Fascism 

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					   Fascism is an ideology of the extreme right wing
   It is a radically nationalist and militarist ideology that
    opposes communism, liberalism, democracy,
    individualism, capitalism and organized religion
   Fascism demands the subordination of the individual
    to the collective interests of the nation, for national
    glory is the goal of fascism
   It is an ideology centered around a totalitarian
    dictator: “the leader” – this man knows what is best
    for the country…
    › unlike communism, they admit outright to being
      undemocratic and anti-liberal
    › It seeks to reestablish past glory
   State censorship is normal, criticism of the state, the
    party or the leader is unacceptable and will result in
    severe punishment
   Fascism seeks to strengthen the state through
    any means possible, especially through the use
    of military force
   Violence is an acceptable means to an end
   The goal of fascism was class harmony, rather
    than class struggle
   Fascism’s economic model is called
    Corporatism – in this model, both the workers
    and the owners would manage the factories,
    make decisions and receive profits
   Fascism originally did not support the interests
    of the rich landowners and factory owners
   Fascism originally planned to nationalize
   This also includes a vast social system to redistribute
    some wealth to the masses and to provide them with
   The main example is Fascist Italy (1922-1943)
   Some other states are considered Fascist, although
    each varied from the Italian fascism quite
     › Nationalist Spain (1939-1975) is considered fascist
     › Nazi Germany is considered fascist, although
       there are some major differences between
       Nazism and Fascism because Fascism is not
       inherently racist
     › Hungary from 1920-1945 is sometimes considered
     › Austria between WW1 and 1938 is often
       considered fascist
   Like all other countries
    that participated in WW1,
    Italy was a mess when
    the war was finished
    › Italy had not been given
      all the land Britain and
      France promised it when
      it entered the war in 1915
    › There was social turmoil
      as socialists, communists
      and anarchists
      participated in massive
    › Peasants were revolting
      against their landlords
   Mussolini was a former
    School Teacher and life-long
   He published the socialist
    paper Avanti
   He left the Socialist party
    because they would not
    support Italy’s entry into
   He joined the army and
    sustained a shrapnel injury
    during the war
   When he returned to civilian
    life after the war, he saw an
    opportunity for personal
    power in the instability
   The democratically elected liberal government
    of Italy was too weak to control all of the social
   Mussolini formed a militia called the
    › This militia served to break up strikes and beat up
    › This made Mussolini popular with traditional
      conservatives as well as his core group former
      socialists, war veterans and nationalists
   Mussolini issued a Fascist Manifesto demanding
    minimum wage, 8 hour work days and voting
    rights for women
   Mussolini claimed he would reestablish the
    Roman Empire
   In 1921, Mussolini was elected to the Italian legislature
    - Fascism was now a legitimate political movement
   The democratic Liberal government was very
    unstable and was considered weak by the fascists
   In 1922, the Fascists organized a “March on Rome” to
    seize power. Instead, King Victor Emmanuelle III gave
    Mussolini the Prime Ministership, and the march
    turned into a parade
   Mussolini made it clear he wanted to be a dictator
    › Parliament passed the Acerbo Laws in 1923 giving
      whichever party had the most votes in the election a 2.3
    › The Fascists won
   The Socialists protested, but after their leader
    Giacomo Mateotti was killed, they quit parliament,
    leaving the Fascists as the only party
 Mussolini became “il duce”- the leader
 Once in power, the fascists did not
  discriminate against people based on
  their race or religion as long as they were
  loyal to fascism and accepted the
  Italian culture
 Mussolini had a cult of personality built
  around him
 He created massive public works
  projects to employ the poor
 The media was heavily controlled
   In 1929, Mussolini signed the
    Lateran Pact with the Pope
    › This was seen as a huge
      victory because the in
      exchange for giving the
      Pope the Vatican City, the
      Catholic Church
      recognized Italy
 The Great Depression hurt
  Italy, although not as much
  as most other states,
  because Italy had less
  international trade due to
  their Autarky policy
 To back up his constant
  militaristic rhetoric, Mussolini
  invaded Ethiopia, the last
  independent country in
  Africa in 1935

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