Your Federal Quarterly Tax Payments are due April 15th Get Help Now >>

Generating & Testing Hypotheses by 5439l29T

VIEWS: 17 PAGES: 27

									Generating & Testing Hypotheses
   Research-Based Strategies for Increasing
   Student Achievement
                       Compiled from:
           Classroom Instruction That Works!
     By: Robert J. Marzano, Debra J. Pickering & Jane E.
                            Pollock
           Classroom Instruction That Works!
                     Facilitator’s Manual
                         By: McREL
           Classroom Instruction That Works!
                    Participant’s Manual
                         By: McREL


    Curriculum & Staff Development Center
 Training Objectives
Participants will:

 Understand the
purpose of generating
and testing hypotheses
as it relates to student
learning.
Know and understand
the two approaches of
using this strategy in the
classroom setting
Identify ways to
integrate this strategy
across the disciplines
Research & Theory
                                               Ave. Effect   Percentile    No. of
               Category                        Size (ES)       Gain         ESs

Identifying Similarities and Differences       1.61          45           31

Summarizing & Note Taking                      1.0           34           179
Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition   .80           29           21
Homework & Practice                            .77           28           134
Nonlinguistic representations                  .75           27           246
Cooperative Learning                           .73           27           122
Setting Objectives & Providing Feedback        .61           23           408

Generating & Testing                           .61           23           63
Hypotheses
Questions, Cues, and Advance Organizers        .59           22           1,251
Generating and Testing Hypotheses



  Enhance students’ understanding
  of and ability to use knowledge by
  engaging them in mental
  processes that involve making and
  testing hypotheses.
Table Activity

   Complete the graphic organizer
  handout by writing words that you
 associate with “generating & testing
             hypotheses”.

   Add more spokes if you need.
Graphic Organizer Hand=Out




              Generate and
            test hypotheses
Four Planning Questions for Instruction

   What knowledge will           Which strategies will
    students learn?              provide evidence that
                              students have learned that
                                      knowledge?



 Which strategies will help   Which strategies will help
 students practice, review,      students acquire and
and apply that knowledge?     integrate that knowledge?
Four Planning Questions for Instruction

   What knowledge will           Which strategies will
    students learn?              provide evidence that
                              students have learned that
                                      knowledge?



           Generating & Testing Hypotheses


 Which strategies will help   Which strategies will help
 students practice, review,   students acquire and
and apply that knowledge?     integrate that knowledge?
Generalizations
from the Research on Generating & Testing
Hypotheses

1. The generating and testing of
   hypotheses can be approached in
   an inductive or deductive manner.
2. Teachers should ask students to
   clearly explain their hypotheses and
   their conclusions.
The Two Approaches

•Deductive Thinking     •Inductive Thinking
                        ….. is the process of
…..is the process of    drawing new
using a general rule    conclusions based
to make a prediction.   on information we
                        know or are
                        presented with.
Recommendations for
Classroom Practice

1. Make sure students can explain their
   hypotheses and conclusions.
2. Use a variety of structured tasks to guide
   students through generating and testing
   hypotheses.
Recommendation # 2
Use a variety of structured tasks to
  guide students through generating
  and testing hypotheses.

•   Decision Making
•   Problem Solving
•   Invention
•   Experimental Inquiry
•   Historical Investigation
Recommendation # 1
Make sure students can explain their
  hypotheses and conclusions.

1. Provide students a set of steps for
   the task.
2. Use familiar content to teach the
   students the steps in the process.
3. Use graphic organizers to record
   information when carrying out the
   process.
Decision Making:



~ is about choosing an
option around a
decision that needs to
be made and
examining criteria and
alternatives related to
that decision.
Problem Solving:


~ is about removing
constraints or barriers
to find the best solution
to an unstructured
problem.
Invention:

~ involves creating
something to fit a need
or to improve upon
something that already
exists in order to make
it better.
Experimental Inquiry:


~ is the process of
developing and testing
hypotheses of things
we observe.
Historical Investigation:


~ is the process of
identifying and
resolving issues or
contradictions from
history about which
there is confusion.
Systems Analysis



~ is the process of
analyzing the parts of
systems and the way
they work together.
Classroom Example
  Model of the decision making process using the
         context of the family vacation.
Decision Making Matrix
Criteria                            Alternatives
                   Washington, DC   San Francisco   New York City

1. A variety of    3 X ___ =        3 X ___ =       3 X ___ =
appropriate
activities

2. Low or          2 X ___ =        2 X ___ =       2 X ___ =
moderate cost
for activities

3. Short time to   2 X ___ =        2 X ___ =       2 X ___ =
get there



TOTALS
Criteria                            Alternatives

                   Washington, DC   San Francisco   New York City

1. A variety of      3X 3 = 9         3X 3 = 9        3 X 4 = 12
appropriate
activities

2. Low or                X     =          X     =         X     =
moderate cost
for activities

3. Short time to         X     =          X     =         X         =
get there



TOTALS
Completed Matrix
Criteria                            Alternatives

                   Washington, DC   San Francisco   New York City

1. A variety of      3X 3 = 9         3X 3 = 9        3 X 4 = 12
appropriate
activities

2. Low or            2 X 3 =6        2 X 4 =8         2 X3 =6
moderate cost
for activities

3. Short time to     2 X3 = 6        2 X 1 = 2        2 X3 = 6
get there



TOTALS                   21               19              24
Group Activity
Using the Decision Making strategy, work
    with your partners to create your
    matrices.

1. Identify a decision that must be made in
     your school.


2. Identify the criteria on which the decision
     will be made and the possible
     alternatives.


3. Assign weights to each criterion, assign
    a rating and complete the matrix.
 Criteria           Alternatives


            X   =      X   =       X   =


            X   =      X   =       X   =


            X   =      X   =       X   =



TOTALS
Key Points
    Techniques for generating and testing
 hypotheses may be inductive or deductive.

    Techniques for generating ideas and
 testing hypotheses that are more
 deductive in nature seem to have a greater
 effect on achievement than inductive
 techniques.

    There are a variety of structural tasks
 that can be used to help students through
 the process of generating and testing
 hypotheses.
Reflection on Learning

1. What have you learned about generating and
   testing hypotheses?
2. What questions do you have about generating
   and testing hypotheses?
3. What changes might you make in your practice
   related to generating and testing hypotheses?
4. What support might you need to make these
   changes?

								
To top