attacked by the
         Germans in 1941.
       • Many CROATS saw
         an opportunity for
         revenge and sided
         with the Nazis and
         massacred thousands
         of Serbs.
• During WWII,
  Marshall TITO
  defeated the Nazis.
• He became a dictator
  and later communist.
• His power kept peace
  between the ethnic
• When Tito died in
  1980, ethnic tension
• The economy collapsed, especially in
  Serbia. The Serbs chose to blame the
  Muslim Albanians living in the province of
  KOSOVO - the poorest of the Yugoslavs.
• The Serbs begin “cracking down” on all
  non-Serbian ethnic groups.
• At a meeting to
  determine the future
  of Yugoslavia, Serb
  nationalism promoted
  by Slobodan Milosevic
  prompts the other
  regions to declare
  their independence
  from Yugoslavia.

• The new countries are Yugoslavia, Slovenia,
  Macedonia, Croatia, and Bosnia-
• MILOSEVIC becomes the leader of
  Yugoslavia (mostly Serbian). Bosnian
  Serbs revolt against the Bosnian govt.
  because they do not want to live under a
  Muslim led govt. Civil War begins.
  Serbs are fighting against Bosnian Serbs
  and Croats.
• The United Nations sends peacekeeping
  forces and declares an arms embargo on
  Bosnia: no one may sell or give weapons
  to either side.
• Milosevic ignores
  the embargo and
  gives weapons to
  the Serbs. Serbs
  begin ethnic
  cleansing: getting
  rid of an ethnic
  group by killing
  them or forcing
  them to leave an
• The UN created so-called safe havens in
  1993 and promised to protect the
• The Serbs attacked the safe havens,
  and NATO attacked the Serbs in
• In 1994, the Russian govt. warned that
  they would not support any more attacks
  on Serbs.
• The UN lifts the
  arms embargo.
• Since the war is
  no longer going
  their way, the
  Serbs agree to
  negotiate a cease
• Representatives from Serbs, Croats,
  Bosnians and diplomats from the UN. It is
  now referred to as the Dayton Agreement.
• Bosnia and Herzegovina remains one
• Serbs govern the areas they controlled,
  and the Muslims govern the rest.
• US, British and French troops have been
  sent to Bosnia to enforce the agreement.
                  • In the late 90s the Serbs
                    in Yugoslavia attempted to
                    push out the ethnic Muslim
                    Albanians from the southern
                    province of Kosovo. The
                    local KLA could not resist.

• NATO bombed Yugoslavia from March to June
  of 1999 until the Serbs withdrew.

• Ethnic hatred still runs deep, and some
  Kosovars have retaliated against Serbs.
• On trial for war
  crimes at the UN in
  the Hague,
• Defending himself
  against war crimes:

• Croatia 91-92-crimes against humanity;
  Bosnia 92-95- genocide; Kosovo 99- crimes
  against humanity - 300,000+dead
              Mass graves                        Serb refugees

Kosovar refugees returning
                                                Serb protestors

                              KLA - Kosovo
                             Liberation Army
                             Flags on caskets
• Milosevic lost an election
  for president and then
  was turned over to the
  UN to be tried by the
  people of Yugoslavia in
  return for foreign aide.

• He is still popular with
  many Serbs.                            Kostunica

• Kostunica is the new president of Serbia-
  Montenegro, the new name of Yugoslavia.
      Is conflict inevitable?

      Write a paragraph to
       complete this

      “Conflict in the
        Balkans can/cannot
        be avoided,
        because . . .”

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