• Most devastating war in human history
• 55 million dead
• 1 trillion dollars
• Began in 1939 as strictly a European
• Widened to include most of the world
How did WWI end?
• Treaty of Versailles
– German war guilt clause.
– German reparations.
– German forbidden from militarization of
– Germans forbidden from aligning with
How It Began
• WWI leftovers
• Germany angry about Treaty of Versailles.
• Italy victorious but wanted more territory
• Japan victorious but wanted China
• Outside factors…
What Were These Outside
• Organized League of Nations
• French and Britain unsure
• U.S. isolationist
A Definition of Fascism
Fascism is the totalitarian philosophy of
government that glorifies the state and nation
and assigns to the state control over every aspect
of national life.
• A form of extreme right-wing
• It celebrates the nation or the race as
an organic community transcending
all other loyalties.
• Powerful and continuing
– Constant use of patriotic mottos,
slogans, symbols, songs, etc.
– Flags are seen everywhere.
2. Subordination to the State
• Fascism seeks forcibly to subordinate
ALL aspects of society to its vision
of organic community [usually
through a totalitarian state].
• It uses organized violence to suppress
– Glorification of force.
– Accepts the tenets of Social Darwinism.
– Is anti-democratic.
3. Cult of State Worship
• The individual had no significance
except as a member of the state.
• The fascists were taught:
– Credere! [to believe]
– Obbedire! [to obey]
– Combattere! [to fight]
6. Rampant Sexism
• Almost exclusively male-
• Traditional gender roles
are made more rigid.
• Divorce, abortion &
• The state is represented as
the ultimate guardian of
the family institution.
7. Identification of Enemies or
Scapegoats as a Unifying Cause
• The people are rallied
into a unifying patriotic
frenzy over the need to
eliminate a perceived
common threat or foe.
• This foe could be racial,
ethnic, a religious
8. Disdain for the Recognition of
• Because of the fear of enemies and the
need for security, the people are
persuaded that human rights can be
ignored out of “need.”
• People look the other way or even
approve of torture, summary
executions, long incarcerations of
prisoners, assassinations, etc.
Jews Are the Enemy!
9. Religion & Government
• Fascist governments tend to use the most common
religion in the nation as a tool to manipulate public
• They meld religious rhetoric, symbolism, mythology,
etc., into their policies [appears to give a religious
10. Disdain for Intellectuals
& for the Arts
• Open hostility to higher
education and academia is
• Professors and other academics
are censored or arrested.
• Free expression in the arts and
letters is openly attacked.
11. Rampant Cronyism & Corruption
• Fascist regimes are almost always governed by
groups of friends and associates who appoint
each to government positions.
• This group uses governmental power and
authority to protect their friends from
• National resources and even treasures can be
appropriated or even outright stolen by
12. Fraudulent Elections
• Sometimes elections are a complete
• Other times, elections are
manipulated by smear campaigns
against or even assassination of
• The use of legislation to control who
13. Controlled Mass Media
14. Labor Power is Suppressed;
Corporate Power is Protected
• Because the organizing power of labor is
the only real threat to a fascist
government, labor unions are suppressed
or independent unions are eliminated.
• The industrial and business aristocracy of
a fascist state often are the ones who put
the government leaders into power.
– This creates a mutually beneficial
business/government relationship and power
Immediate Post-WWproduct of a
• Fascism, to some extent, was a
general feeling of anxiety and fear among the
middle class of post-war Italy:
– Fears regarding the survival of capitalism.
– Economic depression.
– The rise of a militant left.
– A feeling of national shame and humiliation at
Italy’s poor treatment by the other Entente leaders
after World War I [especially at Versailles].
Benito Mussolini (1883-1945)
• Originally a Marxist.
– By 1909 he was
convinced that a national
rather than an
– Edited the Italian
Mussolini Emmanuel III Government
• King Victor
refused to sign a law giving
the Italian military the
ability to quell the chaos
and arrest the Fascists.
• He invited Mussolini to join
a coalition government with
• 1925 Mussolini seized
dictatorial powers during a political crisis [Black Shirts
murdered one of Mussolini’s chief Socialist critics,
The Fascists Consolidate Power
• New laws passed to create the legal basis
for Italy’s official transformation into a
– Independent political parties & trade unions
– Freedom of the press was curbed.
– Special courts created to persecute any
– National police force created [with a secret
The Fascist Family
The Fascists encouraged the development of large
• The first sentence
pronounced by children at
school was Let us salute the
flag in the Roman fashion;
hail to Italy; hail to
• Textbooks emphasized:
– The glorious pat of the ancient
– The limitations imposed upon
the present inhabitants by
geography and the West.
– The imperial destiny that
awaited Italy’s future
Emphasis on Physical Fitness
50,000 Jews lived in Italy in the
• Mussolini did NOT implement an extermination
program in Italy.
– 75% of Italian Jews survived World War II.
– 8,000 died in German extermination camps.
• 1938 anti-Semitic laws passed
– Manifesto degli Scienziati Razzisti [The Manifesto of the
• Excluded foreign Jews [most of them were sent to German
• Forbade all Jews from teaching.
• Excluded Jews from serving in the government or in the
Gli Ebrei in Italia
Provided the intellectual
premise for the 1938 racial
• Attacked Jews for:
– Their alleged Zionist
– Their championing of
– For their doubtful loyalty to
the Fascist regime and its
Mussolini Was Hitler’s Role Model
Rise of Hitler
• Germans resentful of war guilt clause
• Germans suffering under burden of
• Hitler promises to make things
This poster probably comes
from the mid-1930's.
The caption: "Hitler is
building. Help him. Buy
This poster makes a clear
Just as a dove descended on Christ
when he was baptized by John the
Baptist, so what looks to be an
eagle hovers against the light of
heaven over an idealized Hitler.
The text: "Long live Germany!“
Hitler is depicting himself as a
Christ figure – he will save you.
The Winter Aid
(Winterhilfswerk) was the Nazi
Party charity. Each year there
was a drive to solicit donations
to help the needy.
Contributions were not entirely
The text translates as: "No one
shall go hungry! No one shall be
This poster advertises the Nazi
charity, the NSV.
The text translates: "Health, child
protection, fighting poverty, aiding
travelers, community, helping
mothers: These are the tasks of the
National Socialist People's Charity.
Become a member!"
This poster is probably from the
The text: "Before: Unemployment,
hopelessness, desolation, strikes,
lockouts. Today: Work, joy,
discipline, camaraderie. Give the
Führer your vote!"
This 1938 poster was issued shortly
after the Anschluß with Austria.
The caption: "One People, One
Reich, One Führer."
The caption: "The Jew: The
inciter of war, the prolonger
This poster was released in
late 1943 or early 1944.
This poster dates to early in the
war. A farmer smashes the
blockade. The Allied blockade of
Germany during World War I had
seriously hurt the war effort. The
poster claims that Germany's food
supply is secure in the new war.
The text: "Farmer! You are a
soldier in the battle of production."
• Propaganda found at
• Nazi Party organized, 1920s
• Nazi party largest in Germany, 1932
• Hitler voted as chancellor, 1933
• New parliament created
• 450, 000 members
• Larger than German army
Hitler Gets Busy
• Gestapo Created -- April, 1933
• Jewish Boycott – April, 1933
• Jewish Books Banned & Burned – May, 1933
• 27,000 People in Camps – July, 1933
• 60,000 People in Camps – 1938
German Territorial Gains
• Austria – March, 1938
• Border of Czechoslovakia – Sept., 1938
• All of Czechoslovakia – March, 1939
• Poland – Sept., 1939
– British and French declare war!
– Need to mobilize their forces.
Alliance That Changes War
• Fall 1940 – Tripartite Agreement
• Germany with Japan and Italy
• Hungary and Bulgaria join soon after
Invasion of Poland
The Fall of the French
• Reading “Invading France”
• Read and answer questions
The Battle of Britain
• Air bombardment of Great Britain by the
Operation Sea Lion
• Planned naval invasion of GB
Operation Barbarossa- June 1941
• German invasion of USSR in violation of
• Hitler wanted Russian wheat and oil.
• Hitler has great success early on.
• Russian army retreats…scorched earth
• Germans surround Moscow on 3 sides by
• Temps reach -40 degrees
• German tanks freeze, soldiers freeze
• The tide is turning.
• Russian army makes a stand at Stalingrad.
• Capture over 300,000 German troops.
• Russians push other Germans back out of
• Tide has turned – Germans on the run.
Pearl Harbor Dec. 1941
– Japan wanted to create an Asian Empire
– They needed more oil and other resources.
– America was concerned about American lands
of Guam and Puerto Rico and other lands in
– Germany wanted Japan to keep USA busy.
– US cuts off oil supply to Japan.
Dec. 7, 1941
The Japanese Attack
Consequences of the Attack
• 4 battle ships damaged
• Sank or Damaged three cruisers, three destroyers,
and one minelayer
• Destroyed 188 aircraft
• Left 2,402 killed and 1,282 wounded.
Consequences of the Attack
• NOT HIT:
• Aircraft carriers
• The power station
• Fuel and torpedo storage facilities
• Submarine piers and headquarters building
• Japanese losses were minimal,
– 29 aircraft lost
– five midget submarines lost
– 65 servicemen killed or wounded.
– One Japanese sailor was captured
Consequences of Pearl Harbor
• The US enters European and Asian theaters
Pearl Harbor Memorial Today
U.S.S.R, England and The U.S.
So how did it all end in Europe?
• As the Soviets push from the East, the
British and Americans launch an attack to
push from the West.
• From D-Day…to the End of Germany
Landing on Normandy Beach
• What’s happening in Asia while all of this
is happening in Europe?
• The War in the Pacific Reading and Map
• War in the Pacific
• Effects of the Bombs
What we Knew about Asia…
• Japan had taken control of most of Asia
• Japan used a fight to the death military
• Taking small islands cost the US many lives
• Japan did not believe in surrender
• Taking mainland Japan was estimated to
cost us 1 million lives
• The US had been working to develop an
atomic bomb with the help of German
scientists (many were Jews)
• We planned to use the bomb against Hitler
• Truman did not know anything about the
bomb program when he became President
• Now he faces a big decision…
• You will analyze the decision to drop the
• Task #1 – What options do we have in
dealing with Japan? List at least 3. Include
variations of using the bomb and other non-
• Task #2 – What are the pro’s and con’s of
• Task #3 – Write a proposal to Truman
describing what your team recommends and
What should the US do about Japan?
Option Pro’s Con’s
• You and a group will create a poster on one
of the following three topics from WWII
– The Bombing of Pearl Harbor
– The Holocaust
– The Bombing of Hiroshima/Nagasaki
Your poster must include
• The Title of your event and the date (or date
• Data, statistics, or details related to this
• Images, charts or tables that provide
• Your group will share this information with
• Your research for your poster is to be done
at home, the poster creation will occur at
• Find and print information at home tonight.
Poster creation is tomorrow.
Legacy of WWII
The bombing of Hiroshima killed
approximately 80,000 instantly.
The bombing of Nagasaki killed
40,000 instantly. Generations after
suffered from disease and birth
defects as a result.
Cost of WWII: Allies and Axis
Direct Cost Military Killed/ Civilians Killed
U.S. $288 Billion 292,131 -
Great Britain $117 Billion 271,311 60,595
France $111 Billion 205,707 173,260
USSR $93 Billion 13,600,000 7,720,000
China 3.5,000,000 10,000,000
Germany $212 Billion 3,300,000 2,893,000
Japan $41 Billion 1,140,429 953,000
How do we rebuild the world?