Stylistic Periods by dffhrtcv3

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									Stylistic Periods
   Introduction




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    Background Information

•   Middle Ages (450-1450)
•   Renaissance (1450-1600)
•   Baroque (1600-1750)
•   Classical (1750-1820)
•   Romantic (1820-1900)
•   Twentieth Century (to 1950)




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              Style
• Characteristic way of treating the
  various musical elements
• We can speak of the musical style of:
• A composer
• Group of composers
• Country
• Period in history

 Similar features of style can be found in
 different arts of the same period.
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General Features of Each Period
  • Function in society-Name them:

  • Entertainment-concert hall, middle class
    home
  • Used to accompany singing, dancing,
    religious rites & drama.

  • What it is created for:
  • Shaped by: political, economic social,
    and intellectual developments
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Medieval Period
    450-1450




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   Historical Background
• Disintegration of the Roman Empire
• 476-Last Roman Emperor lost his
  throne & these centuries of disorder
  became known as the Dark Ages
• After 1000 Europe became more stable-
  Feudal System
• Sharp division between the three main
  social classes: Clergy, Nobility and
  Peasantry
• Important musicians were priests,
  hence the liturgical singing.

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                Religion
• The Medieval King-Monarchs ruled by the idea of
  divine right (king ruled both Crown & Church).
• The Catholic Church was the center of the Medieval
  world.
• Pope (as vicar of God on earth) should have ultimate
  authority over the state. Represented God on earth.
• Sometimes the king or ruler was the highest religious
  leader and sometimes considered divine.
• Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine) the Emperor had
  supreme power over the church.
• Before the advent of Christianity, there was no
  separation between church and state”.
• Conflict between church and state is a Western
  phenomenon


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         Other Events
• 13th century-Inquisition. Established to
  hunt out those who disagreed with the
  teachings of the catholic church—they
  were excommunicated, which
  sometimes meant not just cut off from
  the church—but put to death.
• Catastrophic Event-Black Death (1347-
  1350). Lost 1/3 of the population, mostly
  peasants. Brought to Asia by Italian
  sailors.

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     People of the Time
• Vlad Tepes (1431-1476) Who is this
  man?
• Born in Romania
• Became Prince of one of three
  provinces and lived in a palace.
• His father was inducted into the Order
  of the Dragon (religious society to
  protect the interests of Catholicism, and
  to crusade against the Turks)
• Taken hostage for political reasons in
  1442.

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      Vlad Tepes Dracula
• Released from prison and learned that his father and
  brother had been killed by the boyars of Tirgoviste.
• At 17 he killed his father’s assassin and secured his
  second reign over Wallachia and during the 6 years
  he committed many cruelties, thus establishing his
  reputation.
• Act of revenge: he arrested all the boyar families and
  impaled the older ones on stakes, forced the rest to
  trek for 50 miles, if they survived they were ordered
  to build him a fortress on the ruins of an older
  outpost—now known as Castle Dracula.
• He became known for his brutal punishments,
  favorite was impalement on stakes—hence the
  surname “Tepes” (The Impaler).



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      Two Types of Music
                    Sacred
•   Religious in nature
•   Meant to be performed in the church
•   Based on Latin text
                   Secular
•   Music outside the church
•   Topics included love, dance songs,
    spinning songs, etc
•   Surviving songs written down by clerics

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              Sacred Music
Gregorian Chant
• Official music of the Roman Catholic
• Church for over 1,000 years.
• Represents the voice of the church
• Named after Pope Gregory I who reorganized the Catholic
  liturgy (reign 590-604)
• First passed down by oral tradition

Characteristics:
• Single melodic line
• Monophonic in texture (sung without accompaniment)
• Alternates between soloist and choir
• Sacred Latin texts
• Melody moves stepwise
• Based on modes or church scales
• Free from regular accent
• Flexible rhythms without meter and little sense of beat.


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 Setting Style of the Texts

1. Syllabic: one note to each syllable
2. Neumatic: groups of two to four notes
    per syllable (each group represented
    by a single neume in the original
    notation)
3. Melismatic: single syllable extending
    over longer groups of notes
   #1 - “Alleluia: Vidimus Stellam” (P. 70)


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     Hildegard of Bingen

• 1098-1179. Abbess of Rupertsberg, Germany
• Composer, visionary, mystic—active in
  religious and diplomatic affairs.
• Wrote poetry and music; treatises on
  theology, science, and medicine
• First woman composer whose works
  (monophonic sacred songs) have survived.


      #2 - O successores (Page 72)
         See handout for more information


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             Secular
• 900-Wandering Minstrels (Jongleurs)
  performed music and acrobatics in
  castles, taverns, and town squares
• They had no civil rights, lowest on social
  level with slaves and prostitutes
• 1100-Troubadors-sang about love and
  dance songs.
• Composed by French nobles and
  knights (musical poets)
• Language: Provencal

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        Secular Music
• Estampie (Thirteenth Century)
• Medieval dance, earliest surviving form
  of instrumental music
• In triple meter, with a strong, fast beat.
• Manuscript reflects a single melodic line
  with no instruments specified.
            #3 – Anon: Estampie
                    (p. 74)
     See handout for an overview of
            medieval instruments.
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Romanesque Era (1000-1150)
 • Emergence of polyphony
 • Single most important development in
   western music
 • System for notating rhythm started in
   the 12th and 13th centuries.
 • Mass: Five sung prayers of the Ordinary
   (or public mass)
 • Canon: extended melody stated in one
   part and then strictly imitated in one or
   more parts.

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  Gothic Era (1150-1450)
• Individual composers on the scene
• Rise of cathedrals
• Learned musicians were monks and
  priests
• Earliest kind of polyphonic music was
  called organum
• Organum: consists of Gregorian chant
  and one or more additional melodic
  lines.


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School of Notre Dame (1163)
• Leonin & his successor, Perotin
  (choirmasters) are among the first notable
  composers known by name.
• They and their followers referred to as the
  School of Notre Dame.
• 1170-1200 developed rhythm innovations.
• Used measured rhythm with definite time
  values and clearly defined meter.
• First time in music history – notation indicated
  precise rhythms as well as pitches.



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     Guillame Machaut
• 1300-1377
• Foremost French composer/priest and
  greatest musician of his time.
• Traveled to many courts and presented
  decorated copies of his manuscripts to
  noble patrons—these copies made him
  one of the first composers whose works
  survived.
           #4 – Puis qu’en oubli
    #5 - Notre Dame Mass-best known
          composition (P. 78 & 79)
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      Additional Terms

• Drone - long sustained tone or tones
  accompanying a melody. (Hildegard-O
  Successores
• Cantus Firmus – (fixed melody)
  Composer added one, two or three
  countermelodies of his own creativity.
  Latin text.



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               Ars Nova
• Secular music started becoming more important than
  sacred music
• 14th century was an age of disintegration
• (Hundred’s Years” War, Plague, weakening of the
  Feudal system)
• Composers wrote polyphonic music not based on
  chants. (drinking songs, and songs in which they
  imitated the sounds of —barking dogs, birdcalls, etc.)
• With the new system of music notation composers
  could specify any rhythmic pattern.
• Beats could be subdivided
• These changes in musical style were so profound
  that the theorists referred to French and Italian music
  as the new art (or Ars Nova, Latin)


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            Instruments
•   STRINGS: Plucked - Psaltery (auto harp)
•   Lute (13th century guitar)
•   Bowed – Rebec
•   Vielle (descendent of violin)
•   Woodwind – Shawm (large medieval oboe)
    double –reed
•   Percussion – Nakers (small kettle drums)
•   Tabor
•   Cymbals and bells
•   Hurdy Gurdy- (cranked rectangular box)
    stringed instrument with handle and keys.
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   Keyboard Instruments

• Mainly organs – many men needed to
  pump the giant bellows
• By 1300 there were up to 2,500 pipes or
  more
• Small organs were called positive,
  organetto or portative (they could be
  moved around.)
• Organ – most popular instrument

       See handout for pictures
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   Additional Composers

• Landini, Francesco – (1325-1397)
  Italian organist, blind.
• Dufay (1400-1474) Church music and
  songs, motets. (Mainly considered a
  Renaissance composer.)




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