Reconstruction

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					Reconstruction
Goal 3 Final PowerPoint
 Reconstruction Focus Questions
1.   What group made up the majority of Southern
     Republicans?
2.   Name five (5) ways the lives of Southern African
     Americans changed during reconstruction.
3.   What is meant by the phrase “40 acres and a
     mule”?
4.   What were the goals of the KKK?
5.   What were the failures of Reconstruction?
6.   What were the successes of Reconstruction?
      Important Vocabulary for Reconstruction


1.    Thirteenth Amendment   11.   Hiram Revels
2.    Andrew Johnson
3.    Reconstruction         12.   Sharecropping
4.    Radical Republicans    13.   Tenant Farming
5.    Freedman’s Bureau
6.    Black codes            14.   Ku Klux Klan
7.    Fourteenth Amendment   15.   Redemption
8.    Fifteenth Amendment
9.    Scalawags              16.   Rutherford B. Hayes
10.   Carpetbaggers          17.   Compromise of 1877
Lincoln’s Assassination
   Five days after the Civil War ended, Lincoln was
    assassinated while watching a play at Ford’s
    Theater in Washington, DC.
   His assassin was John Wilkes Booth, an actor and
    Southern sympathizer.
   Booth escaped and was found days later in a barn.
   Lincoln was the first president to be assassinated.
   Vice President Andrew Johnson became
    President.
Reconstruction
 Reconstruction     was the time period after
  the Civil War in which the nation was
  rebuilt, especially the South
 The South was physically, economically,
  and politically destroyed.
 What would all of these freed slaves do?
    Radical Republicans
 During Reconstruction, a group called the
  Radical Republicans controlled Congress.
  Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner led this
  group.
 They wanted to destroy the power of former
  slaveholders.
   They wanted African Americans to have full
    citizenship, including suffrage (the right to vote).
13 th        Amendment
   Outlawed slavery in America
   Many former slaves were reunited with their families.
   Many became sharecroppers or tenant farmers.
   Sharecroppers: farmers who worked someone else’s
    land & gave at least ½ of the profit to the landowner at
    harvest time .
   People in the North called sharecropping the
    “continuation of slavery”.
   Tenant Farmers: Rented the land and kept the profit
    from the harvest.
 Reconstruction Plans
   Reconstruction Plan       Describe the Plan
Lincoln’s Ten Percent Plan


Johnson’s Reconstruction
Plan

Reconstruction Act of 1867
(Congressional
Reconstruction)
How to implement Reconstruction?
 Different groups had different ideas
  on how to rebuild.
 Was the Executive Branch or the
  Legislative Branch in charge of
  Reconstruction?
 Lincoln’s Ten Percent Plan
 Reconstruction              Describe the Plan
     Plan
Lincoln’s Ten      The government would pardon all
Percent Plan      confederates who swore allegiance to the
                  Union, except high ranking officials
                   After 10% of those who voted in 1860 took
                  the oath & wrote a Constitution, they could
                  form a new state government and gain
                  representation in Congress
 Johnson’s Plan (Presidential
 Reconstruction)
 Reconstruction            Describe the Plan
     Plan
Johnson’s Plan     Each confederate state could be
(Presidential     readmitted to the Union if it would
Reconstruction)   meet several conditions
                   Each would have to withdraw its
                  secession, swear allegiance to the
                  Union, annul Confederate war debts,
                  and ratify the 13th Amendment.
 Reconstruction Act of 1867
 (Congressional Reconstruction)
 Reconstruction                 Describe the Plan
     Plan
Reconstruction      Divided the confederate states into 5 military
Act of 1867       districts, each headed by a Union general.
(Congressional     The voters in the districts (including blacks)

Reconstruction)   would elect delegates to conventions in which new
                  state constitutions would be drafted
                   In order to reenter the Union, state constitutions
                  had to ensure that black men could vote & the state
                  had to ratify the 14th Amendment
Freedmen’s Bureau
 During Reconstruction, Congress approved
  the passage of the Freedmen’s Bureau.
 It assisted former slaves and poor Southern
  whites by distributing food and clothes, and
  establishing hospitals, teacher training
  programs, schools, and industrial institutions.
    Carpetbaggers
   Carpetbaggers were Northerners who came to
    the South during Reconstruction to take
    advantage of the turmoil in the South
   Many came for humanitarian reasons, like to be
    teachers or work for the Freedmen’s Bureau
   Some came to start businesses and take
    advantage of Southern poverty
    Scalawags
   Scalawags were Southerners who became
    members of the Republican party
   Southerners were Democrats during the Civil
    War
   To become a member of the Republican party
    meant you were a traitor
Important Reconstruction Legislation
   Civil Rights Act of 1866- gave African Americans
    citizenship and forbade states from passing
    discriminatory laws (called black codes)
   14th Amendment- made all people born or naturalized
    in the U.S. citizens. Also gave citizens equal
    protection under the law
   15th Amendment- no one could be denied the right to
    vote because of race, color or previous condition of
    servitude
Conflict between the President
and Congress
   With the passage of the Reconstruction Act of 1867,
    Congress was in charge of implementing Reconstruction.
   Andrew Johnson did not agree that Congress should be in
    charge.
   Johnson fired the Secretary of War, who was a Radical
    Republican.
   This violated the Tenure in Office Act, which limited the
    power of the President to hire & fire government officials.
    (Loophole: Lincoln had appointed the Sec. of War).
Johnson Impeached
 Led by Radical Republican,
  Thaddeus Steven,
  Congress voted to
  impeach Johnson.
 He was found not guilt by
  one vote.
 Johnson did not run for re-
  election.
Ulysses S. Grant becomes
President
 Former Union General,
  Ulysses S. Grant, was
  elected President of the
  United States.
 He was a good general, but
  not a good politician.
 His administration was
  plagued with corruption.
    Democrats Come to
         Power
 With  the efforts of the KKK, the
  Democrats came to power again in the
  South.
 This time period is known as
  “redemption”.
 Democrats controlled the state
  governments in the South .
 They also gained power in Congress.
    Compromise of 1877
   The Compromise of 1877 ended Reconstruction.
   In the election of 1876, Republican Rutherford B.
    Hayes was elected President by one electoral vote.
   Instead of the Democrats making a big issue out of
    the election results, they made a deal with the
    Republicans.
   The Democrats would allow Hayes to stay President,
    if the Republicans would pull the military out of the
    South.
Rutherford
 B. Hayes
What group made up the majority of
Southern Republicans?
   African
   American
   men who
  could vote
  for the first
      time
 Name five (5) ways the lives of
 Southern African Americans changed
 during reconstruction.
1.   Searched for loved ones
2.   Went to school
3.   Able to hold paying jobs
4.   Established churches
5.   Could travel freely
6.   They could run for political office & vote
Hiram Revels,
 1st African
  American
   Senator
What is meant by the phrase “40
  acres and a mule”?
   General Sherman promised freed slaves who
    followed his army 40 acres per family and
    use of an army mule
   Some actually received this as payment
   Today, this has come to imply that African
    Americans deserve payment (reparations)
    for the work their ancestors did for this
    country as slaves
    What were the goals of the KKK?
    To restore white
     supremacy
    To prohibit African
     Americans from exercising
     their rights as citizens *
    To terrorize those who
     wanted progress for
     African Americans
 What were the failures of
 Reconstruction?
 Discrimination and racist attitudes
  still existed
 Jim Crow laws established
  (segregation laws; laws that
  separated the races)
  Examples: literacy tests, poll taxes,
    Grandfather clause
What were the successes of
Reconstruction?
   The 13th, 14th, 15th Amendments gave
    rights to African Americans
   African Americans established
    churches, schools, and civic
    organizations
Thanks to Ms. Shannon Brayboy for
allowing the use of her slides in this
            PowerPoint.

				
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