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Flexibility

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					        Flexibility
Definition
• Freedom to move, or
• the range of motion available in a
  joint or groups of joints
  (Holland 1968)


Flexibility is specific
• the degree of range of motion is
  specific for each joint.Corbin &
  Noble 1980)


Two types of flexibility
• Static
   – range of movement around a joint with
     no emphasis on speed
• Dynamic
   – the ability to use a range of joint
     movement in the performance of a
     physical activity at either normal or
     rapid speed (Corbin & Noble 1980)
  What is required to
  increase flexibility.

• Training

• Training defined as:
   – a planned, deliberate, and regular
     program of exercises that can
     permanently and progressively increase
     the usable range of motion of a joint or
     set of joints over a period of time (Aten &
     Knight 1978)

• Different to stretching during
  warm-up
   – Which aims to prepares the body for
     exercise.
   – a stretching warm-up program alone will
     not improve flexibility (Corbin & Knight
     1980)
       Why increase
        flexibility ?
Flexibility training programs can
  have both Qualitative and/or
  quantitative benefits.

• Leads to muscle relaxation
   – can reduce stress and tension


• Reduction of lower back pain

• Improves posture and symmetry

• Enhance performance of certain skills

• Reduce risk of injury
Skill enhancement and
reduced risk of injury.
• Increases in range of motion
  allow forces to be applied over a
  greater distance and for longer
  periods of time
• This in turn leads to increases in
  velocities and power of
  movement (Ciullo & Zarins 1983)

• Studies have reported a
  decreased incidence of
  musculoskeletal injuries when
  their subjects embarked on a
  program of stretching exercises
  during their competitive season
• (Ekstrand et al 1983, Millar
  1976)

• This is due to subjects exhibiting
  extreme ranges of motion without
  damaging the surrounding tissue
       Methods of
       stretching
• Ballistic
• Static
• PNF
 (Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation)

Ballistic stretching pro’s
• Ballistic stretching appears to be
  specific to the nature of a lot of
  sports
• and would appear to help the
  development of dynamic flexibility.
• can be less boring than static
  stretching

Ballistic stretching con’s
• lack of time for tissues to adapt
• can result in soreness or injury
• Initiation of stretch reflex which
  creates tension in the muscles
     Static stretching

• Slow build up in tension evokes
  an inverse stretch reflex which
  induces relaxation in the muscle.

• Will probably result in less
  muscle soreness.

• Can be performed in different
  ways.

• Stretch on own.

• Stretch with partner

• Slow stretch held for 15 seconds
              PNF
  proprioceptive neuromuscular
           facilitation

• Applies the concept of reflex
  activation and inhibition.

• Maximum contraction of the
  muscle leads to maximum
  relaxation of the same muscle.

• Repeat procedure each time
  increasing the range of
  movement.

• Reciprocal relaxation
   – contraction of the agonist
     muscle at the antagonists end
     of the range
   – leads to relaxation of the
     antagonist muscle and
     potential to stretch further
Duration and frequency
     of stretching


• Stretches should be held
  for at least 15 seconds

• Each stretch should be
  repeated 3 to 5 times


• However, optimal training
  routines still debatable.
  Age and flexibility
    development

• Flexibility can be
  improved at any age

• The rate of improvement
  in flexibility declines with
  age

• The potential for
  improvement in flexibility
  declines with age
 Flexibility and Sports
     Performance
• Can flexibility improve sports
  performance?
• Is there any evidence for or
  against its use?
• Difficult issue to research
   – Static/dynamic/dynamic-active flexibility
   – Dynamic measures more objective
   – Difficult to compare studies
• Relationship of flexibility to
  performance likely sport
  dependent
• Stretch-shorten cycle: jumping
  and throwing improved by
  improving dynamic flexibility
• Long distance running: energy
  cost of repetitive movements
  inversely related to flexibility

				
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posted:3/4/2012
language:English
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