Chapter 5: The Classical Period: Directions, Diversities, and

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					Chapter 5: The Classical Period: Directions, Diversities, and Declines by 500C.E.

Axum Kingdom located in Ethiopian highlands; replaced Meroe in first century c.e.; received strong influence
from Arabian peninsula; eventually converted to Christianity. (pg.102)

Ethiopian kingdom A Christian kingdom that developed in the highlands of eastern Africa under the dynasty
of King Lalaibela; retained Christianity in the face of Muslim expansion elsewhere in Africa. (p. 102)

Sahara Desert running across northern Africa; separates the Mediterranean coast from southern Africa. (p.

Shinto Religion of early Japanese culture; devotees worshipped numerous gods and spirits associated with the
natural world; offers of food and prayers made to gods and nature spirits. (p. 104)

Olmec culture Cultural tradition that arose at San Lorenzo and La Venta in Mexico c. 1200 b.c.e.; featured
irrigated agriculture, urbanism, elaborate religion, beginnings of calendrical and writing systems. (p. 104)

Teotihuacan [tAY O tEE wä kän] Site of Classic culture in central Mexico; urban center with important
religious functions; supported by intensive agriculture in surrounding regions; population of as much as
200,000. (p. 104)

Maya Classic culture emerging in southern Mexico and Central America contemporary with Teotihuacan;
extended over broad region; featured monumental architecture, written language, calendrical and mathematical
systems, highly developed religion. (p. 104)

Inca Group of clans centered at Cuzco that were able to create empire in Andean civilization c. 1438. (p. 105)

Polynesia Islands contained in a rough triangle whose points lie in Hawaii, New Zealand, and Easter Island.
(p. 105)

Yellow Turbans Chinese Daoists who launched a revolt in 184 c.e. in China promising a golden age to be
brought about by divine magic. (p. 106)

Sui Dynasty that succeeded the Han in China; emerged from strong rulers in northern China; united all of
northern China and reconquered southern China. (p. 106)

Tang Dynasty that succeeded the Sui in 618 c.e.; more stable than previous dynasty. (p. 106)

Rajput [räj pUt] Regional princes in India following collapse of empire; emphasized military control of their
regions. (p. 107)

Devi Mother goddess within Hinduism; widely spread following collapse of Guptas; encouraged new
emotionalism in religious ritual. (p. 107)

Islam Major world religion having its origins in 610 c.e. in the Arabian peninsula; meaning literally
submission; based on prophecy of Muhammad. (p107)

Allah Supreme God in strictly monotheistic Islam. (p.107)

Byzantine Empire Eastern half of Roman Empire following collapse of western half of old empire; retained
Mediterranean culture, particularly Greek; later lost Palestine, Syria, and Egypt to Islam; capital at
Constantinople. (pp. 109)
Justinian Eastern Roman emperor between 527 and 565 c.e.; tried to restore unity of old Roman Empire;
issued most famous compilation of Roman law. (p. 109)

Augustine (Saint) 354–430 c.e. Influential church father and theologian; born in Africa and ultimately Bishop
of Hippo in Africa; champion of Christian doctrine against various heresies and very important in the long-term
development of Christian thought on such issues as predestination. P.110

Copts Christian sect of Egypt; tended to support Islamic invasions of this area in preference to Byzantine rule.

bodhisattvas [bO duh sut vuhs] Buddhist holy men; built up spiritual merits during their lifetime; prayers even
after death could aid people to achieve reflected holiness. (p. 111)

Mahayana Chinese version of Buddhism; placed considerable emphasis on Buddha as god or savior. (p. 113)

Jesus of Nazareth Prophet and teacher among the Jews; believed by Christians to be the Messiah; executed c.
30 c.e. (p. 114)

Paul One of the first Christian missionaries; moved away from insistence that adherents of the new religion
follow Jewish law; use of Greek as language of Church. (p. 114)

pope Bishop of Rome; head of the Christian Church in western Europe. (p. 114)

Benedict of Nursia Founder of monasticism in what had been the western half of the Roman Empire;
established Benedictine Rule in the 6th century; paralleled development of Basil's rules in Byzantine Empire.
(pp. 115)

animism A religious outlook that sees gods in many aspects of nature and propitiates them to help control and
explain nature; typical of Mesopotamian religions. (p. 116)

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