Chpt. 4 Multiple Choice Questions
4.1. Group formation is influenced by
A. the personality characteristics of individuals who may become members.
B. situational forces that promote affiliation among individuals.
C. interpersonal forces that promote attraction among individuals.
D. the anticipated rewards and costs of membership.
E. all of the above.
4.2. Which one is NOT one of the dimensions of personality in the Big Five theory?
4.3. People who are ___ are less likely to join groups.
B. high in need for power
D. high in need for affiliation
4.4. Which of the following is FALSE?
A. Across all cultures, extraverts have higher levels of positive affect than introverts do.
B. Introverts that act introverted are happier than when acting extraverted.
C. Extraverts tend to be happier than introverts when involved with groups.
D. Extraverts tend to be more sensitive to rewarding experiences.
4.5. Dimitry focuses more on the relationship aspect of his connection to others. His attitudes and values are
oriented around maintaining these connections. Dimitry is high in
A. need for control
B. task orientation
4.6. I value my relationships with others and spend time maintaining them. When asked to take pictures that say
“who I am,” I tend to include pictures of myself with other people. I prefer smaller, more intimate groups to
larger, more formal ones. I am likely
A. a man
B. a woman
D. preoccupied in my attachment style
E. a Baby Boomer
4.7. Which one doesn’t belong with the others?
A. Anxiety b. Power c. Intimacy d. Affiliation (p. 92)
4.8. ___ refers to general feelings of apprehension and embarrassment experienced when anticipating or actually
interacting with other people.
A. Need for affiliation
B. Social anxiety
D. Antisocial withdrawal
E. Social phobia
4.9. The concepts of need for affiliation and need for power are similar in that both assume that
A. people join groups to satisfy basic needs.
B. most people need to control other people.
C. we are attracted to people who have similar needs.
D. social factors, and not personality factors, influence group formation.
4.10. People who are high in need for Affiliation tend to affiliate more than people who are low in need for
Affiliation, but they also tend to
A. dislike people whom they do not know well.
B. avoid friendships and long-term relationships.
C. avoid working on tasks with other people.
D. report higher levels of anxiety in social settings.
E. make insulting remarks about other people.
4.11. I try to work my way into the leadership positions and I enjoy exercising my authority over other people. I am
A. high in need for Affiliation.
B. experiencing sibling rivalry.
C. low in expressed affection.
D. high in need for Power.
4.12. FIRO measures three basic needs: inclusion, affection, and
4.13. Which of the following is not a need measured by the Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation
A. how we treat others
B. need for control
C. how we want others to treat us
D. need for inclusion
E. need for intimacy
4.14. I strongly agree with such FIRO items as “I try to be with other people,” “I join social groups,” and “I try to
avoid being alone.” I am high in
4.15. I feel tense and uncomfortable around people, and I worry people are always judging me. I get “butterflies”
when I must meet new people, and worry that I’ll say something dumb or insulting. I am
A. low in self-esteem.
B. a high self-monitor.
C. socially anxious (shy).
D. low in need for Affiliation.
E. high in need for power.
4.16. Which of the following is NOT an attachment style?
4.17. ___ theory assumes that early life experiences—specifically, how you bonded with your primary caregiver—
influences your relationships (including your memberships) throughout your entire life.
B. Social motivation
C. Social comparison
D. Social exchange
4.18. When Moreland and his colleagues surveyed new college students about their willingness to join college
groups they found that students
A. expressed positive opinions about college groups if they had positive experiences in high school.
B. desire to join was unrelated to the experiences they had in high school.
C. who had bad experiences in high school were looking forward to starting fresh and joined more college
D. who had parents that joined college groups were also more likely to join groups in college.
4.19. Social comparison theory argues people join groups because of
A. their need for information concerning social reality.
B. their dependence on others for the satisfaction of their esteem needs.
C. evolutionary pressures.
D. the attractiveness of group members.
4.20. A fundamental assumption of Festinger’s social comparison theory is that people
A. compare different societies to find ways to improve their own.
B. have a need for novelty and change.
C. have a need to evaluate their beliefs and attitudes.
D. have a need for power and try to control the behavior of others.
E. compare the various groups that they belong to.
4.21. Denise thought the test was easy, but she was not sure. So, after she turns in her paper she talks to her friends
to see what they thought about the test. Denise’s actions best illustrate
A. need for affiliation.
B. need for power.
C. need for intimacy.
E. the social comparison processes.
4.22. Schachter found that when subjects who expected to receive painful shocks were asked if they wanted to wait
alone or with others, ___ chose to affiliate.
A. none B. more than half C. only a few D. all (p. 97)
4.23. Schachter’s experiments on affiliation suggest
A. misery loves happy company.
B. misery loves miserable company.
C. misery hates company.
D. misery hates miserable company.
4.24. What did Schachter mean when he said “Misery loves miserable company?”
A. To engage in downward social comparison, unhappy people seek out other unhappy people.
B. Distressful events create arousal, and under the correct situational conditions this arousal is experienced as
C. When facing a threatening situation, people seek the company of others who are facing the same type of
D. During affiliation, individuals who are unhappy tend to make others unhappy.
E. Depressed individuals prefer the company of other depressed individuals.
4.25. You are anxious because you are about to have blood drawn for the first time in your life for some medical
tests. According to Schachter, while waiting you would most likely choose to sit
A. outside the hospital alone.
B. inside the hospital alone.
C. in the general waiting area with people scheduled for routine checkups.
D. in the waiting area with other people waiting to have their blood drawn.
4.26. When we are ___ we desire affiliation, but when we are ___ we desire privacy.
A. uncertain; embarrassed
B. embarrassed; uncertain
C. aroused; fearful
D. fearful; aroused
4.27. Researchers extended Schachter’s initial findings by arranging for individuals to actually meet in a room for a
study titled “Sexual Attitudes” (Morris et al, 1976). Participants in this study were more likely to show signs of
withdrawal when they were in the ___ condition.
A. embarrassed B. ambiguity C. fear D. initiation E. group (p. 98)
4.28. The study that recorded the behaviors of individuals waiting for a study of “sexual attitudes” found that
A. subjects interacted most when they needed information.
B. social comparison behaviors can be measured sociometrically.
C. people don’t like other group members who disagree with them.
D. people join in groups more frequently when they are embarrassed.
4.29. Schachter’s studies of affiliation indicate that people join groups to acquire accurate information. Recent
evidence also suggests that people prefer information that
A. is based on an authority’s opinion.
B. is simple rather than complex.
C. disconfirms their existing beliefs.
D. is positive and reassuring.
E. is complex rather than simple.
4.30. Comparing ourselves to others who are performing better than we are ___, but comparing ourselves to others
who are performing worse than we are ___.
A. gives us hope; raises our self-esteem
B. raises our self-esteem; gives us hope
C. is downward social comparison; is upward social comparison
D. is healthy; is unhealthy
4.31. Mike notes that Melinda is in a better financial situation than he is right now. This leaves him feeling
depressed but also motivates him to start working harder. Mike is engaging in ___ social comparison.
4.32. ___ proposes that I will seek out associations with people who are superior to me, as long as their superiority is
in a field that is not important to my self-concept.
A. Self-promotion theory
B. Self-evaluation maintenance theory
C. Social comparison theory
D. Self-consistency theory
4.33. Gale prides herself on her athletic skills more so than her academic skills. According to self-evaluation
maintenance theory, she will prefer to associate with
A. athletes who are superior to her in terms of athletic ability.
B. physically attractive people.
C. students who get better grades than she does.
D. athletes who are better than she is both athletically and academically.
4.34. When I have a problem, Dave expresses his concern, suggests some possible solutions, and even offers to do
some of my work for me. Dave is
A. engaging in social comparison.
B. providing social support.
C. a collectivist.
D. bonding with me.
4.35. Research by Buunk and his colleagues, examining the “true group animal,” found that individuals who were
___ in affiliation orientation and ___ in social comparison orientation were the most satisfied with membership
in their groups.
A. low; high
B. low; low
C. high; low
D. high; low
4.36. Which is true?
A. Tend-and-befriend reactions are more likely when the threat is imminent.
B. Fight-or-flight is an individual response to threat, not a group response.
C. Fight-or-flight is an interpersonal response, rather than a physiological one.
D. A flight reaction to threat, as displayed by a group, involves an organized escape from danger.
4.37. Which one does not fit with the others?
4.38. Donald decides that he wants to do more for the group. He starts helping other people by taking on some of
their work and organizing funding raisers to raise money. Donald is providing ___ support for the group and its
4.39. Cynthia is distressed because she has no best friend or lover, whereas Andrew suffers because he has few
friends or acquaintances. Cynthia is experiencing ___ and Andrew is experiencing ___.
A. downward social comparison; upward social comparison
B. love deprivation; social deprivation
C. emotional loneliness; social loneliness
D. group loneliness; dyadic loneliness
E. loneliness; social rejection
4.40. Which statement is false?
A. People tend to form groups with people who just happen to be nearby.
B. Exposure to a stimulus tends to increase our liking for that stimulus.
C. Individuals tend to associate with people who like them.
D. Individuals are attracted to people with dissimilar attitudes.
E. Any factor that increases interaction among people can trigger group formation.
4.41. Newcomb’s study of group formation indicated
A. people tend to like those who like them.
B. similarity of attitudes influences attraction.
C. large groups are often made up of smaller chains of dyads.
D. all of the above
4.42. Newcomb’s (1961) research supports the adage
A. “beauty is only skin deep.”
B. “familiarity breeds contempt.”
C. “opposites attract.”
D. “birds of a feather flock together.”
4.43. We tend to like others who are similar to us because
A. they reassure us that our beliefs are accurate.
B. similarity suggests that future interactions will be free of conflict.
C. similarity increases feelings of unity with others.
D. disliking those who are similar to us is psychologically distressing.
E. all of the above
4.44. As group size decreases, the concept of homophily suggests that the most likely member to leave the group is
A. the member that is the least similar to other group members.
B. the individual who fails in the leadership position.
C. the member who started the most conflict within the group.
D. members who membership in the group is above their CL.
4.45. Dale, who is outgoing but not exceptionally bright, is best friends with Chip, who is a straight “A” student but
rather shy. Their relationship supports the ___ hypothesis.
4.46. The group was high in ___ compatibility because it included one person who liked to control others and five
persons who preferred to be controlled.
4.47. In a therapy group, members expect everyone to communicate and share their thoughts and feelings. All
members agree on informal rules regarding who should talk and for how long. This group has high levels of ___
4.48. Which statement is true?
A. When group members have opposite qualities (e.g., X is outgoing and Y is shy) their groups tend to be
cohesive and long-lasting.
B. Liking tends to be reciprocal: We like people who like us.
C. We grow to dislike people who we are exposed to over and over again.
D. A surprisingly large number of people prefer to join groups that punish rather than reward them.
4.49. An exchange theory of group formation suggests that
A. people like to “exchange” their groups for new ones every so often.
B. when people join groups they exchange their self for the collective self.
C. once a change stabilizes it becomes an exchange.
D. groups form when members invest in the relationship by giving one another rewards.
4.50. The value of a group membership that was once very satisfying drops down below your comparison level.
According to social exchange theory, you will
A. terminate your membership.
B. terminate your membership if it drops below your CLalt.
C. attempt to improve the group.
D. continue as a member, even if another more satisfying one is available.
4.51. Moreland, Levine, and their colleagues examined group formation by studying freshman’s actions and choices
at an “Activity Fair” where various groups presented information to prospective members. These investigators
found that one variable, compared to all others, maximally influenced people’s choices and reconnaissance
activities. This variable was
A. prior experience in groups.
C. social identity.
D. need for affiliation
E. sex (male or female).
F. parent’s socialization regarding groups.
4.52. Those with a(n) ___ group attachment style believe that the group is not that important to them. They do not
worry about what will happen if the group excludes them, and they tend to think that they might leave the group
4.53. Schachter found that people affiliated in his studies
A. if they were women rather than men.
B. when the other person was dissimilar rather than similar.
C. if their anxiety levels were low rather than high.
D. in order to gain information.
4.54. According to Tesser’s self-evaluation maintenance (SEM) model
A. We will help friends but not strangers in areas that are self-relevant.
B. We are happy when our friends outperform us in areas that are self-relevant.
C. We would be more likely to help a stranger than a friend in self-relevant areas.
D. It is important that our friends do not outperform us, in areas that are both important and important to our
sense of self.
E. We evaluate ourselves through comparison with our ideal goals.
4.55. Groups are probably most likely to satisfy __ loneliness.
4.56. When students first come to college, they are paired with a roommate and eventually become friends. These
students then go class and make new friends that they introduce to their roommate thus expanding their
friendship circle. This is an example of the ____ principle.
4.57. The saying that “opposites attract” is similar to the concept of the ___ principle.
D. social exchange
4.58. Terms like minimax, comparison level, and rewards/costs are all emphasized in
A. social exchange theory.
C. social comparison theory.
D. complementarity theory.
4.59. According to the ___ principle, we like people who provide us with the maximum number of valued rewards
while exacting minimum costs.
4.60. Why do groups form?
A. People join groups when they need information.
B. Group membership satisfies some basic psychological needs.
C. People join groups to associate with those they like.
D. People join groups to gain social support.
E. All of the above are possible explanations.