Emotion Psy 201 1 Ekman’s Universality Studies on Emotion Video on the Universality of Emotions http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-PFqzYoKkCc Theories on How Emotion Works The Common-man’s View of Emotion When you become happy, your heart starts beating faster. First comes conscious awareness, then comes physiological activity. Bob Sacha James-Lange Theory William James Carl Lange William James and Carl Lange proposed an idea that was diametrically opposed to the common-sense view. The James-Lange Theory proposes that physiological activity precedes the emotional experience. Hohmann (1966): Paralysis & emotion More Less intense intense emotions emotions Cannon-Bard Theory Walter Bradford Cannon Philip Bard Walter Bradford Cannon Walter Cannon and Phillip Bard questioned the James- Lange Theory and proposed that an emotion-triggering stimulus and the body's arousal take place simultaneously. Cannon-Bard Example ? Friend or Foe? Cannon-Bard Theory Friend Foe! Two-Factor Theory of Emotion Emotion results from first perceiving physiological arousal Stanley Schachter Jerome Singer and then finding an explanation or label for that arousal. Look at environment Physiological Cognitive label of activation fear Arousal x Label = Emotion Schachter & Singer (1962): Gave college men injections of the hormone epinephrine (to arouse their sympathetic nervous system)… Dutton and Aron (1974): Men crossing a scary or safe bridge were asked to complete a questionnaire by an attractive woman or an attractive man… Scary Bridge Safe Bridge Female Male interviewer interviewer arousal arousal “Experimental” bridge attraction attraction “Control” bridge Dutton and Aron (1974): Found: Female Male interviewer interviewer 50% called 9% called “Scary” bridge 13% called 5% called “Safe” bridge Emotion Theories James-Lange Theory Cannon-Bard Theory or Two-Factor Theory Which Do You Buy? Zajonc’s Theory Some emotion occurs independent of cognition - Subliminal priming research shows that flashes negative or positive pictures before images of faces affect the people’s evaluations of those faces. - When we hear a noise in a dark alley, we often feel frightened, before we’ve determined whether the noise is caused by wind (an unfrightening stimulus) or a stranger (a frightening stimulus). Zajonc’s Theory Stimuli bypasses the prefrontal cortex and goes straight to the amygdala, which triggers the fear response Lazarus’ Theory Complex emotions such as guilt, happiness, and love most clearly arise from our interpretations and expectations (our appraisal of the situation).
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