Excavations of Homeric Troy by ewghwehws


									Excavations of
Homeric Troy
 Mrs Grahams Ancient History

Truva                      Wilusa


    Troad           Hissarlick
Evolution of Archaeology
Archaeologists of Troy
Schliemann’s Diary
Schliemans sketch of Troy
           Schlieman’s Legacy

• Schliemann was very good at stratigraphy, once he got started,
  not so good at architecture.
  His digging methods were crude, but he had a good strategy.
  He gathered a team of experts to the site: photographers,
  surveyers, physical anthropologists, experts on numismatics &
  ancient history, experts on plant remains. This practice helps
  contribute to his title of ‘father of scientific archaeology.
• Schliemann’s assistant Wihelm Dorpfeld, a German architect,
  identified Troy’s nine basic strata- a scheme that some
  archaeologists still follow today
Treasures of Troy
                  Blegen and Troy
•   Blegen returned to Troy, digging there from 1932-8, hoping that by
    bringing to bear the latest scientific techniques, he could find the
    Homeric level. He fine-tuned the stratigraphy, re-examined Troy V
    strata, which was Dorpfeld’s candidate for the Homeric Troy. Blegen
    disagreed, thought the destruction was natural (earthquake: shift in
    foundation walls, rubble patterns, reoccupation of the place as a shanty
    town with refugees, etc.).
•   Carl used highly refined excavation methods to differentiate 46
    construction phases or sub strata.

•   In untouched strata above Troy VI, Blegen discovered Troy VIIa, which
    seemed to show evidence of a siege and fall. Expecting to find this,
    Blegen declared it Homeric Troy.
•   His most famous finds were a large palace from Troy VI, called the
    Pillar House and a Greek Roman sanctuary
Pillar House from TroyVI
  Korfmann- New Focus, New

• “We are no longer interested in
  clarifying whether the Trojan
  War and the ensuing destruction
  of Troy VI around 1250 BC -
  really took place .” Manfred
  Focus of New Archaeology

• To Korfmann and his colleagues, the
  investigation of the ancient world is not about
  finding spectacular objects or evidence for
  the war. Rather they aim at a thick description
  of history of the city and its environs; that is
  they seek to reveal, as completely as
  possible, all the material evidence that bears
  on life in Troy and the role Troy played in
  binding continents and cultures.
NASA Satellite image of Troy
Aerial View of Troy
• Modern Archaeological Methods in Troy

•   Dating samples Comparison of ceramic finds. Determining the amount
    of radioactive isotopes (C-14), thermoluminescence,
    dendrochronology (annual growth rings of wooden finds)
    Reconstruction of ancient Chemical analysis of samples, isotope
    trade routes examinations (lead, rare earths) Diet of the indigenous
    Statistical compilation of animal populatin bones and plant seeds, food
    chain analysis (trace elements and isotopes in human and animal
    bones) Reconstruction of landscape Depth drillings ("Archaeomog"),
    geomorphology, sedimentology Myth and poetry Philological study of
    ancient writings, oral tradition, mythological research Discovery of
    notable Geophysical survey (disturbances in the excavation sites
    Earth's magnetic field caused by walls, pottery or organic material).
    Drillings ("Archaeomog") Survey, documentation Topographic survey,
    orthoscopic photo- grammetry, computer-assisted recording of finds
    Visualization of the results Three-dimensional representation and
    animation using powerful computers.
Magnetometers and
       Cesium Magnetometer

• Using an electronic apparatus that measures
  electrical resistance in the ground Hans Jansen had
  charted large areas of the lower city, however it could
  only measure changes in soil composition to 3feet.
• In 1992 scientists began using a cesium
  magnetometer, the only one in the world, to detect
  disturbances in the earths magnetic field to a depth of
  10 feet below the surface. The resulting data are
  processed and graphically displayed by a computer.
  It was with this instrument that Korfmann was able to
  discover and track the ditch
Lower City of Troy
Bronze Age pottery shards
Wilusian coins
Trading Connections
      Conclusions of Korfmann
• The results do not conflict with the state of Homeric scholarship

• Troia was An important city within the region

• A Bronze Age city, which in all essentials, as far as the layout of
  the city and the citadel, as well as the diagnostic finds was
  orientated towards Anatolia rather than the Aegean

• Troia was also known as Wilusa, a regional power which
  became a vassal of the Hittites in the 13th century BC

• The existance of a lower city can no longer be contested
   The Future Direction of Trojan
• After the end of the Cold War, the Troad was no longer a military
  zone and land speculators made plans to build vast vacation
  resorts on the site
• The plans were halted in 1996 when the Turkish Government
  declared Troy a national historical park
• Troy has become not only an interdisciplinary project but also an
  international one, with scientists representing as many as 13
  nationalities, allowing for free exchange of information
• In 1998 Troy was added to UNESCO’Slist of world cultural
  heritage sites and a large museum was completed
• Finds from Troy have been distributed among more than 50
  museums and collections around the world. The Trojan gold
  now held in the Pushkin museum is claimed by both Germany
  and Russia
• Troy’s promise is to return to what it once was; a place of
  cultural exchange between east and west , north and south

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