Ingredient Function and Purpose Time Frame 1 class period _45 by xuyuzhu


									                         Ingredient Function and Purpose

Time Frame: 1 class period (45 Minutes)
Summary: As you understand the function of each ingredient, you will be able to
determine when a substitution or change in the original recipe is appropriate.

Materials: Enough quick bread for the students to taste.

Background for Teachers: This lesson should be taught at the beginning of each
foods class. The students always need a review of this information. Demonstrating
a quick bread will illustrate the measuring techniques for each ingredient.

Student Prior Knowledge: Knowledge of measuring and reading a recipe.

Intended Learning Outcomes: Students will learn the purpose of each ingredient
in a quick bread.

Iowa Core:
    Listening: Listen for Information and understanding
    Writing: Use writing as a tool for learning.
    Math: Understand and apply number operations and properties.
    Physical Science: Understand and apply knowledge of structure and
      properties of matter.

Instructional Procedure: Student will listen, observe, and complete their notes as
the demonstration of a quick bread is completed. They will then sample the finished
Name_________________________                             Period______________

Complete the following chart as you listen and observe the demonstration.

Ingredients            Function/Purpose               How to Measure

Fat or Oil



Leavening Agent



Ingredients             Function/Purpose                 How to Measure
Eggs                        Adds flavor                    Unless another size is
                            Yolk helps in                     designated in the
                               emulsifying oil and             recipe, use large eggs
                               liquid elements of              for cooking.
                               batter                       To measure half an
                            Provide moisture                  egg, first beat the egg,
                            Help binds other                  then measure out 2
                               ingredients together            Tablespoons
                            Aid in browning
                            Help a coating adhere
                               to food surfaces for
Fats or Oils                Tenderize                         Solid fats—use
(Includes butter,           Add moisture                       nested cups, scoop,
margarine, oil, lard,       Maintains freshness                press firmly, then
shortening)                    and extends keeping              level off top or pour
                               quality                          cold water into a cup
                            Helps produce a tender             up to the measure
                               and/or flaky product             which will equal one
                            Prevents foods from                cup when the desired
                               sticking to the pan              amount of shortening
                            Helps transfer heat                is added—drain off
                            Adds flavor                        water.
                            Adds a degree of                  Liquids—pour into a
                               brownness                        graduated measuring

Flavorings                    Enhance natural flavors         Solids or Granules—
                              Add new flavors                  Scoop into proper
                              Salt slows growth of             size measuring spoon
                               bacteria in bread               Liquids—Pour into
                               products                         proper measuring
Flour                         Provides bulk                   Sift or stir to
                              Provides structure               incorporate air
                              Acts as a thickener              (sifting insures
                              Coats food                       accurate
                                                    Scoop gently into
                                                    nested cups, then
                                                    level off top with a

Leavening Agents      React with moisture or      Scoop with the
                       with sweetening agents       correct size
                       to produce carbon            measuring spoon,
                       dioxide, which causes        level off top with
                       small bubbles to form        spatula.
                       within the product and
                       makes it rise or
                       increase in volume.

Liquids               Add moisture                Place graduated
                      Help ingredients to          measuring cup on a
                       react with each other        level surface, pour
                      Bind ingredients             liquid into the cup,
                       together                     read it at eye level,
                                                    scrape the cup with a
                                                    rubber spatula after

Sweetening            Adds flavor                 Granulated sugar—
                      Provides tenderness          spoon into a nested
                      Adds crispness               measuring cup, level
                      Browns as it melts           off with spatula.
                       during cooking              Brown sugar—pack
                       (caramelizing)               firmly in a nested
                                                    measuring cup, level
                                                    with a spatula
                                                   Syrups—pour into a
                                                    graduated measuring

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