Understanding Me_ Myself and I by yurtgc548

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									Emotion
 Psy 201




           1
Ekman’s Universality Studies on
          Emotion




       Video on the Universality of Emotions

     http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-PFqzYoKkCc
Theories on How Emotion Works
 The Common-man’s View of
         Emotion
 When you become happy, your heart starts
   beating faster. First comes conscious
awareness, then comes physiological activity.




                                  Bob Sacha
              James-Lange Theory


   William James   Carl Lange


William James and Carl Lange
  proposed an idea that was
 diametrically opposed to the
  common-sense view. The
James-Lange Theory proposes
  that physiological activity
    precedes the emotional
         experience.
 Hohmann (1966):
Paralysis & emotion




     More                Less
    intense            intense
   emotions           emotions
                  Cannon-Bard Theory



Walter Bradford Cannon   Philip Bard
Walter Bradford Cannon

   Walter Cannon and Phillip
  Bard questioned the James-
  Lange Theory and proposed
   that an emotion-triggering
    stimulus and the body's
        arousal take place
         simultaneously.
Cannon-Bard Example




       ?      Friend or
                Foe?
         Cannon-Bard Theory
Friend




 Foe!
           Two-Factor Theory of Emotion
                                   Emotion results from first
                                   perceiving physiological arousal
Stanley Schachter Jerome Singer    and then finding an explanation or
                                   label for that arousal.



                                    Look at
                                  environment


          Physiological                         Cognitive label of
           activation                                  fear
Arousal x Label = Emotion
           Schachter & Singer (1962):
  Gave college men injections of the hormone
epinephrine (to arouse their sympathetic nervous
                    system)…
           Dutton and Aron (1974):
Men crossing a scary or safe bridge were asked
 to complete a questionnaire by an attractive
        woman or an attractive man…




     Scary Bridge            Safe Bridge
                          Female         Male
                        interviewer   interviewer
                         arousal       arousal
“Experimental” bridge   attraction


                        attraction
   “Control” bridge
Dutton and Aron (1974):
        Found:
                   Female       Male
                 interviewer interviewer
                 50% called 9% called
“Scary” bridge


                 13% called 5% called
 “Safe” bridge
 Emotion Theories
James-Lange Theory

 Cannon-Bard Theory
       or
      Two-Factor Theory


   Which Do You Buy?
             Zajonc’s Theory
Some emotion occurs independent of
 cognition
 - Subliminal priming research shows that flashes
 negative or positive pictures before images of
 faces affect the people’s evaluations of those
 faces.
 - When we hear a noise in a dark alley, we often
 feel frightened, before we’ve determined whether
 the noise is caused by wind (an unfrightening
 stimulus) or a stranger (a frightening stimulus).
          Zajonc’s Theory
Stimuli bypasses the prefrontal cortex and
  goes straight to the amygdala, which
  triggers the fear response
          Lazarus’ Theory
Complex emotions
such as guilt,
happiness, and love
most clearly arise
from our
interpretations and
expectations (our
appraisal of the
situation).

								
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