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Arguments

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					Arguments
  ENC 1101
           An argument is frequently imagined as two or more
                 people in a fist fight or shouting match.


                                                                     Boxing matches are
                                                                   clear-cut: there are two
                                                                      opponents and one
                                                                      always has to win.
                                                                     The winner takes the
                                                                   trophy and fame while
                                                                    the loser squirms in a
                                                                  corner with a nosebleed.



Picture: Muhammed Ali punching his opponent in a 1960s boxing match.




            But in the writing world, arguments have
            more to do with a person’s head than with
                         his or her fists.
 When you write an argument, you have to think clearly.
You cannot get mad at the reader and you cannot think the
                 reader is mad at you.




   Your reader is neither your enemy nor your friend.
     He or she is a stranger that you do not know.
             However, you should         do the following when
                           writing an argument:


1. Apologize for your views: “why               Example: “I may not be an expert,
   would you punch yourself in the             but I think that spanking children is
               face?”                                       sort of bad.”



     2.     Say your view is right and the     Example: “There’s no question that
          reader’s view is wrong: it’s not a    spanking is a horrible way to abuse
             winning and losing game               children. Anyone who thinks
                                                  otherwise is out of their mind.”




3.        Insult your reader: “no fighting        Example: “Parents who spank
             below the belt” please!              their kids are a bunch of violent
                                                                idiots.”
           What you need to consider when
                Writing an Argument


        Purpose                           Audience

Why are you writing this           Who are you writing to
     argument?                     and why do you think
                                    they should care?




One of the most annoying       If you knew you were right in an
  situations is having        argument, who would you yell at?
someone pick a fight with
   you for no reason.              a.   Your spouse
                                   b.   Your boss
                                   c.   A judge
                                   d.   A police officer
                       Strategies for Arguments



  1. Use tactful,                              2. Point out
courteous language                           Common Ground




 3. Acknowledge                             4. Grant merits of
differing viewpoints                          differing views




                       5. Rebut differing
                            views
        USE COURTEOUS, TACTFUL LANGUAGE


1. Stay away from sweeping   “People with any intelligence agree that…”
         statements                              Or
                                     “Everybody knows that…”




             Be nice               Not a witch!




2. Don’t label people who       “My opponents say that orphanages
think differently than you          cost less than foster care.”
POINT OUT COMMON GROUND

  Find points on which people
  on all sides of the argument
          can agree on.




 What opinions do you think you
 and your readers, regardless of
       their views, share?




 What does the reader believe?
            Acknowledge Differing Views:
              Strengthens your position in three ways



               It helps you spot flaws in the opposing
                               position



                 It gives the impression that you are a
                  reasonable person, willing to look at
                         the issue from all sides.


                     Readers will be ready to hear
                        what you have to say



Acknowledge opposing views either in the thesis statement, as 2-3
 sentences in the intro, or in a paragraph in the body of the essay.
           Grant Merits of Differing Views


What do you do when an                  Admit that it is a valid point, but
 opposing view clearly                 that your view is still stronger and
    makes sense?                                   PROVE it!



              Differing View:   Johnson’s statement that students
Example:                        should be able to protest is true. No
                                one should take that right away from young
                                        people.


              Your View:    However, using school grounds for
                            protests pulls students away from receiving their
                             education. Protests should be done before and
                                       after school.
               Rebut Differing Views


     Rebut: to show where the opposing argument
                breaks down; show other side’s
                    weaknesses



             A Rebuttal can Take Two Forms:


1. Mention all the points of the other side, and then mention
        your counterargument to each of those points

                             or

  2. Present the first point raised by the opposition and
       rebut that point, them move on to the second
         opposing point and rebut that, and so on.

				
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