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					                 Introduction:
• Most devastating war in human history
     • 55 million dead
     • 1 trillion dollars
• Began in 1939 as strictly a European
  Conflict
     • Widened to include most of the world
         How did WWI end?
• Treaty of Versailles
  – German war guilt clause.
  – German reparations.
  – German forbidden from militarization of
    Rhineland.
  – Germans forbidden from aligning with
    Austrians.
               How It Began

• WWI leftovers
     • Germany angry about Treaty of Versailles.
     • Italy victorious but wanted more territory
     • Japan victorious but wanted China
• Outside factors…
    What Were These Outside
           Factors?

• Organized League of Nations
• French and Britain unsure
• U.S. isolationist
Italian


Fascism
     A Definition of Fascism
Fascism is the totalitarian philosophy of
government that glorifies the state and nation
and assigns to the state control over every aspect
of national life.
    The
Characteristics
 of Fascism
         1. Ideology
• A form of extreme right-wing
  ideology.
• It celebrates the nation or the race as
  an organic community transcending
  all other loyalties.
• Powerful and continuing
  nationalism.
    – Constant use of patriotic mottos,
      slogans, symbols, songs, etc.
    – Flags are seen everywhere.
2. Subordination to the State
  • Fascism seeks forcibly to subordinate
    ALL aspects of society to its vision
    of organic community [usually
    through a totalitarian state].
  • It uses organized violence to suppress
    opposition.
    – Glorification of force.
    – Accepts the tenets of Social Darwinism.
    – Is anti-democratic.
3. Cult of State Worship
• The individual had no significance
  except as a member of the state.

• The fascists were taught:
  – Credere! [to believe]
  – Obbedire! [to obey]
  – Combattere! [to fight]
5. Militarism
        6. Rampant Sexism
• Almost exclusively male-
  dominated.
• Traditional gender roles
  are made more rigid.
• Divorce, abortion &
  homosexuality are
  suppressed.
• The state is represented as
  the ultimate guardian of
  the family institution.
7. Identification of Enemies or
Scapegoats as a Unifying Cause
                • The people are rallied
                  into a unifying patriotic
                  frenzy over the need to
                  eliminate a perceived
                  common threat or foe.
                • This foe could be racial,
                  ethnic, a religious
                  minority, liberals,
                  communists, etc.
8. Disdain for the Recognition of
         Human Rights
• Because of the fear of enemies and the
  need for security, the people are
  persuaded that human rights can be
  ignored out of “need.”

• People look the other way or even
  approve of torture, summary
  executions, long incarcerations of
  prisoners, assassinations, etc.
Jews Are the Enemy!
         9. Religion & Government
              Are Intertwined
• Fascist governments tend to use the most common
  religion in the nation as a tool to manipulate public
  opinion.
• They meld religious rhetoric, symbolism, mythology,
  etc., into their policies [appears to give a religious
  imprimatur to
  government
  policies!]
  10. Disdain for Intellectuals
         & for the Arts

• Open hostility to higher
  education and academia is
  promoted.

• Professors and other academics
  are censored or arrested.

• Free expression in the arts and
  letters is openly attacked.
11. Rampant Cronyism & Corruption

  • Fascist regimes are almost always governed by
    groups of friends and associates who appoint
    each to government positions.
  • This group uses governmental power and
    authority to protect their friends from
    accountability.
  • National resources and even treasures can be
    appropriated or even outright stolen by
    government leaders.
12. Fraudulent Elections
• Sometimes elections are a complete
  sham.
• Other times, elections are
  manipulated by smear campaigns
  against or even assassination of
  opposition candidates.
• The use of legislation to control who
  can vote.
13. Controlled Mass Media
  14. Labor Power is Suppressed;
   Corporate Power is Protected
• Because the organizing power of labor is
  the only real threat to a fascist
  government, labor unions are suppressed
  or independent unions are eliminated.
• The industrial and business aristocracy of
  a fascist state often are the ones who put
  the government leaders into power.
  – This creates a mutually beneficial
    business/government relationship and power
    elite!
  The
 Rise of
Mussolini
Immediate Post-WWproduct of a
 • Fascism, to some extent, was a
                                  I Italy
   general feeling of anxiety and fear among the
   middle class of post-war Italy:
    –   Fears regarding the survival of capitalism.
    –   Economic depression.
    –   The rise of a militant left.
    –   A feeling of national shame and humiliation at
        Italy’s poor treatment by the other Entente leaders
        after World War I [especially at Versailles].
Benito Mussolini (1883-1945)
               • Originally a Marxist.
                  – By 1909 he was
                    convinced that a national
                    rather than an
                    international revolution
                    was necessary.
                  – Edited the Italian
                    Socialist Party
                    newspaper. Avanti!
                    [Forward!].
               Forms a
Mussolini Emmanuel III Government
 • King Victor
   refused to sign a law giving
   the Italian military the
   ability to quell the chaos
   and arrest the Fascists.
 • He invited Mussolini to join
   a coalition government with
   Giolitti.
 • 1925  Mussolini seized
   dictatorial powers during a political crisis [Black Shirts
   murdered one of Mussolini’s chief Socialist critics,
   Giacomo Matteotti].
  The Fascists Consolidate Power
           (1925-1931)
• New laws passed to create the legal basis
  for Italy’s official transformation into a
  single-party state:
  – Independent political parties & trade unions
    were abolished.
  – Freedom of the press was curbed.
  – Special courts created to persecute any
    political opposition.
  – National police force created [with a secret
    police component].
  Italian
  Fascist
Propaganda
   The Fascist Family




The Fascists encouraged the development of large
                    families.
                   Education
• The first sentence
  pronounced by children at
  school was Let us salute the
  flag in the Roman fashion;
  hail to Italy; hail to
  Mussolini.
• Textbooks emphasized:
   – The glorious pat of the ancient
     Romans.
   – The limitations imposed upon
     the present inhabitants by
     geography and the West.
   – The imperial destiny that
     awaited Italy’s future
     development.
Emphasis on Physical Fitness
•
         Anti-Semitism1930s.
  50,000 Jews lived in Italy in the
• Mussolini did NOT implement an extermination
  program in Italy.
   – 75% of Italian Jews survived World War II.
   – 8,000 died in German extermination camps.
• 1938 anti-Semitic laws passed
   – Manifesto degli Scienziati Razzisti [The Manifesto of the
     Racist Scientists].
       • Excluded foreign Jews [most of them were sent to German
         death camps].
       • Forbade all Jews from teaching.
       • Excluded Jews from serving in the government or in the
         military.
•
      Gli Ebrei in Italia
    Provided the intellectual
                                      (1937)
  premise for the 1938 racial
  laws.
• Attacked Jews for:
    – Their alleged Zionist
      sympathies.
    – Their championing of
      degenerate avante-garde
      cultural expressions.
    – For their doubtful loyalty to
      the Fascist regime and its
      imperial claims.
Mussolini Was Hitler’s Role Model
             Rise of Hitler
• Germans resentful of war guilt clause
• Germans suffering under burden of
  reparations
• Hitler promises to make things
  better!
This poster probably comes
from the mid-1930's.

The caption: "Hitler is
building. Help him. Buy
German goods."
This poster makes a clear
Christological comparison.

Just as a dove descended on Christ
when he was baptized by John the
Baptist, so what looks to be an
eagle hovers against the light of
heaven over an idealized Hitler.
The text: "Long live Germany!“


Hitler is depicting himself as a
Christ figure – he will save you.
The Winter Aid
(Winterhilfswerk) was the Nazi
Party charity. Each year there
was a drive to solicit donations
to help the needy.

Contributions were not entirely
"voluntary."

The text translates as: "No one
shall go hungry! No one shall be
cold!"
This poster advertises the Nazi
charity, the NSV.

The text translates: "Health, child
protection, fighting poverty, aiding
travelers, community, helping
mothers: These are the tasks of the
National Socialist People's Charity.
Become a member!"
This poster is probably from the
1936 referendum.

The text: "Before: Unemployment,
hopelessness, desolation, strikes,
lockouts. Today: Work, joy,
discipline, camaraderie. Give the
Führer your vote!"
This 1938 poster was issued shortly
after the Anschluß with Austria.
The caption: "One People, One
Reich, One Führer."
The caption: "The Jew: The
inciter of war, the prolonger
of war."

This poster was released in
late 1943 or early 1944.
This poster dates to early in the
war. A farmer smashes the
blockade. The Allied blockade of
Germany during World War I had
seriously hurt the war effort. The
poster claims that Germany's food
supply is secure in the new war.
The text: "Farmer! You are a
soldier in the battle of production."
• Propaganda found at
• http://www.calvin.edu/academic/cas/gpa/po
  sters2.htm
• Nazi Party organized, 1920s
     • Nazi party largest in Germany, 1932
• Hitler voted as chancellor, 1933
• New parliament created
     • 450, 000 members
     • Larger than German army
            Hitler Gets Busy
•   Gestapo Created -- April, 1933
•   Jewish Boycott – April, 1933
•   Jewish Books Banned & Burned – May, 1933
•   27,000 People in Camps – July, 1933
•   60,000 People in Camps – 1938
 WWII
Europe WWII
       German Territorial Gains
•   Austria – March, 1938
•   Border of Czechoslovakia – Sept., 1938
•   All of Czechoslovakia – March, 1939
•   Poland – Sept., 1939
    – British and French declare war!
    – Need to mobilize their forces.
•
    Alliance That Changes War
• Fall 1940 – Tripartite Agreement
• Germany with Japan and Italy

• Hungary and Bulgaria join soon after
• http://www.cyberlearning-
  world.com/lessons/ushistory/ww2/european
  theater.htm
Invasion of Poland
Denmark, Norway
       The Fall of the French
• Reading “Invading France”
• Read and answer questions
Dunkirk
        The Battle of Britain
• Air bombardment of Great Britain by the
  Germans
         Operation Sea Lion
• Planned naval invasion of GB
Operation Barbarossa- June 1941
• German invasion of USSR in violation of
  non-aggression pact.
• Hitler wanted Russian wheat and oil.
• Hitler has great success early on.
• Russian army retreats…scorched earth
  policy.
• Germans surround Moscow on 3 sides by
  Christmas…
Operation Barbarossa/Stalingrad
• Temps reach -40 degrees
• German tanks freeze, soldiers freeze
• The tide is turning.
• Russian army makes a stand at Stalingrad.
• Capture over 300,000 German troops.
• Russians push other Germans back out of
  Russia.
• Tide has turned – Germans on the run.
  (March 1943)
      Pearl Harbor Dec. 1941
• Causes:
  – Japan wanted to create an Asian Empire
  – They needed more oil and other resources.
  – America was concerned about American lands
    of Guam and Puerto Rico and other lands in
    Asia.
  – Germany wanted Japan to keep USA busy.
  – US cuts off oil supply to Japan.
         Pearl Harbor
         Dec. 7, 1941
The Japanese Attack
http://safari.cbsd.org/?a=57167&ch=5
Damages
    Consequences of the Attack

• 4 battle ships damaged
• Sank or Damaged three cruisers, three destroyers,
  and one minelayer
• Destroyed 188 aircraft
• Left 2,402 killed and 1,282 wounded.
     Consequences of the Attack
•   NOT HIT:
•   Aircraft carriers
•   The power station
•   Shipyard
•   Maintenance
•   Fuel and torpedo storage facilities
•   Submarine piers and headquarters building
              Japanese Losses
• Japanese losses were minimal,
  –   29 aircraft lost
  –   five midget submarines lost
  –   65 servicemen killed or wounded.
  –   One Japanese sailor was captured

  – http://safari.cbsd.org/?a=57167&ch=11
  Consequences of Pearl Harbor
• The US enters European and Asian theaters
  of war.
Pearl Harbor Memorial Today
        Allies United:
U.S.S.R, England and The U.S.
 So how did it all end in Europe?
• As the Soviets push from the East, the
  British and Americans launch an attack to
  push from the West.

• From D-Day…to the End of Germany
  reading
Normandy Invasion,
     D-Day
          D-Day
Landing on Normandy Beach
• What’s happening in Asia while all of this
  is happening in Europe?



• The War in the Pacific Reading and Map
• War in the Pacific
• http://safari.cbsd.org/?a=78445&ch=8

• Effects of the Bombs
• http://safari.cbsd.org/?a=68743&s=00:18:01
  :08&e=00:21:24:00
• http://safari.cbsd.org/?a=106826&ch=1
   What we Knew about Asia…
• Japan had taken control of most of Asia
• Japan used a fight to the death military
  strategy
• Taking small islands cost the US many lives
• Japan did not believe in surrender
• Taking mainland Japan was estimated to
  cost us 1 million lives
               The Bomb
• The US had been working to develop an
  atomic bomb with the help of German
  scientists (many were Jews)
• We planned to use the bomb against Hitler
• Truman did not know anything about the
  bomb program when he became President
• Now he faces a big decision…
               Your Task
• You will analyze the decision to drop the
  bomb.
• Task #1 – What options do we have in
  dealing with Japan? List at least 3. Include
  variations of using the bomb and other non-
  bomb options
• Task #2 – What are the pro’s and con’s of
  each option.
• Task #3 – Write a proposal to Truman
  describing what your team recommends and
  why.
         What should the US do about Japan?
Option         Pro’s                  Con’s

#1




#2




#3
     Your Recommendation:
• Why?
          Poster Assignment
• You and a group will create a poster on one
  of the following three topics from WWII
  – The Bombing of Pearl Harbor
  – The Holocaust
  – The Bombing of Hiroshima/Nagasaki
     Your poster must include
• The Title of your event and the date (or date
  range)
• Data, statistics, or details related to this
  event.
• Images, charts or tables that provide
  additional information.
• Your group will share this information with
  the class.
• Your research for your poster is to be done
  at home, the poster creation will occur at
  school.
• Find and print information at home tonight.
  Poster creation is tomorrow.
Legacy of WWII




     The bombing of Hiroshima killed
      approximately 80,000 instantly.
 The bombing of Nagasaki killed
40,000 instantly. Generations after
 suffered from disease and birth
        defects as a result.
   Cost of WWII: Allies and Axis
                Direct Cost       Military Killed/   Civilians Killed
                                  Missing
U.S.               $288 Billion        292,131               -
Great Britain      $117 Billion        271,311            60,595
France             $111 Billion        205,707            173,260
USSR               $93 Billion       13,600,000          7,720,000


China                                3.5,000,000        10,000,000


Germany            $212 Billion       3,300,000          2,893,000
Japan              $41 Billion        1,140,429           953,000
How do we rebuild the world?

				
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