Project 1 PJM RTO by dffhrtcv3

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									  Project 1
PJM: RTO
            By
  Nishant Patel
   Chirag Patel
                      Contents
   Introduction & Governance
   PJM as RTO
   PJM Operations
   Transmission Services
   PJM Market
   Ancillary Services
   Blackstart Service
   Transmission Control
                   Introduction
 PJM operates world’s largest competitive wholesale
  electricity market.
 It manages a long-term regional electric transmission
  planning process to maintain the reliability of the power
  supply system.
 PJM was designated an RTO (Regional Transmission
  Organization) by the Federal Energy Regulatory
  Commission (FERC) in 2001.
 PJM, headquartered in Valley Forge, Pennsylvania
 Ensures the reliability in 13 states and the District of
  Columbia.
Introduction
        Introduction/About PJM
 13 States: Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky,
  Maryland, Michigan, New Jersey, North Carolina, Ohio,
  Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia and the
  District of Columbia

 Complexity:
  1271 Generation Resources with Diverse Fuel
  Over 56,250 Miles of Transmission Lines
  Over 51 Million People Served
  Generating capacity - 164,905 MW
  Annual energy delivery - 729 million MWh
         Introduction/About PJM
 Uniqueness:
 Single Control Area in NERC Region
 Area Served: 13 States + DC

   Members/Customers:
   Member Companies ~ 500 +
   Transmission Svc. Customers ~ 100 +
   Cumulative Billing (since 1997) ~ $74 Billion
        Introduction/About PJM
 PJM is currently the largest centrally dispatched entity in
  North America
 PJM -144,644*
 MISO -136,520
 ERCOT -63,056
 California -50,538
 New York -33,879
 New England -27,401
                             * Peak load in MW as of Summer, 2006
Introduction/About PJM
  PJM -RTO Worldwide Comparison
                   Introduction
 How is PJM different from Local Utility?
PJM does:
• Maintain the “big picture” of the transmission system
   regardless of ownership.
• Have, by agreement, operational control of the transmission
   system.
• Operate as “profit neutral.”
• Remain totally independent of all PJM members.
• Coordinates maintenance of generation and transmission
   systems.
                   Introduction
 How is PJM different from Local Utility?
PJM does not:
• Own any transmission or generation assets.
• Function as a publicly traded company.
• Take ownership of the energy on the system.
• Perform the actual maintenance on generators or
   transmission systems.
• Serve, directly, any end use (retail) customers.
                   Governance
         Two Tire Governance Structure
 INDEPENDENT BOARD – 10 Members
  Elected by Members’ Committee

   MEMBERS’ COMMITTEE
   Formed by Sectoral Voting
   Provide advice & recommendations to PJM Board.
   Amend the operating agreement subject to FERC approval
Governance
   Governance
PJM Committee Structure
                    PJM as RTO
 What is RTO ?
 An entity that is independent from all generation and
  power marketing interests and has exclusive responsibility
  for grid operations, short-term reliability, and transmission
  service within a region.

   Independence from market participants
   Appropriate scope and regional configuration
   Possession of operational authority
   Exclusive authority to maintain short-term reliability
                  PJM as RTO
                    RTO Functions

 Administer tariff
 Manage congestion
 Develop and implement procedures to address parallel path
  flow
 Supply ancillary services
 Operate OASIS
 Monitor market
 Plan and coordinate transmission additions and upgrades
                   PJM as RTO
                     Benefits of RTO

 Security-constrained economic dispatch, which involves
  using the least-cost generators to meet load on the system,
  allows PJM to operate a reliable and efficient bid-based
  market
 This method of dispatching has proven cost savings
 For Eg.: Market integrations in the year 2004 within PJM
  have resulted in a cost savings of $84.5 million for
  wholesale customers in the Eastern Interconnection
          PJM Daily Operations
 The three time-frames pertinent to the daily operation are:

   1) Prescheduling

   2) Scheduling

   3) Dispatch
      PJM Daily Operations
Prescheduling, scheduling & dispatch timeline
PJM Daily Operations
Scheduling
timeline
  PJM Daily Operations
Dispatch > Dispatch Operations Center
          PJM Daily Operations
                   Dispatch Functions
 Make sure that enough generation is available or is running
  to satisfy the end users demand
 Monitor, operate and control the high voltage transmission
  system in a reliable manner.
 Enables power system to follow load as it moves from
  valley, to peak, to valley over a 24-hour period under
  Economic Generation Control.
 Dispatch Control Center operates, controls, and monitors
  both generation and transmission
         Transmission Services
• Ensure Security of the Transmission System
• Monitor Transfer Limitations
• Monitor Thermal Constraints
• Contingency Analysis
• Direct Emergency Operations
• Direct Off-Cost Operations
  –Generation Shifts
  –Contract Curtailments
• Coordinate Switching
         Two Settlement Market
 TSM provides PJM Market Participants with the option to
  participate in a forward market for electric energy in PJM

 Consists of two markets
 Day-ahead Market
 Real-time Energy Market

 Separate settlements are performed for each market
         Two Settlement Market
 Day-ahead Market
 –Day-ahead schedule uses least-cost unit commitment and
  economic dispatch programs
 –Hourly LMPs for next Operating Day calculated using
  generation offers, demand bids, and bilateral transaction
  schedules
 Real-time Energy Market
 –calculate hourly LMPs based on actual operating
  conditions
Two Settlement Market
Day Ahead Market Information Flow
Ancillary Services
Ancillary Services
Ancillary Services
             Ancillary Services
• eDART
   Internet based system that allows communication of
  system information between PJM and member company
  dispatchers, i.e. Generation and Transmission Outage
  Tickets.
 ALL-CALL
  Used by PJM operations staff to simultaneously
  disseminate information to transmission and generation
  control centers.
 Ancillary Tools
   Video Graphic Recorders (VGRs) —VGRs are used to display
   and record the following:

1. LSE net generation, interchange information, control information, and
   other critical operating data.
2. Informational TV — This TV is used to obtain weather and Emergency
   information from selected local network and cable channels.
3. Weather Data — Weather reports are printed from the Internet, as posted
   by the vendor.
4. Direct Phone Lines — Direct telephone line communication is available
   between PJM, the Local Control Centers, LSEs and between PJM and
   adjacent Control Areas.
                 Ancillary Services
 Ancillary Tools

5. Dynamic Mapboard — The dynamic mapboard displays selected
   system data; status of lines, transformers, capacitors, and generators;
   and the results of security analysis of the bulk power transmission
   system.

6. Satellite Communications – Push-to-talk all-call and direct point-to-
   point satellite communications exists with PJM participants and
   participating external entities as back-up communications
                   Reserves


Reserves are the additional capacity above the expected
load. Scheduling excess capacity protects the power
system against the uncertain occurrence of future operating
events, including the loss of capacity or load forecasting
errors.
          Monitoring Reserves


 On a daily basis the PJM dispatcher performs an
  Instantaneous Reserve Check (IRC).

 When the PJM Generation dispatcher requests an IRC,
  member dispatchers report the information via eDART.
             Loading Reserves

 During disturbance conditions (i.e., loss of generation
  and/or transmission resources), synchronized reserve and,
  to the extent necessary, Non-Synchronized Reserves are
  used to recover the Area Control Error, so that tie line
  schedules are maintained.
  PJM PROCEDURES
• Step 1 - requests an IRC.
• Step 2 - PJM dispatcher deter mines the following values:
     • Operating Reserve
     • Adjusted Primary Reserve versus Primary Reserve Requirement.
     • Adjusted Synchronized Reserve versus Synchronized Reserve
          Requirement
     • Unaccounted for capacity
     • Area Synchronized Reserve levels

• Step 3 - compares the values, corresponding objectives to determine reserve
     deficiencies.

• Step 4 - Using the PJM eDART, PJM dispatcher reports the results of the
     IRC to the Generation Owners/Transmission Owners.
                 Actions on loading reserve
PJM dispatcher determines the approximate amount and location of lost
   generation, and the amount of Synchronized Reserve that must be
   loaded to:
1. Correct for the sudden loss of generation

2. Return interchange transfers or other thermal or reactive limitations to
   within the appropriate limits

3. Implement 100% synchronized reserves and /or contingency
   reserves (quick start) if the unit loss > 80% of the largest unit
   contingency and there is insufficient regulation and economic
   generation to recover the ACE
                         PJM Actions
4. Load a percentage of the Synchronized Reserve (typically
   100%) in the appropriate control zone(s).

5. Select the most effective response respecting the requirements
   of the regional reserve sharing programs in which PJM is a
   participant.

6. If loading of Synchronized Reserve may continue for longer
   than ten minutes, PJM dispatcher includes this statement in the
   PJM ALL-CALL message.
                         PJM Actions
7. Contact external systems to implement Shared Reserves.

8. Requests the loading of an appropriate amount of non
   synchronized reserve (as required).

9. If Synchronized Reserve that is being loaded is not sufficient
   to recover the system, load synchronized Secondary Reserve.

 PJM dispatcher evaluates the effect.
               Regulation

 Purpose: To provide for the continuous
  balancing of generation and load.
                  Regulation

 Regulation for each Control Zone is supplied from
  resources that are located within that zone.
 Requirements
  • The Regulation Requirement for the PJM RTO is 1.0%
      of the forecast peak load for the entire day.
  • Regulation range of a resource is at least twice the
      amount of Regulation assigned.
                   Regulation
 Resource owners wishing to provide Regulation in the
  PJM control area are required to submit the following data
  via eMKT no later than 6:00 p.m. day-ahead:

  •   Offer MW
  •   Offer Price
  •   Available Status
  •   Regulation Max MW
  •   Regulation Min MW
            Regulation Signals


Resource owners will receive from PJM:

• AReg – Assigned Regulation: This is the assigned hourly
regulation quantity (MW) that is cleared from the regulation
market system.


• RegA – Real-time instantaneous resource owner fleet regulation
  signal (+/- MW)
           Regulation Signals
 Resource owners will send to PJM:
 TReg – Total Regulation. This is the real-time fleet
 regulation capability (MW) that represents the active
 resource owner’s ability to regulate.

 CReg – Current Regulation. This is the real-time fleet
 regulation feedback (+/- MW) that represents the active
 position of the fleet with respect to the +/- TReg capability.
        Dispatching Regulation


PJM obtains the most cost efficient Regulation, order based
on the total cost of each available resource to provide
Regulation, including real time opportunity cost and the
resource’s Regulation offer price.
Qualifying Regulating Resources


An Area Regulation (AR) test is used for both certifying and
verifying regulating capability for a resource.
During the AR test, the AR signal is fixed for the
following four ten-minute periods:

• T0-T10
• T10-T20
• T20-T30
• T30-T40
Area Regulation (AR) test
             Blackstart Service

 Purpose: To determine critical black start generating units
  and to maintain their ability to be used in restoring the
  power system in the event of a blackout.
             Blackstart Service
 Minimum Critical Unit Requirements
 There must be sufficient critical blackstart to serve critical
 load and at least a minimum of three critical black start units
 for each transmission zone
             Blackstart Service
 PJM Actions:

 PJM has collected the list of critical black start units by
 Transmission Zone.

 It will analyze the critical black start units to ensure an
 adequate amount of black start generation exists on the
 system.

 It will also analyze any exceptions to the three units per
 zone rule internally and through the SOS committee.
     Conditions for black start units.
 Ability of being started and can close an output circuit breaker to a dead
  bus without energy from other PJM generating units or demonstrated
  ability to operate at reduced levels upon automatic isolation from the grid
  in such a way that it meets all requirements.

 The generating unit is located where black start capability is determined by
  the LCC and/or PJM to be useful to system restoration.

 The generating unit must have the ability to close the output breaker to a
  dead bus within 90 minutes of the request from the local Transmission
  Owner or PJM.

    A generating unit that is needed for system restoration and participates in
    blackstart service tests and System Restoration Drills may be eligible for
    compensation under black start service
        Performance Standards
    Each black start unit shall meet the following performance
     standards:
1.   The ability to self-start without any source of electric power from
     another PJM Capacity Resource.
2.   Ability to operate at reduced levels when automatically
     disconnected from the grid.
3.   The ability to close into a dead (de-energized) bus. This may be
     demonstrated by
     (a) physically closing the generator breaker connected to a dead bus
     while the unit is running or
     (b) by a test that simulates closing the generator breaker while only
     the generator side of the breaker is energized.
         Performance Standards
4.   The capability to maintain frequency under varying load.

5.   The capability to maintain voltage under varying load.

6.    Ability for to maintain rated output for a duration as identified by
      the System Restoration Requirements.

7.   In addition to these unit-specific performance standards, each black
     start generation owner must maintain procedures for the startup of
     black start generation at each black start generating station.
              Testing of Unites
 Annual tests shall include:
  • Starting and bringing the resource to synchronous
     speed without assistance from a system electrical
   feed.
  • Testing of all communication circuits.
  • Simulating switching needed to connect the black
   start unit to the transmission system following a
   system blackout.
  • Testing the features unique to each facility that
   relate to Black Start Service.
   Transmission Facility Control
 Identifies major problems and the means of correction

  • How PJM controls for reactive limits

  • How PJM controls voltage

  • How PJM responds to overloaded transmission facilities.

  • Description of regional reliability.
                Voltage Control
  Action in a Low-Voltage Situation
• PJM dispatcher requests all Generation Owners/Transmission
Owners to implement the heavy-load voltage schedule.

• PJM dispatcher requests that synchronous condensers and
switchable capacitors be placed in service.

• All units in operation are supplying maximum MVAR
capability.

• Adjusts 500/230 kV transformer taps to optimize system
voltage.
                Voltage Control
 If system voltages is overly sensitive to slight increases in
  transfer levels, PJM dispatcher reduces power transfers
  into the reactive deficient area stabilizes voltages and
  system conditions
 Reduces the limit, until voltage stability is achieved.
 PJM dispatcher issues a Manual Load Dump Warning and
  takes appropriate Emergency procedures.
       Action in a High-Voltage
               Situation
 PJM dispatcher requests ,

 The Transmission Owners to disconnect all switchable
  capacitors and adjust 500/230 kV transformer taps to
  optimize system voltage.

 System reactors be placed in service where available.

 The Generation Owners/Transmission Owners to operate
  units to absorb reactive power.

 Neighboring Control Areas to assist in reducing voltage.
       Action in a High-Voltage
               Situation
 Transmission Owners to reset desired voltage on Static Var
  Compensators (SVCs).

 If using real-time program, PJM dispatcher determines
  that opening the 500 kV circuit causes no overloads, PJM
  dispatcher directs the Transmission Owner to open this line
  at both terminals.

 PJM dispatcher may not open more than one 500 kV
  circuit for voltage control in an area.
          Thermal Overloaded
             Transmission

 Apply effective corrective actions
 • Transformer tap adjustments
 • Phase-angle regulator adjustments
 • Capacitor/reactor switching
 • Pre-studied line switching
 • Curtailment of non-firm transactions not willing to pay
 for congestion
Operation Center
   Shift Supervisor
Operation Center
Generation System Operator
Operation Center
  Master Coordinator
This is all about PJM

								
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