Improving Individual Performance:
Effective Performance Management for
Curt P. Wellington
• A Performance Management System is a
“framework of policies and practices”
established for “planning, monitoring,
developing, evaluating and rewarding both
individual and organizational performance and
for using performance information in making
– Title V of the US Code of Federal Regulations (CFR)
Why implement a Performance
• The process is intended to clarify what employees are
expected to accomplish and to help them understand how
their efforts contribute to the organization’s mission.
• Secondly, when the performance dimensions are job specific,
it gives an employee and his or her supervisor a basis for
objectively discussing performance for coaching, and for
modifying performance plans as circumstances change.
– Risher, Howard and Fay Charles H.Managing for Better Performance:
Enhancing Federal Performance Management Practices
• “If done well, performance management can
assist in communicating organizational goals
and employee expectations, identifying
developmental and training needs, and
assisting with the retention of good
– Neil E. Reichenberg, Executive Director, IPMA-HR.
• The practice of performance management is
developed on a framework of …
– Planned goals
– Performance standards
– Competency frameworks
Framework used in Botswana
• At the Ministerial level
– Development of strategic plans tied to the
country’s Vision 2016 developmental plan
– Development of annual performance plans
– Mid-year progress reports reviewed by committee
headed by country’s vice-president
• Senior Managers (grades: D.2, D.1, F.2, F.2, F.0)
• Middle Managers (grades: C.2, C.1, D.4, D.3)
• Supervisors (grades: C.4, C.3)
• Non-Managers (grades-A.3, A.2, A.1, B.5, 4,3,2,
Target Positions Competency Clusters
• Snr. Asst Directors • Change Leadership Skills
• Asst Directors • Relationship Management
• Director Skills
• CEO/ General Manager • Strategic Thinking, Planning
• Pvt. Secretary and Leadership
• Perm Secretary • Resource Management
• Deputy P. S
• Performance Management
• Under Secretary Skills
• Personal Effectiveness
• Professional Staff Competency Clusters
• General Administrative • Strategic Management and
Staff Leadership Skills
• Technical Staff • Communication Skills
• Artisan Staff • Interpersonal Skills
• Information Technology
• Research and Statistical
• Managerial Skills
• Personal Effectiveness
Developing Performance Standards
• Performance standards should be written in terms of
specific measures that will be used to appraise
performance in (and for) your Ministries.
– e.g. Quantity, Quality, Time, Cost-effectiveness
• They should answer the question, “How will the
employee and the performance manager know when
the employee is meeting or exceeding expectations
for his/her position?”
Performance Appraisals vs.
• Performance appraisals focus on the year-end rating
made by a manager of an employee who reports
directly to him or her. Performance appraisals are
based on judgment. They are an “event,” generally
“conducted” once a year. And they are backward
looking. They are not designed to improve
• Performance management is a broader, more
comprehensive process that is future-oriented.
• It starts with performance planning discussions and
focuses on planned performance, with a goal of
improvement over the prior year
– Managing for Better Performance: Enhancing Federal
Performance Management Practices
• Risher,, Howard and Fay Charles H.
• A Performance Management System is a tool that can be
used by managers to improve their effectiveness.
• It is NOT a form that should be completed only at the end of a
• Its output should reflect the ongoing performance
conversations that managers must have with their staff
• Performance goals should reflect the alignment between
individual and departmental or Ministerial goals.
• Performance standards should be aligned across similar
functions in the Ministry.
• While your ultimate goal may be effective service delivery, let
your immediate concerns be the development of your staff.
• Use the competency frameworks to identify and
subsequently, to address the performance gaps.
• Above all, COMMUNICATE, COMMUNICATE, COMMUNICATE.
• Thank You Very Much