Introduction: • Most devastating war in human history • 55 million dead • 1 trillion dollars • Began in 1939 as strictly a European Conflict • Widened to include most of the world How did WWI end? • Treaty of Versailles – German war guilt clause. – German reparations. – German forbidden from militarization of Rhineland. – Germans forbidden from aligning with Austrians. How It Began • WWI leftovers • Germany angry about Treaty of Versailles. • Italy victorious but wanted more territory • Japan victorious but wanted China • Outside factors… What Were These Outside Factors? • Organized League of Nations • French and Britain unsure • U.S. isolationist Italian Fascism A Definition of Fascism Fascism is the totalitarian philosophy of government that glorifies the state and nation and assigns to the state control over every aspect of national life. The Characteristics of Fascism 1. Ideology • A form of extreme right-wing ideology. • It celebrates the nation or the race as an organic community transcending all other loyalties. • Powerful and continuing nationalism. – Constant use of patriotic mottos, slogans, symbols, songs, etc. – Flags are seen everywhere. 2. Subordination to the State • Fascism seeks forcibly to subordinate ALL aspects of society to its vision of organic community [usually through a totalitarian state]. • It uses organized violence to suppress opposition. – Glorification of force. – Accepts the tenets of Social Darwinism. – Is anti-democratic. 3. Cult of State Worship • The individual had no significance except as a member of the state. • The fascists were taught: – Credere! [to believe] – Obbedire! [to obey] – Combattere! [to fight] 5. Militarism 6. Rampant Sexism • Almost exclusively male- dominated. • Traditional gender roles are made more rigid. • Divorce, abortion & homosexuality are suppressed. • The state is represented as the ultimate guardian of the family institution. 7. Identification of Enemies or Scapegoats as a Unifying Cause • The people are rallied into a unifying patriotic frenzy over the need to eliminate a perceived common threat or foe. • This foe could be racial, ethnic, a religious minority, liberals, communists, etc. 8. Disdain for the Recognition of Human Rights • Because of the fear of enemies and the need for security, the people are persuaded that human rights can be ignored out of “need.” • People look the other way or even approve of torture, summary executions, long incarcerations of prisoners, assassinations, etc. Jews Are the Enemy! 9. Religion & Government Are Intertwined • Fascist governments tend to use the most common religion in the nation as a tool to manipulate public opinion. • They meld religious rhetoric, symbolism, mythology, etc., into their policies [appears to give a religious imprimatur to government policies!] 10. Disdain for Intellectuals & for the Arts • Open hostility to higher education and academia is promoted. • Professors and other academics are censored or arrested. • Free expression in the arts and letters is openly attacked. 11. Rampant Cronyism & Corruption • Fascist regimes are almost always governed by groups of friends and associates who appoint each to government positions. • This group uses governmental power and authority to protect their friends from accountability. • National resources and even treasures can be appropriated or even outright stolen by government leaders. 12. Fraudulent Elections • Sometimes elections are a complete sham. • Other times, elections are manipulated by smear campaigns against or even assassination of opposition candidates. • The use of legislation to control who can vote. 13. Controlled Mass Media 14. Labor Power is Suppressed; Corporate Power is Protected • Because the organizing power of labor is the only real threat to a fascist government, labor unions are suppressed or independent unions are eliminated. • The industrial and business aristocracy of a fascist state often are the ones who put the government leaders into power. – This creates a mutually beneficial business/government relationship and power elite! The Rise of Mussolini Immediate Post-WWproduct of a • Fascism, to some extent, was a I Italy general feeling of anxiety and fear among the middle class of post-war Italy: – Fears regarding the survival of capitalism. – Economic depression. – The rise of a militant left. – A feeling of national shame and humiliation at Italy’s poor treatment by the other Entente leaders after World War I [especially at Versailles]. Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) • Originally a Marxist. – By 1909 he was convinced that a national rather than an international revolution was necessary. – Edited the Italian Socialist Party newspaper. Avanti! [Forward!]. Forms a Mussolini Emmanuel III Government • King Victor refused to sign a law giving the Italian military the ability to quell the chaos and arrest the Fascists. • He invited Mussolini to join a coalition government with Giolitti. • 1925 Mussolini seized dictatorial powers during a political crisis [Black Shirts murdered one of Mussolini’s chief Socialist critics, Giacomo Matteotti]. The Fascists Consolidate Power (1925-1931) • New laws passed to create the legal basis for Italy’s official transformation into a single-party state: – Independent political parties & trade unions were abolished. – Freedom of the press was curbed. – Special courts created to persecute any political opposition. – National police force created [with a secret police component]. Italian Fascist Propaganda The Fascist Family The Fascists encouraged the development of large families. Education • The first sentence pronounced by children at school was Let us salute the flag in the Roman fashion; hail to Italy; hail to Mussolini. • Textbooks emphasized: – The glorious pat of the ancient Romans. – The limitations imposed upon the present inhabitants by geography and the West. – The imperial destiny that awaited Italy’s future development. Emphasis on Physical Fitness • Anti-Semitism1930s. 50,000 Jews lived in Italy in the • Mussolini did NOT implement an extermination program in Italy. – 75% of Italian Jews survived World War II. – 8,000 died in German extermination camps. • 1938 anti-Semitic laws passed – Manifesto degli Scienziati Razzisti [The Manifesto of the Racist Scientists]. • Excluded foreign Jews [most of them were sent to German death camps]. • Forbade all Jews from teaching. • Excluded Jews from serving in the government or in the military. • Gli Ebrei in Italia Provided the intellectual (1937) premise for the 1938 racial laws. • Attacked Jews for: – Their alleged Zionist sympathies. – Their championing of degenerate avante-garde cultural expressions. – For their doubtful loyalty to the Fascist regime and its imperial claims. Mussolini Was Hitler’s Role Model Rise of Hitler • Germans resentful of war guilt clause • Germans suffering under burden of reparations • Hitler promises to make things better! This poster probably comes from the mid-1930's. The caption: "Hitler is building. Help him. Buy German goods." This poster makes a clear Christological comparison. Just as a dove descended on Christ when he was baptized by John the Baptist, so what looks to be an eagle hovers against the light of heaven over an idealized Hitler. The text: "Long live Germany!“ Hitler is depicting himself as a Christ figure – he will save you. The Winter Aid (Winterhilfswerk) was the Nazi Party charity. Each year there was a drive to solicit donations to help the needy. Contributions were not entirely "voluntary." The text translates as: "No one shall go hungry! No one shall be cold!" This poster advertises the Nazi charity, the NSV. The text translates: "Health, child protection, fighting poverty, aiding travelers, community, helping mothers: These are the tasks of the National Socialist People's Charity. Become a member!" This poster is probably from the 1936 referendum. The text: "Before: Unemployment, hopelessness, desolation, strikes, lockouts. Today: Work, joy, discipline, camaraderie. Give the Führer your vote!" This 1938 poster was issued shortly after the Anschluß with Austria. The caption: "One People, One Reich, One Führer." The caption: "The Jew: The inciter of war, the prolonger of war." This poster was released in late 1943 or early 1944. This poster dates to early in the war. A farmer smashes the blockade. The Allied blockade of Germany during World War I had seriously hurt the war effort. The poster claims that Germany's food supply is secure in the new war. The text: "Farmer! You are a soldier in the battle of production." • Propaganda found at • http://www.calvin.edu/academic/cas/gpa/po sters2.htm • Nazi Party organized, 1920s • Nazi party largest in Germany, 1932 • Hitler voted as chancellor, 1933 • New parliament created • 450, 000 members • Larger than German army Hitler Gets Busy • Gestapo Created -- April, 1933 • Jewish Boycott – April, 1933 • Jewish Books Banned & Burned – May, 1933 • 27,000 People in Camps – July, 1933 • 60,000 People in Camps – 1938 WWII Europe WWII German Territorial Gains • Austria – March, 1938 • Border of Czechoslovakia – Sept., 1938 • All of Czechoslovakia – March, 1939 • Poland – Sept., 1939 – British and French declare war! – Need to mobilize their forces. • Alliance That Changes War • Fall 1940 – Tripartite Agreement • Germany with Japan and Italy • Hungary and Bulgaria join soon after • http://www.cyberlearning- world.com/lessons/ushistory/ww2/european theater.htm Invasion of Poland Denmark, Norway The Fall of the French • Reading “Invading France” • Read and answer questions Dunkirk The Battle of Britain • Air bombardment of Great Britain by the Germans Operation Sea Lion • Planned naval invasion of GB Operation Barbarossa- June 1941 • German invasion of USSR in violation of non-aggression pact. • Hitler wanted Russian wheat and oil. • Hitler has great success early on. • Russian army retreats…scorched earth policy. • Germans surround Moscow on 3 sides by Christmas… Operation Barbarossa/Stalingrad • Temps reach -40 degrees • German tanks freeze, soldiers freeze • The tide is turning. • Russian army makes a stand at Stalingrad. • Capture over 300,000 German troops. • Russians push other Germans back out of Russia. • Tide has turned – Germans on the run. (March 1943) Pearl Harbor Dec. 1941 • Causes: – Japan wanted to create an Asian Empire – They needed more oil and other resources. – America was concerned about American lands of Guam and Puerto Rico and other lands in Asia. – Germany wanted Japan to keep USA busy. – US cuts off oil supply to Japan. Pearl Harbor Dec. 7, 1941 The Japanese Attack http://safari.cbsd.org/?a=57167&ch=5 Damages Consequences of the Attack • 4 battle ships damaged • Sank or Damaged three cruisers, three destroyers, and one minelayer • Destroyed 188 aircraft • Left 2,402 killed and 1,282 wounded. Consequences of the Attack • NOT HIT: • Aircraft carriers • The power station • Shipyard • Maintenance • Fuel and torpedo storage facilities • Submarine piers and headquarters building Japanese Losses • Japanese losses were minimal, – 29 aircraft lost – five midget submarines lost – 65 servicemen killed or wounded. – One Japanese sailor was captured – http://safari.cbsd.org/?a=57167&ch=11 Consequences of Pearl Harbor • The US enters European and Asian theaters of war. Pearl Harbor Memorial Today Allies United: U.S.S.R, England and The U.S. So how did it all end in Europe? • As the Soviets push from the East, the British and Americans launch an attack to push from the West. • From D-Day…to the End of Germany reading Normandy Invasion, D-Day D-Day Landing on Normandy Beach • What’s happening in Asia while all of this is happening in Europe? • The War in the Pacific Reading and Map • War in the Pacific • http://safari.cbsd.org/?a=78445&ch=8 • Effects of the Bombs • http://safari.cbsd.org/?a=68743&s=00:18:01 :08&e=00:21:24:00 • http://safari.cbsd.org/?a=106826&ch=1 What we Knew about Asia… • Japan had taken control of most of Asia • Japan used a fight to the death military strategy • Taking small islands cost the US many lives • Japan did not believe in surrender • Taking mainland Japan was estimated to cost us 1 million lives The Bomb • The US had been working to develop an atomic bomb with the help of German scientists (many were Jews) • We planned to use the bomb against Hitler • Truman did not know anything about the bomb program when he became President • Now he faces a big decision… Your Task • You will analyze the decision to drop the bomb. • Task #1 – What options do we have in dealing with Japan? List at least 3. Include variations of using the bomb and other non- bomb options • Task #2 – What are the pro’s and con’s of each option. • Task #3 – Write a proposal to Truman describing what your team recommends and why. What should the US do about Japan? Option Pro’s Con’s #1 #2 #3 Your Recommendation: • Why? Poster Assignment • You and a group will create a poster on one of the following three topics from WWII – The Bombing of Pearl Harbor – The Holocaust – The Bombing of Hiroshima/Nagasaki Your poster must include • The Title of your event and the date (or date range) • Data, statistics, or details related to this event. • Images, charts or tables that provide additional information. • Your group will share this information with the class. • Your research for your poster is to be done at home, the poster creation will occur at school. • Find and print information at home tonight. Poster creation is tomorrow. Legacy of WWII The bombing of Hiroshima killed approximately 80,000 instantly. The bombing of Nagasaki killed 40,000 instantly. Generations after suffered from disease and birth defects as a result. Cost of WWII: Allies and Axis Direct Cost Military Killed/ Civilians Killed Missing U.S. $288 Billion 292,131 - Great Britain $117 Billion 271,311 60,595 France $111 Billion 205,707 173,260 USSR $93 Billion 13,600,000 7,720,000 China 3.5,000,000 10,000,000 Germany $212 Billion 3,300,000 2,893,000 Japan $41 Billion 1,140,429 953,000 How do we rebuild the world?
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