ELEMENTS AND COMPOUNDS

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ELEMENTS AND COMPOUNDS Powered By Docstoc
					S1 CHEMISTRY
Programme of Learning
Chemical reactions (SCN 3-19a)
           LEARNING OUTCOMES                       SUGGESTED SUCCESS CRITERIA                     CONTENT STATEMENTS                 SUGGESTED L+T RESOURCES AND ACTIVITIES
                                             You can…
 Understand what a chemical reaction is.     Define the term “chemical reaction”.       A chemical reaction is a change which        DEMO: Cast a spell
                                                                                        produces one or more new substances.           Colour change in a chemical reaction

                                             Describe everyday examples of chemical     Everyday chemical reactions include:         KWL GRID: Chemical reactions
                                             reactions.                                       Frying an egg                           Designed to identify pupil
                                                                                              Petrol burning                          preconceptions about chemical
                                             Classify a change as a chemical reaction         …                                       reactions. Students should complete the
                                             or not.                                                                                   first two sections but leave the third
                                                                                                                                       section blank, to be completed at the
                                                                                                                                       end of the Chemical Reactions sub-
                                                                                                                                       topic.

                                                                                                                                     CONCEPT CARTOON: Chemical reactions
                                                                                                                                       An alternative tool to identify student
                                                                                                                                       preconceptions.

                                                                                                                                     INFORMATION SHEET: Chemical reactions
                                                                                                                                     (to save on photocopying costs, this can
                                                                                                                                     be projected onto the front screen)
                                                                                                                                        See suggested approaches to use of
                                                                                                                                        information sheets for examples of how
                                                                                                                                        this can be used

                                                                                                                                     PP: Is it a chemical reaction?
                                                                                                                                        Students should number 1-15 and
                                                                                                                                        suggest where they think what is being
                                                                                                                                        shown on the slide is a chemical
                                                                                                                                        reaction or not


 Know what evidence can be used to           Name three different indicators of         Indicators of chemical reactions are:        EXPERIMENT: Potassium iodide and lead
 identify a change as a chemical reaction.   chemical reactions.                            -   changes in appearance e.g.           nitrate
                                                                                                colour                                   Colour change in a chemical reaction
                                                                                            -   energy change e.g. heat, light,
                                                                                                sound                                DEMO: Traffic lights
                                                                                            -   a new substance formed e.g. solid,     Colour change in a chemical reaction
                                                                                                gas
                                                                                                                                     DEMO: Hot stuff (glycerol and potassium
                                                                                                                                     permanganate)
                                                                                                                                       Heat produced during a chemical
                                                                                                                                       reaction
                                                                                                                                        EXPERIMENT: Displacement reaction of iron
                                                                                                                                        and copper(II) sulphate solution
                                                                                                                                          Heat produced during a chemical
                                                                                                                                          reaction

                                                                                                                                        EXPERIMENT: Burning magnesium
                                                                                                                                          Light produced during a chemical
                                                                                                                                          reaction

                                                                                                                                        DEMO: Cannon fire
                                                                                                                                          Sound produced during a chemical
                                                                                                                                          reaction

                                                                                                                                        AiFL CHEMISTRY: 14. What is a chemical
                                                                                                                                        reaction?


Know what factors can affect the rate of a   Name three factors which can change the      Rates of reaction can be affected by:         INFORMATION SHEET: Rates of reaction
chemical reaction.                           rate of a chemical reaction.                     -   changes in concentration*
                                                                                              -   changes in particle size*             DEMO: Elephant’s toothpaste
                                                                                              -   changes in temperature*                 Effect of concentration on reaction
                                                                                                                                          rate. Use 20 volume and 100 volume
                                             Describe whether increases or decreases in   Increasing concentration increases the          hydrogen peroxide.
                                             these factors results in an increase or      rate of a chemical reaction.
                                             decrease in the rate of a chemical                                                         EXPERIMENT: Rhubarb
                                             reaction.                                    Decreasing particle size increases the rate     Effect of particle size on reaction rate
                                                                                          of a chemical reaction.
                                                                                                                                        EXPERIMENT: Starch / iodine clock reaction
                                                                                          Increasing temperature increases the rate       Effect of temperature on reaction rate
                                                                                          of a chemical reaction.


                                             Describe two examples of situations          Everyday examples of situations involving
                                             involving changes of reaction rate in        changes of reaction rate include:
                                             everyday life.                                     …
                                                                                                …
                                                                                                …

                                                                                                                                        HOMEWORK: KU 1
Extension (SCN 3-19a)

 Understand what a catalyst is.              Define the term “catalyst”.                  Catalysts are substances which increase        CONCEPT CARTOON: Catalysts
                                                                                          the rate of a chemical reaction without
                                             Identify a substance as a catalyst.          themselves being used up in the reaction.


 Know examples of lab situations involving   Describe two examples of lab situations      Examples of lab situations involving           DEMO: Rochelle salt
 catalysts.                                  involving catalysts, including:              catalysts include:
                                                     the name of the catalyst                    Rochelle salt in the reaction of      AiFL CHEMISTRY: 9. What are chemical
                                                     names of the reactants                       calcium chloride and hydrogen         reaction used for?
                                                     what evidence suggested the                  peroxide. The rate of production of
                                                      catalyst was working                         bubbles (oxygen gas) dramatically
                                                                                                   increases on the addition of
                                                                                                   Rochelle salt to the reaction
                                                                                                   mixture.
                                                                                                  …


 Know examples of everyday situations        Describe two examples of everyday            Examples of everyday situations involving
 involving catalysts.                        situations involving catalysts, including:   catalysts include:
                                                     the name of the catalyst                    Palladium, rhodium or platinum
                                                     a description of the process that            metal in car exhaust systems
                                                      the catalyst catalyses                       (catalytic converters) which speed
                                                                                                   up the reaction of harmful gases
                                                                                                   into less harmful gases.
                                                                                                  …
Models of matter (SCN 3-05a)
           LEARNING OUTCOMES                          SUGGESTED SUCCESS CRITERIA                          CONTENT STATEMENTS                     SUGGESTED L+T RESOURCES AND ACTIVITIES
                                                I can…
 Understand what is meant by “the three         Name the three states of matter.               There are three states of matter: solid, liquid   PP: Solid, liquid or gas?
 states of matter”.                                                                            and gas.
                                                Identify in which state a substance is given
                                                its name.


 Know the characteristic physical properties    Describe the physical properties of each of    Solids have a fixed shape, fixed volume           DEMO: Compression of solids, liquids and
 of each of the three states of matter.         the three states of matter in terms of their   and do not flow; liquids do not have a            gases.
                                                ability to:                                    fixed, have a fixed volume and can flow;            Use syringes with plasticine, water and
                                                         change shape                         gases do not have a fixed shape or volume           air.
                                                         change volume                        and can flow.
                                                         flow                                                                                   EXPERIMENT: Cornflour slime

                                                                                                                                                 EXPERIMENT: Producing, collecting and
                                                                                                                                                 testing for hydrogen (to investigate the
                                                                                                                                                 behaviour of gases).
                                                                                                                                                    Students should produce two test tubes
                                                                                                                                                    and invert each in opposite directions
                                                                                                                                                    before testing for hydrogen. The aim is
                                                                                                                                                    to demonstrate that gases change
                                                                                                                                                    volume.

                                                                                                                                                 DEMO: Producing, collecting and
                                                                                                                                                 “pouring” carbon dioxide onto a tea light
                                                                                                                                                 to extinguish it.


 Understand the structure of the three states   Describe the common feature of the three       Everything in the world (solid, liquid or gas)    AiFL CHEMISTRY: 13. What is stuff made of?
 of matter.                                     states of matter.                              is made up of tiny particles.
                                                                                                                                                 AiFL CHEMISTRY: 10. Particle models – gas,
                                                Describe the arrangement and movement          In solids, the particles are very tightly         liquid, solid
                                                of particles in each of the three states of    packed in a regular arrangement. The
                                                matter in terms of:                            particles vibrate.
                                                        How close the particles are
                                                         together                              In liquids, the particles are tightly packed in
                                                        Whether the particles are             an irregular arrangement. The particles
                                                         arranged in rows or are randomly      vibrate and can move within the irregular
                                                         arranged                              arrangement.
                                                        Speed of vibration
                                                        Whether or not they are able to       In gases, the particles are separated as far
                                                         move freely                           as possible from each other. The particles
                                                                                               vibrate and move freely.


 Understand how energy affects the state        Name the term used to describe changes         The state changes are:                            PP: Melting and freezing examples
 of a substance.                                of state from:                                         melting (solid → liquid)
                                           solid → liquid                                 boiling (liquid → gas)                 EXPERIMENT: Making a candle
                                           liquid → gas                                   condensing (gas → liquid)                 Explores melting and freezing of wax.
                                           gas → liquid                                   freezing (liquid → solid)
                                           liquid → solid                                                                         EXPERIMENT: Rate of evaporation

                                    Understand what “evaporating” is.              Evaporating is a special case of boiling        CONCEPT CARTOON: Lemonade
                                                                                   that occurs below the boiling point.              Explores condensation.

                                                                                                                                   CONCEPT CARTOON: Condensation
                                    State whether each of these state changes      Melting and boiling/evaporating require
                                    require heat energy in or remove energy        heat energy; condensing and freezing            AiFL CHEMISTRY: 16. What happens when a
                                    out.                                           remove heat energy.                             substance changes state?

                                    Understand what is meant by the “melting       The melting point of a substance is the         CARD SORT: Particles card sort
                                    point” and “boiling point” of a substance.     temperature at which it melts. Different
                                                                                   substances melt at different temperatures.

                                                                                   The boiling point of a substance is the
                                                                                   temperature at which it boils. Different
                                                                                   substances boil at different temperatures.


Know examples of changes of state   Describe the three different stages of the     The water cycle involves liquid water from      ACTIVITY: Cartoon strip sequence – water
occurring in nature.                water cycle, including:                        the sea, rivers and lakes evaporating to        cycle
                                           the starting and finishing state of    become gaseous water. This rises up, cools
                                            water at each stage                    down (removes heat energy) and
                                           the term used to describe this state   condenses into liquid water in clouds. This
                                            change.                                liquid water eventually falls as rain and the
                                           Reference to whether heat energy       cycle continues.
                                            is being taken in or removed

                                                                                                                                   HOMEWORK: KU 2
Extension

 Diffusion
 Know what diffusion is.                      Define the term “diffusion”.                     Diffusion is the random movement of
                                                                                               particles from an area where there are
                                                                                               many of them to an area where there are
                                                                                               few of them.


 Know how the rate of diffusion compares in   List solids, liquids and gases in order of the   The rate of diffusion is highest in gases, then   EXPERIMENT: Diffusion in liquids
 the three states of matter.                  speed at which they allow diffusion to           liquids, then solids.
                                              occur.                                                                                             DEMO: Diffusion in gases

                                                                                                                                                 AiFL ACTIVITY: 12. What happens to
                                                                                                                                                 particles when new substances are made?


 Understand the effect of temperature of      State the relationship between a change in       Increasing temperature increases the rate         DEMO: Hot and cold coloured water
 the rate of diffusion.                       temperature and the rate of diffusion.           of diffusion (in all states) because the          diffusion
                                                                                               particles have more energy and move
                                              Explain this relationship in terms of the        faster.
                                              energy of the particles and how fast they
                                              are moving.


 Atoms and molecules
 Understand what all substances are made      Name the type of particle that all               All substances are made up of atoms.              CONCEPT CARTOON: Atoms
 of.                                          substances are made up of.


 Know examples of substances which are        Name two substances which are made up            Very few substances are made up of free           CONCEPT CARTOON: Chemical bonds
 made up of free atoms.                       of free atoms.                                   atoms. Examples include helium, neon and
                                                                                               argon.


 Understand what a molecule is.               Define the term “molecule”.                      Molecules are made of two or more atoms           PP: Molecules
                                                                                               bonded together.


 Know examples of substances which are        Name two substances which are made up            Many substances are made up of
 made of molecules.                           of molecules.                                    molecules. Examples include hydrogen,
                                                                                               oxygen, water, carbon dioxide and sugar.
Elements (SCN 3-15a)
           LEARNING OUTCOMES                           SUGGESTED SUCCESS CRITERIA                          CONTENT STATEMENTS                   SUGGESTED L+T RESOURCES AND ACTIVITIES
                                               I can…
 Know what the Periodic Table is.              State the type of substance which is found      Elements are shown in a chart called the         ACTIVITY: Becoming familiar with elements.
                                               in the Periodic Table.                          Periodic Table.                                    View elements in jars

                                                                                                                                                VIDEOS: (from
                                                                                                                                                http://www.periodicvideos.com/)

                                                                                                                                                ACTIVITY: Use library computers to prepare
                                                                                                                                                a PowerPoint presentation to illustrate
                                                                                                                                                examples of elements.

                                                                                                                                                ACTIVITY: Create a cartoon element


 Understand what an element is.                Describe what is meant by an element in         Elements are made up of only one type of         ACTIVITY: Magnetic marbles. Worksheet
                                               terms of:                                       atom. They cannot be broken down into            available
                                                       the type of atom from which they       simpler substances.
                                                        are made up                                                                             WEBLINK: Element games and puzzles
                                                       their ability to be broken down into                                                       Includes bingo, flashcards, hangman
                                                        simpler substances.                                                                        and many more

                                               Write the symbol for an element, ensuring       For elements where the symbol is one             PP: Human body elements
                                               that capital and lower case letters are         letter, that letter is a capital. For elements
                                               used correctly.                                 where the symbol is two letters, the first
                                                                                               letter is a capital and the second is lower
                                                                                               case.

                                               Name an element from its symbol.                                                                 .


 Know the characteristic properties of         Describe the properties of a metal or non-      Properties of metals include that they are:      DEMO: Properties of metals and non-metals
 metals and non-metals.                        metal in terms of if they are:                  shiny, good conductors of electricity and
                                                      shiny or dull                           heat, able to be shaped (malleable).
                                                      good or poor conductors of
                                                       electricity                             Properties of non-metals include that they
                                                      good or poor conductors of heat         are: dull, poor conductors of electricity and
                                                      brittle or malleable                    heat, not able to be shaped (brittle).




 Be able to use the Periodic Table to obtain   Use the Periodic Table to classify an           Elements can be divided into two groups:         PP: Periodic Table
 information about the properties of an        element as a metal or non-metal.                metals and non-metals.
 element.                                                                                                                                       NOTES: Blank Periodic Table
                                                                                               Elements on the left of the zig-zag line are        Colour in to show metals and non-
                                                                                               metals and on the right are non-metals.             metals, states at room temperature
                                                                                                                                                   and (if doing the extension) group
                                               Identify a “group” in the Periodic Table.    A “group” is a vertical column in the                    names (Alkali Metals, Alkaline Earth
                                                                                            Periodic Table.                                          Metals, Transition Metals, Halogens and
                                                                                                                                                     Noble Gases)
                                               Name an element which is likely to have      Elements which are in the same group
                                               similar chemical properties to another       have similar chemical properties.                    ODD ONE OUT: Elements
                                               named element.
                                                                                                                                                 BALLON DEBATES: Elements

                                                                                                                                                 BEAT THE TEACHER: Elements


 Know examples of how the uses of              State a use for one metal and one non-       *Students should be able to give one                 PP: Fireworks
 elements are related to their physical        metal element, identifying which physical    example of a metal where its use is related          See associated worksheet and experiment
 properties.                                   property makes it suitable for that use.     to its properties e.g. gold is used in jewellery
                                                                                            because it is malleable (so it can be
                                                                                            shaped into a ring) and shiny.

                                                                                            *Students should be able to give one
                                                                                            example of a non-metal where its use is
                                                                                            related to its properties e.g. carbon is used
                                                                                            in pencils because it is brittle (it flakes off to
                                                                                            produce writing).




Extension

 Be able to use the Periodic Table to obtain   Describe two examples of chemical            As an example, lithium, sodium and                   DEMO: Alkali metals
 information about the properties of an        properties which are shared by elements in   potassium (Group 1 elements) all react with
 element (revisited).                          a particular group of the Periodic Table.    gases in the air (nitrogen in the case of
                                                                                            lithium; oxygen with sodium and potassium)
                                                                                            to form a dull coating; they all react
                                                                                            violently with water, producing an alkaline
                                                                                            solution and hydrogen gas.


 Know the names of the main groups in the      Identify where in the Periodic Table you     The main groups are:                                 DEMO: Sublimation of iodine
 Periodic Table.                               find the:                                          Group 1 – Alkali Metals
                                                        Alkali Metals                            Group 2 – Alkaline Earth Metals
                                                        Alkaline Earth Metals                    (central group) – Transition Metals
                                                        Transition Metals                        Group 7 – Halogens
                                                        Halogens                                 Group 0 – Noble Gases
                                                        Noble Gases
Compounds (SCN 3-15b), mixtures and separating techniques (SCN 3-16a, SCN 3-17b)
          LEARNING OUTCOMES                       SUGGESTED SUCCESS CRITERIA                          CONTENT STATEMENTS                     SUGGESTED L+T RESOURCES AND ACTIVITIES
                                           I can…
 Understand what a mixture is.             Define the term “mixture”.                      A mixture is formed when two or more              EXPERIMENT: Iron and sulphur
                                                                                           different substances come together
                                                                                           without joining.                                  DEMO: Zinc and sulphur
                                                                                                                                             Requires a fume cupboard(or view a video
                                           Identify a substance as a mixture given a       In a mixture, different types of atom are not     clip)
                                           picture of the arrangement of particles.        bonded (joined) together.
                                                                                                                                             PP: Compounds and mixtures

 Understand what a compound is.            Define the term “compound”.                     Compounds are substances which are                PP: Element, compound or mixture?
                                                                                           made up of two or more different elements
                                           Identify a substance as a compound given        joined together.                                  AiFL CHEMISTRY: 19. introducing particle
                                           its name.                                                                                         models

                                           Identify a substance as a compound given                                                          AiFL CHEMISTRY: 12. What do chemical
                                           a picture of the arrangement of particles.                                                        words mean?


 Know examples of how the properties of    Describe an example of a compound for           The properties of compounds are usually
 compounds compare to their constituent    which the properties of that compound are       different to the properties of the elements
 elements.                                 different from the elements which make it       which make the compounds up. For
                                           up, including:                                  example, sodium chloride (table salt) is a
                                                   The name of the compound               white solid which dissolves slowly in water
                                                   One property of the compound           to produce a solution that is safe to drink. It
                                                   The names of the two (or more)         is make up of sodium – a silvery metal
                                                    elements which make up the             which reacts violently when added to
                                                    compound                               water and which produces an alkaline
                                                   One property of each element           solution – and chlorine – a yellow/green
                                                    which is different from those of the   gas which has a pungent smell and is
                                                    compound                               poisonous.


 Know examples of common mixtures.         Name two examples of mixtures in the            Examples of common mixtures are: air, sea
                                           natural world.                                  water, crude oil and ink.

                                           Identify a substance as a mixture given its
                                           name.



 Understand how to choose an appropriate   Name a technique which could be used to         Common separating techniques are:                 EXPERIMENT: Separating salt and sand
 technique to separate the components of   separate substances in a mixture, given            - filtration                                      Filtration and evaporation
 a mixture.                                information about what is in the mixture.          - evaporation
                                                                                              - distillation                                 DEMO: Distillation of copper(II) sulphate
                                           Justify why the technique chosen is the            - chromatography                               solution
                                           most suitable.
                                                                                           Filtration is used to separate an insoluble       EXPERIMENT: Chromotography of ink
            solid from a liquid.

            Evaporation is used to separate a soluble
            solid from a liquid.

            Distillation is used to separate a soluble
            solid from a liquid or to separate two
            liquids.

            Chromatography is used to separate tow
            or more dissolved substances.

Extension

                                                         WORKSHEET: Elements, compounds and
                                                         mixtures

                                                         DEMO: Combustion of iron wool

                                                         EXPERIMENT: Decolourising and deodorising

                                                         EXPERIMENT: Purification of an impure solid

				
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