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					Napoleon’s registration principles in present times: The Dutch
                  System of Key Registers
                                   Yvette Ellenkamp
          Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM)
                    The Netherlands, yvette.ellenkamp@minvrom.nl

                                    Bart Maessen
                              Cadastre, the Netherlands
                              bart.maessen@kadaster.nl

Abstract
    Developing key registers aims to achieve what Napoleon's paper registration
system did two centuries ago: create a clear system of unique data whereby "one-
stop collection, multiple use" improves the availability and quality of the data.

Keywords: key registers, spatial data infrastructure, geo-information, address,
buildings, cadastre

1.      INTRODUCTION

    It is more and more necessary that citizens, companies and other institutions can
rely on a government with a good, swift and reliable service. Further it is obvious that
not too much tax payers money is spent.

     The government within the Netherlands is improving its information infrastructure
at this moment. The system of key registers is one of the means to achieve the
above set goal. The system of key registers makes sure that share of information is
easy and that it becomes unnecessary to store the data itself or to keep track of
changes itself. With these developments a lot of formal forms and related procedures
are not necessary any more. This will save money, time and effort. The ultimate goal
is that within the Netherlands there is a government that:
− does not ask twice
− is customer oriented and pro-active
− is not fooled around with (or does not take everything for granted)
− knows what it is talking about
− is properly organised
− does not spend more money than is necessary
− must have access to reliable, high quality digital information. Key registers form
     the basis for this.

     The key registers are amongst others the registrations of:
−    Buildings
−    Addresses
−    Cadastral Parcels
−    Persons
−    Companies
−    Topography (small scale and large scale)
−    Real estate value

    Some of the key registers contain spatial data, others have a more administrative
character. The key registers that contain spatial data (e.g. Addresses, Buildings and
the Cadastral Registration) together contribute to the Spatial Data Infrastructure and
are part of the implementation strategy of GIDEON (the Dutch Key geo-information
facility, Van Barneveld (2009)).

     The main characteristics of a key register are amongst others:
−    Regulation by law
−    The content is well defined
−    Quality assurance.
−    Obligation to use. The whole government is by law obliged to use the key register
     to prevent the multiple collecting of the same data. Think of the number of times a
     citizen is forced to fill in forms with the same the same information (e.g. address,
     tax information, company information).
−    Error reporting. If a user of the key register detects a mistake in the register, the
     user is by law obliged to report it to the source which then by law is obliged to do
     research and improve or repair the data.

    The paper will describe in chapter 2 the way the individual key registers are
designed, implemented and supposed to operate. To explain the characteristics
further the paper will describe the Key Registers of Addresses and Buildings in more
detail.

    The key registers themselves are already useful, but the system of all key
registers together makes the Information Infrastructure very strong. In the system of
key registers there are many relations between key registers with which single
collected information is multiply used throughout the government. In chapter 3 the
relations between key registers and the "Excellent Data Flow of Key Information" will
be described. Chapter 3 will conclude with an example of a relation: the Dutch
Cadastre now runs a pilot to realize the data flow between addresses and cadastral
parcels.

    In chapter 4 the use of the system of key registers will be described and chapter
5 will conclude with some important issues and an overview with lessons learned so
far and what steps are necessary for the future.

2.      INDIVIDUAL KEY REGISTERS

2.1 Some History on the information infrastructure in The Netherlands

    The roots of the Cadastre in the Netherlands are based on developments two
centuries ago in France. The absolute power of the French kings and the power of
the nobility and church were replaced by the new banner: Liberté, Egalité and
Fraternité. With the help of the democratic movement of Dutch patriots the French
took power of the Netherlands. The first recorded use of addresses in the
Netherlands has happened when French troops during the occupation were issued
house numbers in order to find their lodgings.

    During the French period the French tax laws were applicable, amongst others
the tax on land use, the so called Code Napoléon. To do this it was necessary to
measure land use, size and ownership. Hence the necessity of a Cadastre, which is
in fact the first key registry in the Netherlands. The build up of the Cadastre was
started about 1811 and took several decades. By then the French were long gone,
but future rulers of the Netherlands saw this land registry as a source of tax income.
On the first of January 1832 the Cadastre was operational.

    In the period before 1795 there was no central overview of the composition and
size of the Dutch population. In 1796 the French established in some parts of the
Netherlands a civil registry. In 1811 this was done everywhere throughout the
Netherlands as part of the previous mentioned Code Napoléon. Every birth, mariage
and death certificates were being registered. In 1850 maintaining this civil registry
became the duty of the municipalities.

2.2 Theory on key registers

    The basic idea is as that key registers are established with the single purpose of
storing, keeping it up to date and distributing a coherent dataset for a certain theme
for public use within the government. The themes must not overlap to avoid double
work. Further there are supposed to be no gaps between the themes.

   The Dutch government with regards to key registers is organised in:
   - 6 ministries
   - 15 governmental agencies
   - 12 provinces
   - 25 water boards
   - 441 municipalities

   4500 geo information employees/professionals (CAP Gemini 2008)

   140.000 employees in public sector using key registers based on Geo datasets.

  75.000.000 contact moments between citizen and government (all levels) where
GEO info is the basis.

    Since there are six ministries involved it was a bridge too far that there is one
general law on key registers. Such a general law would imply that the ministry of the
interior is the director of all the key registers. That is from a political point of view
impossible. Instead there are laws for each key register separate, mostly based on
common understandings. Further to make the system of key registers work there are
12 fundamental conditions to be addressed.

    A key register must be established by law. The purpose of the law is to give the
key register a sound legal basis for collecting and maintaining a dataset. The law
guarantees that the dataset is always as correct and reliable as described. The
existence of the dataset makes it unnecessary and it is also prohibited for other
governmental organizations to collect the same or part of the dataset independently.

   Obligation to report errors or other irregularities. No key register is 100 % correct.
The trick is to be as sure as possible. If some issues are discovered it is required to
report them to the proper key register. The key register is thus albe to improve their
quality.

    Obligation to use. Data collection on a particular field is done exclusively by one
of the key registers. It is not allowed that other key registers collect and maintain the
same dataset. It is required that the key registers make use of each others datasets.

    Liability. If there are economic damages (e.g. loss of value of property) because
of the wrong use of a dataset of a key register or because of not using the dataset of
the key register, the governmental department involved is liable for legal procedures.

   Finance. When spending money in one key register, it is quite obvious that other
key registers get the benefit. The way costs and benefits are shared is essential
within the system of key registers. This distribution must be transparent to be
effective.

     Content well defined. The content of each key register must be well defined and
clear to all involved. If one key register fails to do its task properly other key registers
will not be able to function. This must be described in the general data catalogues.

    Procedures and standards for data distribution. It is obvious that to make the data
flow between key registers work, there must be agreements on several issues. First
there must be standards and exchange formats for the data flows between the key
registers. Further release management on these standards must be addressed.

    Accessibility. Some key registers are public, others are restricted in their use
because of privacy issues for persons. For public key registers the main issue is to
be as accessible as possible. For restricted key registers the main issue is to have
the proper authorization procedures.

    Quality Assurance. Since the key register is the only source of information it is
essential that the quality is unquestionable. The drive to have the highest quality
must be such that there are quality procedures to establish this. Two goals are the
most important. First there is the obligation of reporting errors (in case of problems)
by the users. Second there must be audit procedures.

   Obliged involvement. When requirements on a key register change because of
new or changed laws, it is essential that all the parties dependent on this key register
keep up with this.

    Relations between key registers. It is essential that the relations between data
sets of key registers are properly maintained. E.g. for each parcel it must be possible
to get the correct address of the premise which is situated on that parcel.

    Control and responsibilities. Key registers are part of a chain. There for it is vital
that changes and release management are done in agreement with the parties
involved. Usually there are committees which consists of delegates of the appropriate
organisations.

The GIDEON policy document is one of the means to make the system of key
registers a success. This is described in detail in van Barneveld, 2009.

2.3 Cost/Benefits of the key registers

    There are no numbers and figures available which show costs and benefits for all
the key registers combined. The general feeling is they must be huge. For each key
register there are more or less estimates available. As an example the Key Register
of Addresses and Buildings is discussed below.

    According to Mom, Peter. (2006) the Key Register of Addresses and Buildings
can deliver a benefit of 10% for the municipalities. The estimation is that each
municipality have base costs of € 225.000. Further there are additional costs which
depend on the availability and built up of a digital maps and data of the buildings and
their addresses within the municipality.

    Hulsker, W et al (2004) estimates that nationwide about € 84.000.000 is
necessary to built up the Key Register of Addresses and Buildings. This investment
delivers a benefit for the society of nearly € 250.000.000. There is even the possibility
of realising a benefit of € 390.000.000 for the government because of the better
quality of the registration results in higher and more accurate tax claims.

       The benefits are not just financial. Some other qualitative benefits are:
−      Enhancing public security
−      Better meeting demands with regards to crisis and disaster management
−      Higher control on execution of laws and regulations

   Whether these estimates are actually true still need to be established. The
system of key registers is not in place yet. But the potential is huge.

2.4 Organization of the implementation and maintenance of the individual key
    registers

    The concept of the key registers gives the impression that there is one
governmental body who is responsible for the operational execution. That is only
applicable for the Trade Register and the Cadastre. For all the other key registers
many governmental bodies and departments are involved. These are depicted in
Figure 1. First there is the ministry which is responsible for all the governmental and
law issues. There always is a central facility1 which contains a collection of all copies
of the local datasets of the key register. This central facility is mainly responsible for
supply of information towards other key registers and all other parties involved. This
central facility is fed usually on a daily basis by the local registers. The local register
is responsible for collecting and maintaining the dataset within a certain region. In
most cases these local authorities are the 441 municipalities in the Netherlands. For
many key registers it’s these municipalities where all the work is actually done. The
second central facility is the reporting facility 2. The reporting facility is used in case of
errors detected by consumers and users of the datasets of the key register. For all
these parties to work together there is a need for standards, procedures and
conventions between all connection points.
                      Figure 1: The generic layout of a key register, parties involved

                                                            Ministry

                                               Standards               Standards
                                             Source registries         consumer

                                  Local Registry
                Consumer at
                                    City of
                municipality
                               …




                                   Amsterdam                                   Consumer



                                                            Central
                                                                               Consumer
                                                            Registry

                                  Local Registry
                Consumer at
                                    City of
                municipality                               Reporting
                                   Rotterdam                                   Consumer
                                                            Facility



                               Municipalities          Central                Users

    Since there is more than one key register, within each municipality there exists a
local system of key registers which is a miniature reflection of the national key

1
    In Dutch: Landelijke voorziening
2
    In Dutch: Terugmeld voorziening
registers. Within the scope of the municipality all these local key registers are linked
with all the other local key registers. All these local key Registers are linked with their
central counterpart.

              Figure 2: The central facility and the registries within the municipality




2.5 Example of a key register: The Key Registers of Addresses and Buildings

    This key register is regulated in one law and is always used as if it were one key
register, but in fact it is constituted by two strictly tight to each other, but seperate key
registers: the Key Register of Addresses (BRA) which lists all towns, street names
and house numbers and the Key Register of Buildings (BGR) which contains data on
buildings, premises, (semi) permanent locations and moorings. They are combined
into one key register because there is a strong linkage between a building and the
addresses involved.
            Figure 3: the data model of the Key Registers of Addresses and Buildings



   Key Register of Addresses           Municipality



                                           Town



                                       House Number                     Street Name



        Mooring place                     Premise                    Permanent location



                                          Building               Key Register of Buildings


    The BRA and BGR are municipal registers, jointly known as the Key Registers of
Addresses and Buildings (BAG). All municipal data is made available centrally
through a central facility managed by the Dutch Cadastre as is already shown in
Figure 1.

   The Key Registers of Addresses and Buildings are subject to statutory
regulations relating to quality assurance and protection of privacy, among others.
Use of the key registers is a statutory obligation for the government. The Key
Registers of Addresses and Buildings Bill has been accepted and will take effect in
mid-2009. This Bill sets out the key issues regarding the registration of addresses
and buildings. This includes allocating tasks and responsibilities to the relevant
administrative bodies and describing the content of the registration and storage of
source documents. The result is a national system providing central access to the
municipal registers. The Bill also covers topics such as mandatory use and the
feedback obligation of errors in data with the help of the central reporting facility, also
depicted in Figure 1.

    Municipal authorities must build their registration with an automated BAG
application. The data must be of the highest quality and all data and processes are
subjected to quality tests. Once the municipal registers are in order, they can be
linked to the central facility following conformity tests of the BAG application and
communications. These quality controls are intended to ensure that users have
access to reliable data.

    From the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment, the BAG
project team monitors and coordinates the implementation of the Key Registers for
Addresses and Buildings (which implementation is carried out by the municipalities)
in order to ensure a consistent registration system.

    Municipal authorities develop and manage the Key Registers for Addresses and
Buildings, while the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment
introduces the legislation and establishes (at the Cadastre) the central facility. All
government agencies are responsible for implementing the BAG. The Ministry
supports the municipal authorities in setting up their registers. Section 2.3 has shown
that the benefits for the government outweigh the costs. However, these studies did
not cover qualitative benefits for municipal authorities or other government bodies;
investment is needed before these benefits can be achieved. The costs and benefits
may vary from one municipal authority to another. A system of budget financing will
be developed for the use of the BAG by the government, while compensation for
issuing data to private parties will be determined.

    An important part of the implementation process of the BAG involves providing
support to municipal authorities through contact groups. Municipal authorities are
divided into groups (of about twenty). The Ministry supports each group in the
implementation process until the quality test (admission audit) of their data and
processes and upload to the national system. However, the municipal authorities
remain responsible for implementing the BAG.

    The BAG project also supports municipal authorities by supplying the necessary
guides and documents. The ‘BAG tool kit’ contains useful publications to facilitate the
implementation of the BAG in municipalities. The BAG tool kit consists of: the
principles, the implementation guide, the objects manual, the processes manual and
the step-by-step plan.

    The municipal authorities are the data owners of the BAG and must operate an
automated BAG application for this purpose. The BAG applications feed the central
facility which supplies data to users. Because the data must be of the highest quality,
all data and processes will be subjected to a quality assessment (admission audit).
The BAG application and communications with the national system by suppliers will
be subject to a conformity test, while municipal authorities will be subject to a link-up
test. These quality controls are intended to ensure that users have access to reliable
data.

   The aim of the BAG is to facilitate multiple use of this data by government
agencies. Facilities will therefore be developed to enable them to acquire the data.
The catalogue of products and services describes the initial services that will be
developed and is available online. Government agencies must prepare the
implementation of the BAG in good time, as this will affect many information flows
and processes within their organizations. The BAG project can offer support with
problems arising in linking up with the BAG.

    The data in the key registers are data from the government, except the postal
code. The postal code in The Netherlands is owned by the Postal Organisation which
is commercial. For the Key Register of Addresses the postal code was however
considered as important because the postal code is heavily used within many
processes. Therefore an agreement was established between the Dutch
municipalities, the Postal Organization TNT Post and the Ministry of Housing, Spatial
Planning and the Environment (VROM). In this agreement it was agreed that the
commercial postal organization would receive changes in addresses from the
municipalities for free and in exchange for that, the municipalities can use the postal
code for free in the Key Register of Addresses and the postal code can be used for
free for all other governmental tasks.

3.     THE CONCEPT OF THE SYSTEM OF KEY REGISTERS

3.1 Introduction to the system of key registers

    The key registers themselves are already useful, but the system of all key
registers together makes the Information Infrastructure very strong. The added value
for the municipalities is not the individual key registers but the total system. The
Person's Register will for example no longer independently describe the address
where a person lives, but the Person's Register registers the relation to the Key
Registers of Addresses and Buildings with which the actual address is found. It is no
longer an option to collect information separately if it is also available in a key
register. There are seven important key registers which are nearly always needed for
government issues. The so called seven core key registers are:
− The Key Register on Persons3
− The Trade Register, for companies and almost every legal entity
− The Key Registers for Topography4
− The Key Register on Buildings
− They Key Register on Addresses
− The Key Register on the Cadastre
− The Key Register on Real Estate Value (WOZ)

3.2 Geometrical and administrative relations between key registers

    There are two ways of linking key registers with each other: administrative or geo
referenced.

   Administrative linking is done with the help of unique identifiers. To link an
address to a person is done by combining the identifier of the premise which has an
address with the corresponding person identifier. This relation is maintained until
some change has occurred like the person moved to another address.

   Geo referenced linking is done by using the location on maps. If information in a
key register shares the same location with information in another key register there is
a geo referenced link between them. The used maps must be of the same precision
otherwise wrong relationships can be derived from them.

    The linking of key registers can be done on a local and on a central level. The
physical linking is achieved by using the Relationships as described in section 2.4.
Municipalities have the possibility to install and maintain a dataware house. To be
able to do this they have the help of RSGB document (EGEM i-teams, 2009). This is
a large data model description for all the key registers combined which is fit for use
within the municipality community. This standard incorporates the standards on the
national level with the needed additions which makes it fit for use within the
municipalities. Figure 6 shows the different levels: local within each of the
municipalities and central between the central facilities of the key registers.

    Maintaining the relationships between the key registers is essential. Otherwise
the big jig saw puzzle cannot exist. Maintaining the relationships means if something
changes in a key register, the relationship to the other linked key register may have
to be changed too. Therefore it is necessary to make formal agreements on which
relationships are to be maintained and which organization is responsible for this. In
the document Rossem et al 2007 for each Key geo Register it is described in detail
which relationships with other key registers there must be and how it is to be
maintained.



3
  There are actually two Key Registers for persons. One for the habitants which are living in the
Netherlands (GBA) and one for the persons without address in th Netherlands e.g. living abroad (RNI).
The first is operational. The last one is under construction.
4
  There are actually two Key Registers for topography. One for the small scale range 1:10.000 and
upwards (BRT) and one for the large scale topography (BGT former GBKN). The first is operational. The
last one is under construction.
                       Figure 4: The Location can establish the relationship between Key Registers




                                                                                    Cadastral parcels

                                                                                    buildings                       adresses



                                                                                    topography




                                                                                                 5
                                       Figure 5: The seven core Key Registers and their relationships


legend
                                                                       Cadastre                    Onroerendezaak        Topograpy
      administrative relation                                                                        Appartements
      geometric relation                                                                                 recht

                                                                                                          Perceel
                                                                        Zakelijk                                               Kleinschalig
                                                                        recht                      Leidingnetwerk              geo-object




                                                                                                                               Grootschalig
                                                                                                                               topografisch
                                                                                   Real Estate Value                           object

                                                                                         WOZwaarde                              Lijnelement



                                                                                         WOZobject




  Persons                                        Trade Register                    Buildings                            Adresses
                                                           Niet
                                                        Natuurlijk                              Pand
                                                          persoon                                                              Woonplaats

        Niet              Ingezetene
     Ingezetene

                                                                                           Verblijfs -
                                                                                           object
          Natuurlijk persoon
                                                      Onderneming
                                                    Maatschappelijke                                                             Openbare
                                                         activiteit
                                                                                           Standplaats,                            ruimte
                                                                                           Ligplaats


                                                         Vestiging                     Adresseerbaar object
                                                                                                                                  Nummer -
                                                                                                                                 aanduiding




 5
     The picture is a revision of the original from ICTU
               Figure 6: Relationships between key registers on local and on central level




3.3 Relations between key registers in the geo-domain with emphasis on
    addresses6

    When we take for example the address of an owner of a cadastral parcel, then
this address-attribute “flows” through the system of key registers as follows:
1. An address of (for example) a premise is registered in the Key Registers of
    Addresses and Buildings
2. In the Key Register of Persons a person is registered. This person lives in a
    premise which has an address as registered in the Key Registers of Addresses
    and Buildings. Therefore in the Key Register of Persons a relation is established
    to the specific premise (in which this person lives) in the Key Register of
    Addresses and Buildings. Through this relation the Key Register of Persons can
    find the address where this person lives.
3. In the Key Register of the Cadastre a cadastral parcel is registered. This parcel
    belongs to an owner who can be a person which is registered in the Key Register
    of Persons. Therefore in the Key Register of the Cadastre a relation is
    established to the specific person (who is the owner of the parcel) in the Key
    Register of Persons. Through this relation the Key Register of the Cadastre can
    find the personal data and the address where this person lives.

    As can be seen in this example each registration creates a relation and uses the
information out of an other registration to complete it’s own registration. The data in a
key register can therefore be divided into 3 categories:

6
    In Dutch: de casebeschrijving van de gouden stroom van basisgegevens door het stelsel
−   the registration’s own data
−   a relation to an instance in another registration
−   the data from the other registration which are retrieved using the relation

    When we put the example in a schema it looks as follows:




The advantage is that when for example the address of the premise is renumbered
(for example because of new houses being built in the beginning of the street) from
Mainstreet 50 to Mainstreet 88, this only has to be registered once in the Key
Register of Addresses, and the mutation is automatically spread to all other related
registers.

Also when a user of for example the Cadastre reports an error, for example the
renumbering was forgotten and the users reports to the Cadastre that the address
should be Mainstreet 88 in stead of Mainstreet 50, then the Cadastre first looks if
they made a mistake in relating, if not the Cadastre reports it to the Persons Register.
Then the Person Register first looks if they made a mistake in relating, if not they
report it to the Key Register of Addresses. They will improve the registration and this
new correct information is spread again to all related registers, so everybody is up to
date again.

3.4 Organisation of the implementation of the system of key registers

    Key registers are developed indepently from each other. However there are some
general facilities available. There are several government funded programs which
deliver some support with the help of central facilities. This section mentions the most
important ones.

    First there is GBO.overheid. From January 2006 the Dutch governmental shared
service organization for ICT (GBO.Overheid) has been responsible for the
management and ongoing development of a number of ICT services for all
government agencies. GBO.Overheid also develops shared standards to facilitate
electronic messaging among government agencies, citizens and companies. Some
examples are:
− DigiD. DigiD is a shared system for authentication which Dutch government
    authorities can use to verify the identity and electronic signature of citizens and
    companies accessing their electronic services.
− PKIoverheid. PKIoverheid is the name of the Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)
    designed for safe electronic communication with and within the Dutch
    government. PKI certificates guarantee high-level security to information sent on
    through the Internet by government agencies. They can be used for safeguarding
    websites (SSL), submitting valid electronic signatures, high-level authentication at
    a distance and message encryption.
− Overheidsservicebus (OSB). The Overheidsservicebus (OSB) (‘Government
    Service Box’) sees to it that questions and reports between government agencies
    are electronically processed according to a recognized standard. The
    Government Service Box functions as the government’s post man for this type of
    electronic exchange. Like a real post man the Government Service Box screens
    the information on the envelope, in this case an electronic one. It has no dealings
    with the contents of the message. It just sees to it that the message meets the
    standards required for correct addressing and safe transmission.

   Second there is overheidsdienstenplatform (Government services platform). This
organization focusses on two subjects:
− Central Reporting Site7. This site is meant for reporting back errors when using
   data of key registers. It is one portal meant for use for all the key registers. This
   site is still under development.
− Common services for information delivery 8. These services are intended to
   stimulate the use of key registers. These services are intended for users of data
   of key registers so that they are able to use the data in a standard and easy
   accessible way. These services are still under development.


4.   CHALLENGES FOR THE FUTURE: THE USE OF THE SYSTEM OF KEY
REGISTERS

    In previous chapters we discussed the fundamentals of key registers. In this
section we will look forward and focus on the issues that are essential when the
whole system of key registers is coming into play. When the use of the system of key
registers is in place the citizens for example will notice that they don’t have to fill in
the same information multiple times on various forms of the government. For
example when the address changes (see the example in section 3.3) this is spread
throughout all governmental organizations, so the citizen doesn’t have to send any
messages to governmental organizations that his address had changed. An other
example is that when a citizen moves, the citizen has to report it at the Source
Register (the Key Register of Persons). After that, the citizen does not have to tell it
to other governmental organizations, because the system of key registers takes care
of this9.



7
  In Dutch: Terugmeld faciliteit. This is not the same as TMV: terugmeldvoorziening. In this article TMV
is translated as ‘reporting facility’ and TMF is translated is ‘report site’.
8
  In Dutch:GBO: gemeenschappelijke ontsluiting van basisregistraties.
9
  It is important to mention that in cases with person’s information much attention is paid to privacy. So
only when governmental organizations need the information of person’s within the regulation on privacy
they can obtain this information.
    The system of key registers is coming into play more and more. The key registers
on persons and on the cadastre and topography are already in place. The Key
Register of Addresses and Buildings will be operational in the very near future. The
others will be established in the coming years. The focus must shift more and more
from building to maintenance and control and establishing the relations between the
key registers. Experiences so far have led to new insights in the system so far. They
manifest themselves on the municipality level (see Mom, Peter 2009) 10. If the system
of key registers is to be successful they need to be addressed in the future. This
Chapter discusses the main issues that have to be solved on a governmental level in
order to make the system of key register work on a local level.

4.1 Self regulation between key registers

    The way the system of key register is set up is based on the Dutch ‘Poldermodel’
approach. This approach is focussed on reaching consensus and collaboration to
achieve the common goal of the system of key registers. Each party involved uses
their own set of resources in terms of money, capacity and infrastructure. Due to the
fact there is no central generic law on (the system of) key registers and no central
funding there is no central uniform approach possible. This lack of synchronization
can have serious consequences on the municipality level. E.g. a municipality needs
to adopt different standards or a municipality needs to adopt the same standard but
with different versions. Without some kind of regulation the consequences are that
the municipalities must invest in different overlapping tools and that it is very difficult
to achieve more effiency in terms of capacity and costs.

   What the system of key registers needs is a more coherent approach and a more
central governmental guidance in terms of funding, facilities and standards. There
several governmental initiatives to achieve this goal. The following are worth
mentioning:
− Central ICT facilities. In section 3.4 the important ones are mentioned.
− The government has established standardization institutes which are responsbile
   for developing and endorsing standards within certain sectors. For the GEO
   domain GEONOVUM is responsible. For standards within municipalities EGEM is
   responsible.
− The forum of the system of key registers. In this forum all participants of the key
   registers have a delegate. All relationships between the key registers are closely
   monitored. In this forum all changes in the relationships are discussed and
   decided upon.

     These three initiatives will ensure the following:
−    All parties involved follow the agreements , so it is avoided that the other parties
     are forced to take countermeasures.
−    The used standards are always compatible and harmonized.
−    There is transparency in the decision making process in the harmonization
     between key registers. This will avoid discussions on interpretation of agreements
     and it will make sure that the wheel is not (re)invented again.
−    Participation is equally shared. Every party spends a fair amount of time and
     money.




10
 In the report VNG, 2009, this is discussed in more detail. there are a lot of issues mentioned which
manifest themselves on the municipality level.
4.2 Funding the system of key registers

    At the moment there is no uniform approach on funding. Each key register has its
own way of allocating costs and means. Some are budget funded. Some are
financed by selling products with commercial prices or with fixed tariffs. Some are
expected to be funded from existing funding. The consequences are that key
registers sometimes have to sent bills to each other on central and/or municipality
level. Or that they have to register the use of the data.

    The above mentioned increases the bureaucratic and paper work involved and is
an undesired side effect. The implementation of these first key geo-registers recently
completed, or is at an advanced stage. The emphasis in the future will shift to
encouraging use of the registers. Only then will it be possible to fulfill the promise of
better services, less administrative burden, and more efficient operational processes
in the public sector. The government programme GIDEON (see Barneveld, 2009)
endeavors to keep the financial threshold for using the key registers as low as
possible by replacing a portion of tariff financing by central budgetary financing
wherever possible.

4.3 Document management

    Archiving of legal documents is essential. The content of key registers must be
based on stored and archived documents. Therefore there is a need for archives.
Each municipality is now responsible for establishing such archives with legal
documents. Often these archives are set up separately for each key register. To
complicate it further documents are not always digital available. Within municipalities
a key register is often the responsibility of an department. So all the necessary legal
documents are scattered throughout different departments and/or organizations,
mostly stored in cabinets and often available in a digital format. This can be a serious
threat for the future. Suppose there is law suit after e.g. twenty years of time the
change is that the necessary documents cannot be found any more: especially when
the city hall has moved to another location. The legal basis of data within a key
registers can only be valid if the legal documents are readily available.

   The use of document management systems is not incorporated in the system of
key registers. They can be a valuable extension certainly if there document
management facilities on a central level.

REFERENCES

Web-based articles
Mom, Peter. (2006). Basisregistratie levert gemeente voordeel op, Digitaal Bestuur,
      2(2) (February), at http://digitaalbestuur.nl/nieuws/basisregistratie-levert-
      gemeente-voordeel-op, [accessed 19 Februari 2009].
Cadastre (2008), Historie Kadaster 14 january 2008, at
      http://www.kadaster.nl/kadaster/historie.html, [accessed 19 Februari 2009]
Wikipedia (2009), http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bevolkingsregister [accessed 19 march
       2009]


Web Sites
GBO.overheid (2009), http://gbo.overheid.nl/english, [accessed 22 march 2009]
http://www.e-overheid.nl/sites/odp/contact/contact.html [accessed 22 march 2009]


Reports
Hulsker, W et al (2004), Kosten-baten analyse BGR en BRA, 26 april 2004,
       ECORYS-NEI
Cramer J.M. (2008). 30968 Regels omtrent de basisregistrites adressen en
      gebouwen (Wet basisregistraties adressen en gebouwen), Nadere memorie
      van antwoord, ontvangen 15 januari 2008, Eerste Kamer der Staten-
      Generaal.
VNG (2009), Globale schets van het stelsel van basisregistraties, Visiedocument van
      de vereniging van Nederlandse Gemeenten Beleidsafdeling Bestuur,
      Veiligheid en Informatiebeleid (BABVI), versie januari 2009
EGEM i-teams, Referentiestelsel van Gemeentelijke Basisgegevens, deel I, versie
     1.0 juni 2007
EGEM i-teams, Referentiestelsel van Gemeentelijke Basisgegevens, deel II, versie
     1.2, 7e concept, februari 2009
Rossem et al, Relaties tussen basis registraties in het GEO domein, samenhang in
      het stelstel, 30 november 2007


Articles in journals
Coumans, F. (2007). Gemeenten vullen (noodgedwongen) het stelsel van
     basisregistraties aan, VI-Matrix, november 2007: 6-8.


Articles in GSDI 11
Barneveld van, DW (2009). GIDEON One year into a renewed Dutch geo-information
      Policy. To be publised as paper in GSDI 11. June 2009

				
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