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					 Figure 13.1 Diagrammatic reconstruction of the history of continental drift.




Chapter 13                                                                      FIG 1
 Figure 13.2 Graphic depicting two very different approaches to understanding global patterns of species richness. The circle represents the globe, and
 shades of color represent latitudinal zones with the latitude zero across the center. On the left, black points represent individual species, and clearly the
 number of species is correlated with latitude; tropical habitats have more species than temperate habitats. Explanations for higher diversity in tropical
 regions center on correlations between numbers of species and environmental variables such as temperature and moisture. On the right, evolutionary
 relationships of species are shown (lines) with a hypothetical monophyletic clade represented. This graphic stresses a history of diversification indicating
 that more clades originated in the tropics, and because of niche conservatism, few clades were able to evolve ecological traits allowing them to disperse to
 temperate climates. Adapted from Wiens and Donoghue, 2004.




Chapter 13                                                                                                                                            FIG 2
 Figure 13.3 Graphical model showing effects of niche conservatism and niche evolution on faunas in different regions of the world. Colored circles
 represent different clades. Two clades (blue and green) have retained ancestral niche characteristics and have distributions restricted to tropical and
 subtropical environments. A third clade (black) has evolved tolerance to lower temperatures and lower precipitation and dispersed, no longer occurring in
 tropical regions and thus showing niche evolution. Adapted from Wiens and Donoghue, 2004.




Chapter 13                                                                                                                                          FIG 3
 Figure 13.4 Temperature isotherms and the northern and southern limits of frog (30 species), salamander (26 species), and lizard (16 species)
 distributions in eastern North America (Piedmont and Coastal Plain). Isotherms are mean annual temperature (°F); the integers in each zone are number
 of species with ranges terminating in the interval (northern–southern termini). Isotherms from USDA, 1941; distributional data from Conant and Collins,
 1991.




Chapter 13                                                                                                                                        FIG 4
 Figure 13.5 Geographic variation in clutch size among populations of the snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) in North America. Integers indicate mean
 clutch size at specific locality. Data from Fitch, 1985, and Iverson et al., 1997.




Chapter 13                                                                                                                                        FIG 5
 Figure 13.6 Biogeographic realms of the world.




Chapter 13                                        FIG 6
 Figure 13.7 Graphical model showing the difference between vicariance and vicariance with a single dispersal event in the construction of area
 cladograms. At time 1 (T1) the ancestor lives on a single large continent. By time 2, continents have separated, creating the first vicariant event, and
 additional speciation has occurred on the continent on the right. By time 3, four continents exist. On the left, no dispersal has taken place, and additional
 speciation events have occurred on continents 1, 3, and 4. On the right, speciation has also occurred on continents 1, 3, and 4, but one of the species on
 continent 3 has dispersed to continent 2 where, over time, that species has differentiated. Thus the species on continent 2 has one of the species from
 continent 3 as its closest relative (sister taxon). Cladograms at the top show phylogenetic relationships between the species under each scenario.
 Numbers across the top refer to present distribution of species on the four continents. By comparing a dated phylogeny with independently derived dates of
 vicariant events (in this case, continental splitting), it is possible to falsify a vicariance hypothesis. The phylogeny on the left supports a vicariance
 hypothesis, and the one on the right falsifies it for the species on continent 2, leaving dispersal as the only viable hypothesis for the origin of that species
 on continent 2. Although our example uses continents, other barriers (mountains, rivers, ecological transitions) can result in vicariance. Adapted in part
 from Futuyuma, 1998.




Chapter 13                                                                                                                                               FIG 7
 Figure 13.8 Comparison of phylogenetic relationships of chelid turtles and their distributions to the tectonics of southern continents. Unfortunately, the
 most recent cladogram (far right) fails to falsify either of the earlier hypotheses because Chelodina, South American chelids, and remaining Australian
 chelids form an unresolved polytomy. Cladograms adapted from Gaffney, 1977; Seddon et al., 1997; and Georges et al., 1998.




Chapter 13                                                                                                                                              FIG 8
 Figure 13.9 Although diversification of lizards in the Anolis nitens (formerly A. chrysolepis) complex has been used to support the Vanishing Refuge
 Theory of Amazonian diversity, molecular analysis of the group clearly shows that diversification took place much earlier. Although the described
 subspecies are each others' closest relatives, a deep split in haplotypes from the north (Roraima state in Brazil and Ecuador) and the south (Amazonas
 and Acre States in Brazil) and relatively deep splits in more recent clades placed their origins before the existence of proposed refuges. The A. nitens
 clade, at minimum, is > 15 million years old. Left, maximum parsimony bootstrap tree; right, maximum-likelihood tree. Adapted from Glor et al., 2001.




Chapter 13                                                                                                                                           FIG 9
 Figure 13.10 Phylogenetic relationships of Amazonian sphaerodactyline geckos. Based on gene sequence data, major divergences occurred during the
 Miocene–Pliocene, much before the Pleistocene, when Amazon refuges existed. Adapted from Gamble et al., 2008.




Chapter 13                                                                                                                                  FIG 10
 Figure 13.11 The frog Physalaemus petersi is ideal for testing biogeographic hypotheses on origin of diversity in the Amazon River basin because it
 occurs across an area divided by large rivers (Riverine Hypothesis) and where an elevational gradient exists associated with the Andes (Elevational
 Gradient Hypothesis). The dotted outline shows the approximate distribution of P. petersi (which extends farther to the east than shown), and the dashed
 lines show the locations of the Guianan (upper) and Brazilian (lower) Shields. Adapted from Funk et al., 2007.




Chapter 13                                                                                                                                         FIG 11
 Figure 13.12 Geographic ranges of major clades of Physalaemus petersi based on haplotype divergences. Numbers indicate average percent corrected
 sequence divergence. Adapted from Funk et al., 2007.




Chapter 13                                                                                                                                  FIG 12
 Figure 13.13 History of diversification of modern amphibians. (A) Phylogeny of modern amphibians with geological timescale across the top. (B) Net
 diversification rates for amphibian clades. Clade numbers refer to those in (A). Net diversification rates (d – b, where b = speciation rate and d is extinction
 rate) per clade are shown under the lowest possible relative extinction rate (red, d:b = 0) and an extremely high possible rate (blue, d:b = 0.95). (C)
 Comparison of proportion diversity of extant amphibian clades in the Late Cretaceous (left) and now (right). Adapted from Roelants et al., 2007.




Chapter 13                                                                                                                                                FIG 13
 Figure 13.14 History of global patterns of amphibian net diversification. (A) Rate through time (RTT) plot derived from the time tree (Fig. 13.13) compared
 with models varying in relative extinction rates from 0 to 0.95. (B) RTT plot of net diversification rates estimated under low extinction rates (red, d:b = 0)
 and high extinction rates (blue, d:b = 0.95) for successive 20-million-year intervals (280–100 mybp) and 10 million year intervals (100–20 mybp). Circles
 and asterisks indicate estimates that differ significantly from those expected under low extinction rates (d:b = 0) and high extinction rates (d:b = 0.95),
 respectively. (C) Amphibian net extinction rates (blue) compared with amniote family origination (green) and extinction (red) rates based on the fossil
 record. Note that the amphibian data (blue) are represented on a log scale, and thus differences are even more dramatic than shown. Adapted from
 Roelants et al., 2007.




Chapter 13                                                                                                                                              FIG 14
 Figure 13.15 Divergences that most affected global distribution of Microhylidae and Natanura occurred in the Cretaceous. (A) Molecular time tree
 phylogeny showing divergence patterns. (B) Horizontal colored bars and lines at interval nodes (standard deviation and 95% credibility intervals) indicate
 vicariance events as follows: orange: Australia <–> Indo-Madagascar; yellow: Africa <–> South America; blue: Africa <–> Indo-Madagascar; purple:
 Madagascar <–> India (Seychelles); green: South America–Antarctica <–> Indo-Madagascar (with the Kerguelen Plateau involved). (B) Gondwana in the
 Late Cretaceous. Abbreviations: AF = Africa, MA = Madagascar, In = India, EU = Eurasia, SA = South America, AN = Antarctica, AU = Australia–New
 Guinea, KP = Kerguelen Plateau. Adapted from Van Bocxlaer et al., 2006.




Chapter 13                                                                                                                                           FIG 15
 Figure 13.16 Biogeographic history of ranoid evolution. Dashed branches are lineages of uncertain phylogenetic position. Colored bars across the top of
 the phylogeny indicate age of ranoid fossils from their respective continents: (1) undetermined ranoids from the Cenomanian of Africa, (2) Ranidae from
 the Maastrichtian of India, (3) Raninae from the Late Eocene of Europe, and (4) Raninae from the Miocene of North America. Gray shading indicates an
 apparent lack of dispersal between Africa and other biogeographic units (between nodes 6 and 17) for about 70 million years. The K–T (Cretaceous–
 Tertiary) boundary is indicated by the vertical dashed line. Asterisks indicate calibration points. Adapted from Bossuyt et al., 2006.




Chapter 13                                                                                                                                         FIG 16
 Figure 13.17 Dated phylogeny of ranoid frogs centering on the phylogenetic position of four families endemic to the Western Ghats of India and hills of Sri
 Lanka, the Ranixalinae, Micrixalinae, Lankanectinae, and Nyctibatrachinae. The phylogeny demonstrates that these clades are outside (sister to) other
 ranoids. Molecular dating places the origin of the clades containing these four subfamilies in the Cretaceous. Adapted from Roelants et al., 2004.




Chapter 13                                                                                                                                           FIG 17
 Figure 13.18 The recently described frog Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis is among the oldest of the Neobatrachia and ties the fauna of the Seychelles to
 the fauna of India. Its ancestors must have been present on the Indo-Madagascan fragment of eastern Gondwana during Middle–Late Jurassic or Early
 Cretaceous. Photograph by S. D. Biju.




Chapter 13                                                                                                                                       FIG 18
 Figure 13.19 Early diversification of the Bufonidae occurred near the end of the Upper Cretaceous, failing to confirm a Gondwana origin of the family.
 Diversification into modern genera occurred later, during the mid-Paleogene. Horizontal bars and shaded rectangles indicate 95% credibility intervals of
 estimates of divergence times. Colors indicate geographical distributions of each lineage. Adapted from Pramuk et al., 2008.




Chapter 13                                                                                                                                           FIG 19
 Figure 13.20 These maps illustrate the key geological events associated with diversification in the Bufonidae. (A) Bufonids originated in South America
 about 88 mybp, after the breakup of Gondwana. At some point, bufonids dispersed into the Old World and diversified into the Eurasian and African clades,
 likely across Beringia. (B) Approximately 43 mybp, during the Eocene, bufonids dispersed back into the New World. Although at least three possible routes
 existed (Berengia, DeGeer, and Thulean land bridges), the Thulean land bridge is most likely because it provided a much more mild climatic regime.
 Adapted from Pramuk et al., 2008.




Chapter 13                                                                                                                                         FIG 20
 Figure 13.21 Phylogenetic relationships of eleutherodactyline frogs showing geographical distribution for each clade. Adapted from Heinicke et al., 2007.




Chapter 13                                                                                                                                          FIG 21
 Figure 13.22 The origins of Middle American and Caribbean clades of eleutherodactyline frogs can be modeled based on the timing of divergences. (A)
 Dispersal over water from their South American origin probably occurred during the Middle Eocene (49-37 mybp), resulting in the formation of the Middle
 American clade (MAC) and the Caribbean clade (CC). (B) Higher sea levels led to isolation of a western Caribbean clade (WCC) on Cuba and an eastern
 Caribbean clade on Hispaniola and Puerto Rico during the Early Oligocene (approximately 30 mybp). (C) Dispersal from Cuba to the mainland led to the
 radiation of the subgenus Syrrhopus in southern North America during the Early Miocene (approximately 20 mybp). Concurrently, members of the ECC
 and South American clade (SAC) colonized the Lesser Antilles. (D) The closing of the Isthmus of Panama during the Pliocene (approximately 3 mybp)
 resulted in overland dispersal of MAC species to South America and SAC species to Middle America. Adapted from Heinicke et al., 2007.




Chapter 13                                                                                                                                        FIG 22
 Figure 13.23 The first major divergence event in the history of caecilians occurred on Gondwana approximately 178 mybp with several other Gondwana
 divergences. This deep divergence accounts for the presence of caecilians on most southern continents today. However, an added twist is the much more
 recent dispersal (40-53 mybp) of members of the Ichthyophiidae into Southeast Asia. Adapted from Pough et al., 2003, and Wilkinson et al., 2002b.




Chapter 13                                                                                                                                     FIG 23
 Figure 13.24 Divergence of African caecilians cannot be tied to a single biogeographical event. (A) Left, phylogeny based on 12S and 16S gene
 sequences; right, uncorrected lognormal molecular clock showing divergence times. (B through G) West (C, E, G) and East (B, D, F) African caecilians.
 (H) Map of Africa showing current non-overlapping distributions of West and East African caecilians. Adapted from Loader et al., 2007.




Chapter 13                                                                                                                                        FIG 24
 Figure 13.25 Although it has been assumed that small fossorial amphibians and reptiles would not be able to disperse across oceans, it appears that
 amphisbaenians have done just that. Based on the dated phylogeny and the position of landmasses at the time, the only supportable hypothesis for
 dispersal of Amphisbaenidae ancestors to the New World is transatlantic during the Eocene (arrow 1, upper left). The most likely hypothesis for dispersal
 of cadeids is transatlantic during the Eocene (solid arrow 2, upper left), although a complex terrestrial dispersal cannot be ruled out (dashed arrow 2, upper
 left). Adapted from Vidal et al., 2008.




Chapter 13                                                                                                                                             FIG 25
 Figure 13.26 Subaerial (surface) connections between Madagascar and Antarctica likely existed approximately 90 mybp. Dark shading indicates
 submerged areas. Mad = Madagascar, KP = Kerguelen Plateau, GR = Gunnerus Ridge, and EB = Enderby Basin. Adapted from Noonen and Chippindale,
 2006.




Chapter 13                                                                                                                            FIG 26
 Figure 13.27 Phylogenetic relationships of three reptile clades: (A) pleurodont iguanid lizards, (B) boine snakes (including Ungaliophiidae and erycine
 genera Eryx, Charina, Calabraria, and Lichanura), and (C) Podocnemid turtles. Clades of interest are indicated by thick branches, and colors correspond to
 shaded geographical distributions. Adapted from Noonen and Chippindale, 2006.




Chapter 13                                                                                                                                         FIG 27
 Figure 13.28 Distribution of the nine species of Crotaphytus. Circles indicate sampling localities for phylogenetic analysis. Adapted from McGuire et al.,
 2007.




Chapter 13                                                                                                                                             FIG 28
 Figure 13.29 Phylogenetic relationships of crotaphytid lizards based on mtDNA sequence analysis. Note that species identified on the basis of morphology
 (names) do not sort out on the gene tree. Rather, some species (e.g., C. bicintores) are nested in clades with other species. For a more detailed
 phylogeny, see original article. Adapted from McGuire et al., 2007.




Chapter 13                                                                                                                                       FIG 29
 Figure 13.30 Model showing the mechanism ("introgression conveyor") that resulted in Crotaphytus bicintores populations in southwest Arizona acquiring
 mitochondrial haplotypes from adjacent populations of C. collaris. Timing for introgression events 1, 2, and 3 are estimated at 3 mybp, 1 mybp, and recent,
 respectively. Adapted from McGuire et al., 2007.




Chapter 13                                                                                                                                           FIG 30

				
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