# PROBLEM SOLVING TOOLS AND MODELS by 7SN062C3

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```									PROBLEM SOLVING
TOOLS AND MODELS

MICHAEL W. PICZAK
DIPL.T., B.COMM., MBA
MARCH 2002
Flowchart For Classic Problem Solving

NO
YES
Is It Working?

Don’t Mess With It!
YES       Did You Mess
With It?

YOU IDIOT!
NO

Anyone Else        YES                             YES      Will it Blow Up
You’re F*@~#D!

NO                                                            NO
NO     Can You Blame
Hide It                       Someone Else?            Look The Other Way

Yes

NO PROBLEM!
ELEMENTS OF A GOOD MODEL
 INTUITIVE
 EASY TO APPLY
 PARSIMONIOUS
 ACTION ORIENTED
 INCLUSIONARY wrt TO PEOPLE
 EMPHASIZES Xi & Y MEASUREMENT
 GETS AT ROOT CAUSE
 FLEXIBLE
 REFLECTIVE OF REALITY
 PROVISION FOR ACCOUNTABILITIES
 PREVENTATIVE ELEMENT
METHODS OF
CATEGORIZATION
TOOLS vs INTEGRATIVE MODELS
CREATIVE vs. ANALYTICAL
CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT TOOLS vs.
PROBLEM SOLVING TOOLS
PROBLEM
FINDING/SOLVING/PREVENTING
STAND ALONE TOOLS OF
QUALITY CONTROL
5/7 WHY’s
PICZAK, 1997
FLOW DIAGRAM
RANKING BY USE OF PARETO PRIORITY INDEX (PPI)

PROJECT SAVINGS PROBABILITY   COST      TIME    PPI
(K\$)                 (K\$)   (YEARS)
A      100       0.7         10        2     3.5

B      50        0.7        2        1       17.5

C      30        0.8        1.6     0.25     60

D      10        0.9        0.5      0.5     36

E      1.5       0.6        1        0.1      9

PARETO PRIORITY INDEX
Measurement

Upper Control Limit
UCL

Process        Centre Line
mean

Lower Control Limit
LCL

Time

RUN CHART
BENCHMARKING
POKA YOKE
Costs Of Quality

Discretionary Costs              Consequential Costs

Prevention        Appraisal        Internal          External
Non-conformance   Non-conformance

                                                  

                                                  

                                                  

                                                  

                                                  

                                                  

COSTS OF QUALITY
CONTROL CHART
OPTIONS
CONTROL CHART
CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM
Y                     Y                     Y

Positive     X        Negative     X           No        X
Correlation           Correlation           Correlation

CORRELATION ANALYSIS
CHECK SHEET
HISTOGRAM
PARETO ANALYSIS
Customer System                             Cashier System

Customer pulls time-                        Recieve ticket from
stamped ticket                                 customer

Stamp exit time on
Customer parks car
ticket

Customer returns to                        Read indicator stamp
car to leave                                  for fee

Customer drives to                        Observe exact time for
cashier at exit                            borderline rate

Place ticket in storage
Cashier System
bin

Enter charge on
Customer exits
register

Accept payment and
return change

Raise gate arm for
customer to exit

(End of Day )

PROCESS      Complete daily report
Accounting department
gets report

MAPPING
REGRESSION ANALYSIS
REGRESSION ANALYSIS
REGRESSION ANALYSIS

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