Documents
Resources
Learning Center
Upload
Plans & pricing Sign in
Sign Out

SYNCHRONIZATION

VIEWS: 5 PAGES: 11

									INFORMATION SUPERIORITY WORKSHOP II
          Focus on Metrics


           Working Group 4
       Focus on Synchronization
         Introductory Material

              D. Signori
              D. Anhalt

           March 28, 29 2000
                                  1   R
  CHARGE TO THE SYNCHRONIZATION
         WORKING GROUP
• Explore Synchronization
        The essential aspects of synchronization
        Significance in military operations
        Means of achieving synchronization

• Define a spectrum of concepts to achieve synchronization
        Reflect IS capabilities and new operational concepts
        Candidates for experimentation enabled by metrics

• Develop Metrics
        Quality of synchronization
        Implications for C2 Process
        Impact on operational outcome

• Develop output
        Essential concepts
        Hierarchy of measures                                      R
                                                                2
        EXPLORING SYNCHRONIZATION
• What is it? Possible Definition:
    – An output characteristic of a C2 process
    – Facilitates the execution of military operations in a coordinated way
    – Provides maximum effect and with minimum expense of resource

• Why its importance in military operations growing
    – Key to focusing mass, firepower and effects
    – Growing demand for rapid precision application of force
    – Pressure to do more with less

• Why is it becoming difficult to improve synchronization in military operations
    – Large numbers of physical entities          – Trend toward distributed operations
    – Many degrees of freedom                     – Less tolerance to enemy countermeasures
    – Increasing speed and precision              – Limits to centralized control

• How can information superiority help achieve improved synchronization
    – Increased richness of information enables high precision
    – Increased reach of information enables more entities to be influenced
    – Potential to focus complex behavior through wide spread sharing of awareness/intent
                                                                                      3   R
  CONCEPTS RELATED TO SYNCHRONIZATION
  • Delamination of the economy of things and economy of information
      – Things hard to get and hard to use
      – Information hard to get but easy to use thru networking
      – Synchronization involves interface between virtual and real

  • Control Systems
      – Inertia of physical things provide limits to speed of synchronization
      – Plant model in control theory provides description of dynamics
      – Feed back control law determine rate of adaptation and convergence

  • Complex adaptive systems
      – Simple intelligent agents with situation information and rules
      – Agents linked together; e.g., using feed back control structure
      – Self organizing emergent behavior; e.g., swarming

  • Entropy
      – Lack of synchronization seen as disorganization
      – Measures of disorganization have roots in thermodynamics and information theory
      – Probability measures that reflect degree of confidence in state of system

Concepts based in science, mathematics, engineering and the new economy
                                                                  4  R
             CENTRALIZATION/DECENTRALIZATION OF
               AUTHORITY RELEVANT TO A CRISIS
                 PERROW’S AUTHORITY RULES
                                                    Interactions
      Linear                                                                                     Complex
      CENTRALIZATION for tight coupling.                  CENTRALIZATION to cope with tight coupling
      CENTRALIZATION compatible with linear               (unquestioned obedience, immediate response).
  T   interactions (expected, visible)                    DECENTRALIZATION to cope with unplanned
  i   Dams, power grids, some continuous processing,      interactions of failures (careful, slow search by
                rail and marine transport                 those closet to subsystems).
  g
                                                           Nuclear plants, weapons; DNA, chemical plants,
  h                                                                    aircraft, space missions
C t
o
u                                                     1     2
p                                                     3     4
l                                                                 DECENTRALIZATION for complex
      CENTRALIZATION or                                    interactions desirable.
i     DECENTRALIZATION possible. Few complex
  L   interactions; component failure accidents can be     DECENTRALIZATION for loose coupling desirable
n                                                          (allows people to devise indigenous substitutions
  o   handled from above or below. Tastes of elites and
g     tradition determine structure.                          and alternative paths), since system accident
  o                                                                             possible.
                  Most manufacturing, trade
  s             schools, single-goal agencies               Mining, R&D firms, multi-goal agencies (welfare,
  e              (motor vehicles, post office).                       DOE, OMB), universities.

                                                                                                       5      R
       A SPECTRUM OF C2 OPTIONS FOR ACHIEVING
                 SYNCHRONIZATION
Nonlinearity Spectrum


 Equilibrium            Mildly Complex              Complex         Chaos


Perrow Quadrants (Interactions/Coupling and Centralization/Decentralization
1               3                   4                   2
Linear/Tight      Linear/Loose        Complex/Loose       Complex/Tight

 Centralized            Either           Decentralized          Neither

C2 Structural Options
                                                 Self
 Fully             Guidance/      Bid-A-Task                          No
                                                 Organizing
 Centralized       Autonomy                                           Organi-
                                                                      zation
                                                 Request/Bids

Historical Military Emphasis        Emerging E-commerce Emphasis
                                                                      6   R
              Some Structural Options for C2
Fully Centralized              Guidance/Autonomy
                    Strategy


           CMD CENTER                     COMMANDER




Bid-A-Task                     Self Organizing (Requests/Bids)

        CMD Center or CMDR
          Task    Mission
         BULLETIN BOARD
                                             Network




                                                                 7   R
     Illustrative Example: Agile Synchronization of Effects


                                                    Action

  Degree of                                     Action
Collaboration         Decision
                                       Action




                                                                           Synchronized


                                                                                          Environment
                                                                              Effects
                                                             Operational
  Degree of      Commanders’ Intent
  Sharing
                 Situation Awareness




                                                    Sensor
  Degree of
                     Knowledge             Sensor
 Integration           Base
                     Component
                                       Sensor

                                                                           8        R
     Illustrative Example: Agile Synchronization Effects
                                                  • Quality of Decisions
    • Extent of Agreement                         • Fraction of Decisions
                                                    based on info vs orders
    • Level of Interaction
                                                                               Action

  Degree of                                                                Action
Collaboration                         Decision
                                                                  Action

    • Consistency
    • Commonality




                                                                                                             Synchronized
                                                            • Degree of Shared Understanding




                                                                                                                            Environment
                                                                                                                Effects
                                                                                               Operational
                                                            • Degree of Understanding
  Degree of                   Commander’s Intent            • Quality of Information
  Sharing
                                  Situation Awareness
                                                            • Accessibility
    • Level of Interoperability                             • Velocity
    • Network Connectivity                                  • Utility

                                                                               Sensor
  Degree of
                                      Knowledge                            Sensor
 Integration                            Base
                                      Component
                                                                   Sensor

                                                                                                             9        R
 TOP LEVEL SYNCHRONIZATION MEASURES
Complexity
   Degree of Nonlinearity
   Tightness of Coupling

Quality
   Correlation/Coherence/Concurrency/ Consistency of
    Behavior of Entities
   Percent of event sequences that mesh in manner consistent
    with Commanders Guidance

Effect
   Timeliness of C2 Cycle   – Effectiveness of Force
   Resources Expended       – Measure of Mission Outcome
                                                         10   R
   SOME ISSUES FOR DISCUSSION

• Focus of Working Group
   Synchronization vs. Organization

• Priorities
   Actual metrics vs. other topics
   Synchronization metric vs other metrics

• Method
   Activities done together
   Activities partioned
               Focus of time and effort?
                                              11   R

								
To top