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					On 3rd April, 1881, Sophia Perovskaya, Andrei Zhelyabov,
Nikolai Kibalchich, Nikolai Rysakov and Timofie
Mikhailovich were hanged for the crime of assassinating Tsar
Alexander II.
             The Tsar must be   Peasants to lead
                 removed         the revolution



   Land to be re-                   Urban workers need
  distributed to the                   to experience
       peasants                      capitalism before
                                         revolution


 SR propaganda and                 Peasants do not need to
armed insurrection to              experience capitalism -
trigger the revolution                they can achieve
                                   socialism immediately
1866:     Dmitri Karakozov fails in first ‘populist’ assassination attempt on Tsar
          Alexander II
1870s:    First ‘Narodnik’ missions to the Russian countryside.
1876:     ‘Land and Liberty’ set up. Anarchist Prince Kropotkin freed from prison.
1877:     ‘Trial of the Fifty’ - all 50 Social Revolutionaries exiled.
          ‘Trial of the 193’ - only 90 acquitted.
1878:     Land and Liberty split:
          Political faction called ‘Black Repartition’;
          Terrorist faction called ‘The People’s Will’
1881:     The People’s Will assassinate Tsar Alexander II.
1881-84: Tsarist police arrest 150 members of The People’s Will.
1887:     Alexander Ulyanov fails in attempt to assassinate Tsar Alexander III.
1902:     Populists form a political party: The Party of Socialist Revolutionaries (SRs).
1902-05: SRs responsible for over 2,000 political assassinations, including Plehveand
         Grand Duke Sergei.
   Seizure of power through revolution. Revolution triggered by
         propaganda and terrorism against Tsarist system.


Peasants seen as the vital support group for revolution to succeed.
    Middle class intelligentsia vital for triggering revolution.



      Peasants represented majority of support (50%). Student
              intelligentsia also attracted to populism.



       Socialist society, organised into peasant communes.
                                                Tsar to share power
The Tsar must be                                with a representative
   stripped of                                  parliament of duma
autocratic power

              Make the Tsar a
                                     Parliament or
               constitutional
                                      duma to be
                 monarch?
                                        elected




              Make Russia          Tsar to
               a republic       tolerate free
              with no Tsar?        speech
1864:     Tsar Alexander II devolves limited power to local village organisations -
          Zemstva.
1870:     Tsar Alexander II devolves limited power to towns and cities - duma.
1880-90s: Non-violent petitioning for Tsar to devolve more power to a national
          representative body - a parliament or national duma.
1905:     Liberal movement divides after Tsar Nicholas II’s October Manifesto:
          Kadets maintain campaign for further reduction in Tsar’s autocratic power;
          Octobrists pledge to support Tsar, and are satisfied with concessions granted in
          October Manifesto.
      Reduction to autocratic powers of the Tsar, and formation of a
 constitutional monarchy, to be achieved through non violent petitioning.



Middle class intelligentsia key to petitioning for concessions from the Tsar.



     All support based in urban areas. Kadets supported by academics,
professionals and smaller landowners; Octobrists supported by industrialists
                           and larger landowners.


   Constitutional monarchy, with powers shared between the Tsar and a
                   representative parliament or duma.
              The Tsar must be   Workers to lead
                  removed        the revolution



  Party to be broad-                   Urban workers need
  based and allow all                     to experience
   volunteers to join                   capitalism before
                                            revolution


Party to be democratic,
members to have a say                   Workers to create a
   in policy making                      socialist republic
1848-49: Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels publish ‘The Communist Manifesto’.
1849:     Karl Marx publishes ‘Das Kapital’.
1879:     ‘Land and Liberty’ populist movement splits up.
1883:     Ex-Land and Liberty member George Plekhanov forms Liberation of Labour,
          Russia’s first Marxist group.
1895:     Union of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class established in St.
          Petersburg. Lenin a founding member. Organisation infiltrated by Okhrana
          and members arrested.
1898:     Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) founded in Minsk.
1900:     Marxist newspaper, ‘Iskra’, founded by Lenin and Martov.
1902:     Lenin publishes his revolutionary programme, ‘What is to be done?’
1903:     RSDLP divides into two factions at Second Party Congress:
          Mensheviks (Minoritarians) led by Martov;
          Bolsheviks (Majoritarians) led by Lenin.
Workers’ (proletarian) revolution, to take place once the workers’ achieved
    political consciousness after experiencing bourgeois capitalism.



              Urban workers (proletariat) to lead revolution.




                       Urban workers and students.




           Socialist republic, based on the theory of Marxism.
                    The Tsar must be   Workers to support
                        removed         the revolution

      Party to be made of small,              Urban workers do not
      profession, revolutionary                need to experience
     cells - no co-operation with               capitalism before
              other parties                        revolution


Party to be centralised under                    Vanguard to seize
    a Central Committee                            power for the
  (‘democratic centralism)                      proletariat by armed
                                                    insurrection
     Vanguard to lead
  revolution in the name                        Workers to create a
     of the proletariat                          socialist republic
1848-49: Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels publish ‘The Communist Manifesto’.
1849:     Karl Marx publishes ‘Das Kapital’.
1879:     ‘Land and Liberty’ populist movement splits up.
1883:     Ex-Land and Liberty member George Plekhanov forms Liberation of Labour,
          Russia’s first Marxist group.
1895:     Union of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class established in St.
          Petersburg. Lenin a founding member. Organisation infiltrated by Okhrana
          and members arrested.
1898:     Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) founded in Minsk.
1900:     Marxist newspaper, ‘Iskra’, founded by Lenin and Martov.
1902:     Lenin publishes his revolutionary programme, ‘What is to be done?’
1903:     RSDLP divides io two factions at Second Party Congress:
          Mensheviks (Minoritarians) led by Martov;
          Bolsheviks (Majoritarians) led by Lenin.
Workers’ (proletarian) revolution, to be led by a Party vanguard, to seize
                  power in the name of the proletariat.


Urban workers (proletariat) to support the revolution. Bolshevik Party
            vital as the vanguard to lead the revolution.



                      Urban workers and students.




 Socialist republic, initially led by the Dictatorship of the Proletariat,
                   then progressing to communism.

				
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