MIGRATION by ert554898


									  Mobility and Migration:
  What is Migration?

Prof Urmilla Bob

                   Lecture 2
            What is migration? (contested

   Definition: involving a change of residence of substantial
   Permanent migration – a year or more
   Temporary migration – tourists, seasonal movements of
    people with more than one home, daily movements of
   Immigration – people coming into a country
   Emigrants – people leaving/moving out of a country
   Circular migration and commuting
     Characteristics of urbanisation and migration (Global
                   Business Network, 2006)

                    URBANIZATION          MIGRATION

“More “ developed    Slower growth       Countryside to cities
areas                Older and aging      Pressure from

                     Cycles of           developing countries
                    revitalization         Legal and illegal

“Less” developed     Faster growth        Countryside to cities
areas               (quicker than          Towards more
                    infrastructure can    developed countries
                    build)                 Brain drain
                     More “megacities”

                     Informal

     Rural-urban migration

   Given that most of the poor are to be found in the rural sector
    and that there is considerable, and underestimated, rural-to-
    urban migration, the key questions revolve around the following
    (Skeldon, 1997):
     › Can rural-to-urban migration improve the well-being of the
       rural areas of origin of migration, or are these areas further
       impoverished through the rural exodus?
     › Can rural-to-urban migration improve the well-being of
       those who move to the cities, or are they pauperized and
       degraded by the experience?
     › Is the rural poverty simply transferred to the urban sector?
     › What are the gender implications of the migration, in terms
       of the experience of women as migrants and in terms of the
       women left behind?
    Migration Selection
 Migratory process is selective – some
  people are more mobile than others
 Population characteristics influencing
  migration include: age, sex, marital status,
  occupation, educational level
 Young, single people, until recently, mainly
  male – most mobile.
Complementary                             Schematic framework for analyzing the
 factors (land)                           migration decision in Africa (Byerlee, 1974)

                       Rural income
policies (taxes)                            Psychic returns
                                           (urban amenities)
Social system                                                          Rural-urban
(decision unit)                                                          contacts

               Education                                                        Education,
                            remittances       Returns to        Distance
                                              migration                           media

 Urban wage
                                                                    Information flows

     earnings          Urban income
                                          Expected present                  Perceived value
                                          value of migration                 of migration
Probability of
obtaining a job

                   Opportunity cost
                    Cost of living                                            Migration
                   Transport costs
                                            Cost of migration                 decision
                    Psychic costs
    Causes of Migration – Push/ Pull Theory
   A variety of reasons lie behind migration
   People may migrate in order to improve their economic situation, or
    in order to escape civil strife, persecution, and environmental
   Traditionally, the reasons encouraging an individual to migrate were
    categorized as "push" or "pull" factors
    ◦ push factors that drive people to leave home
    ◦ pull factors that attract migrants to a new location
   Push factors are negative aspects of the sending country or location,
    while pull factors are positive aspects of the receiving country or
   In moving migrants must not only see a lack of benefits at home
    (push factors) but also a surplus of benefits abroad (pull factors),
    otherwise the move would not be worthwhile
        Key push factors
   Lack of Jobs/Poverty
    ◦ Economics argue that this is the main reason behind migration
    ◦ In some countries jobs simply do not exist for a great deal of the
    ◦ The gap between the rewards of labor in the sending and receiving
      country are great enough so as to warrant a move.
   Civil Strife/War/Political and Religious Persecution
    ◦ Some migrants are impelled to cross national borders by war or
      persecution at home.
    ◦ Some of these migrants end up in receiving countries as refugees
      or asylum seekers.
    ◦ Many developed countries believe that would-be refugees and
      asylum-seekers are in fact mere economic migrants looking for an
      easier way to enter a rich country.
    Key push factors cont.

   Environmental Problems
    ◦ Environmental problems and natural disasters often cause
      the loss of money, homes, and jobs
    ◦ The environment itself does not actually push or pull –
      people decide to move after considering environmental
      factors – eg. environmental disruption in African Sahel
         Key pull factors
   Higher standards of living/ Higher wages
    ◦ Economics provide the both biggest push and pull factor for potential migrants
    ◦ Similar work is rewarded abroad (especially in developed countries) for higher
    ◦ Greater safety net of welfare benefits should they be unable to find a job –
      medical aid/ insurance, pension
   Labor Demand
    ◦ Almost all developed countries have found that they need migrants' labor
    ◦ Rich economies create millions of jobs that local workers refuse to fill but
      migrant workers will cross borders to take
    ◦ British Minister of Foreign affairs, Robin Cook (2001) stated: "Legitimate
      immigration is the necessary and unavoidable result of economic success, which
      generates a demand for labor faster than can be met by the birth-rate of a
      modern developed country."
   Political and Religious Freedom
    ◦ Persecution or discrimination of specific groups
       Network factors
   Globalisation has introduced a third set called "network" factors -
    include free flow of information, international business trends,
    improved global communication, and lower transportation costs
   Increased mobility due to improved transportation networks and
   As well as encouraging migration, globalization also produces
    countervailing forces. For example, as businesses grow and become
    more internationalized they often outsource their production to
    developing countries where labor costs are lower.
   In a global economy, in other words, jobs can move to potential
    migrants instead of migrants moving to potential jobs
   The development of the concept of transmigrants – whose lived
    experience transcends the boundaries of nation states, and who
    develop multiple relationships – familial, economic, social, religious
    and political that span borders
      Some characteristics of migrants (data
      from Posel, 2003)
     The extent of temporary labor migration across households

Number of        1993         1995       1997 OHS     1999 OHS
households       PSLSD        OHS
with at least
one migrant

All households   1 469 300    803 000    1 610 100    1 779 800
African          1 313 300    753 800    1 557 000    1 722 400
African rural    1 170 200    nd         1 287 500    1 418 400
African migrant workers by gender (15 years and older)

% of all     1993          1997           1999
who are:

Female       29.7          32.4           33.7

Male         70.4          67.6           66.3
         Remittance received in rural African Households

                               1993        1997        1999
% of households with           78.5        84.5        85.4
reported labor migrant/s
receiving remittances

Average yearly value ( in R) of 2 300.37   3 238.88    nd
individual remittances sent by
labor migrants

Remittances (in R) by sole
labor migrants aged:
20 – 34 years                  2 577.58    nd          nd
35 – 49 years                  3 383.79    nd          nd
50 – 65 years                  3 655.72    nd          nd
    Marital rates among African women migrants (15 years
                      and older) – in %

                      1993    1995       1997      1999
Married               34.6    34.4       31.2      30.2
Absent spouse/        13.4    3          3.1       3.4
divorced/ separated
Never married/ not    38.4    49.7       50.6      51.5
Widowed               13.6    9          10.4      9.3
Living together       -       3.9        4.7       5.7

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