WHITE MANGROVE: (AVICENNIA MARINA)
Slender growing to 6m (18ft) in Mangrove swamps and estuaries from tropical Africa
East to Indonesia & Australia.
It has pale bark many pencils like roots spear shaped to oblong leaves yellow flowers and
small round white berries..
CAUTION: The SAP blisters the skin & will BLIND YOU IF IT GETS IN YOUR
NETTLE TREES: (LAPORTEA)
Widespread in the Tropics, often by water are smallish with crinkly spear shaped sharply
toothed leaves and drooping spikes of flowers like an ordinary nettle.
There are many kinds including temperate ones. The burning sting is like a nettle's, but
much worse. The Seeds are VERY POISONOUS.
COWHAGE: (MUCUNA PRURIENS)
Of scrub and light woodland is trailing vine with oval leaflets in group of 3 spikes of
hairy dull purplish flowers & brown hairy seed pods. Contact with pods & flowers causes
irritation & BLINDNESS if in the eyes.
PANGI: (PANGIUM EDULE)
A tree reaching 20m (60ft) (can't miss the s.o.b) in jungle in South East Asia, mainly
Malaysia, with heart shaped leaves in spirals spikes of green flowers and clusters of large
brownish pear shaped fruits. All parts are POISONOUS especially the fruits. The
seeds contain Prussic acid.
PHYSIC NUT: (JATROPHA CURCAS)
A shrub or small tree of wooded country throughout the tropics has large lobed ivy like
leaves small greenish yellow flowers and yellow apple sized fruits containing 3 large
The seed taste sweet but their oil is violently purgative, hence its name and the remains of
the pressed Seeds VERY POISONOUS. Has also dangerous relatives.
STRYCHNINE: (STRYCHOS NUXVOMICA)
A small tree with oval leaves in opposite pairs and white to yellowish red orange like
fruits whose seeds containing strychnine are deadly.
It is found mainly in India but other strychnine species occur throughout the Tropics.
CASTOR OIL PLANT OR CASTOR BEAN: (RICINUS COMMUNIS) (SOVIET?)
Found throughout the Tropics in scrubby and waste place is shrub like its leaves arranged
like the fingers of a hand with spikes of yellow flowers and prickly 3 seeded pods. Seeds
are violently purgative sometimes fatally.
DUCHESNIA: (DUSCHESNIA INDICA)
Resemble an ordinary EDIBLE strawberry, trailing with 3 parts leaves red strawberry
like fruits and yellow NOT white flowers on waste ground in the warmer parts of Asia.
THE FRUITS ARE HIGHLY POISONOUS SOMETIMES FATAL.
RENGHAS TREES: (GLUTA)
Of parts of India East to South East Asia that have severely irritant sap the Beachapple or
Manzanillo (Hippomane Mamcinella) of the new world tropics a small tree with smooth
pale bark and small apple like POISONOUS FRUITS that also has irritant sap.
And the Sandbox tree (Hua Crepitans) also of the new world a large spiny tree whose sap
can irritate or temporarily blind its segmented fruits that look rather like miniature
pumpkins ARE POISONOUS.
These plants thrive in salty conditions but at the right time of year, many other EDIBLE
plants occur near the Coast.
ORACHES: (A TRIPLEX)
Average 90cm (3ft) pale stalked with pale green spear shaped or triangular leaves and
spikes of small greenish white flowers on salty grounds, some kinds well inland. Cook
the young leaves.
SEA BEET: (BETA VULAGARIS)
Is sprawling red tinged with leathery long stalked dark green leaves and clusters of small
green flowers on European coasts. The leaves ARE EDIBLE raw or boiled.
SEA ROCKETS: (CAKILE)
Average 30cm (1ft) with fleshy blue green lobed leaves lilac or purplish flowers and egg
shaped seed pods. THE PEPPERY LEAVES AND YOUNG PODS CAN BE EATEN
RAW OR AS POTHERB.
GLASSWORTS OR MARSH SAMPHIRE: (SALICORNIA)
Often widespread in Saline Areas have plump greenish yellow jointed stems up to 30cm
(1ft) Some grow in great density on mud flats as single shoots 15cm (6in) high. Minute
flowers are scarcely visible at the junction of the stems.
ROCK SAMPHIRE: (CRITHMUM MARITIMUM)
Squat and bushy with umbrellas of yellow flowers is not relation but grows on shingles as
well as cliff.
Its thick hairless stems and fleshy grey green leaves cut into narrow leaflets ARE BOTH
EDIBLE. Cook and suck away the fleshy parts.
SCURVY GRASSES: (COCHLEARIA)
Average 25cm(10in) with dark green fleshy heart of kidney shaped leaves and small
white or pink flowers; often abundant on coasts. Very bitter, best Bleached in water but
So rich in vitamin C that the survivor should eat if encountered.
SEA KALE: (CRAMBE MARITIMA)
Is Cabbage like with thick grey green leaves fury petal white flowers and globular seed
On European Coasts. The very toughs leaf are better cooked, the underground stems can
be sliced and thoroughly boiled.
SEA HOLLY: (ERYNGIUM MARITIMUM)
Is thistle like average 60cm (2ft) with spiky white veined ice blue leaves and a blue
thistle head; on North European coasts. Dig out the long roots slice and boil.
OYSTER PLANT: (MERTENSIA MARITIMUM)
Is sprawling mat forming blue green and fleshy with oval leaves and clusters of pink to
blue purple flowers, on North European Coast. The leaves ARE EDIBLE RAW OR
SCOTS LOVAGE: (LIGUISTICUM SCOTICUM)
Is stocky celery scented to 90cm (3ft) often purple stemmed with bright green leaves and
heads of tiny white flowers on North European coasts.
Raw leaves are rich in Vitamin C or add these and chopped stems to other foods.
Several similar lovage occur elsewhere.
NOTES: TROPICAL SHORES:
This vegetation is likely to consist principally of Palm Trees though in the Old World
Tropics it may be possible to find Screw Pines (Pamdanus) so called because of their thin
spirally grouped leaves.
They can often distinguish by the many aerial roots at the base of the trunk. Knobbly
globular many segmented fruits are available all year and in some kinds make good
WILD PLUMS: (SPONDIAS):
May also be found near the coast while there is also the Sour Plum (Ximenia Caffra) a
small usually thorny tree whose plum like yellow fruits have EDIBLE PULP. There are
several different kinds throughout the Tropics.
Other plants include Passion Fruit: often found near the shore in the Tropical Americas
and the fleshy stemmed Seaside Purslane (Seuvium) which grows near beaches & salt
water of which the WHOLE PLANT CAN BE EATEN.
SEAWEED AND ALGAE:
Most varieties of Seaweed are found in shallow waters anchored to the bottom or a rock
but there are some that float on the surface in the open oceans.
Coastal weeds are usually found stratified with green forms growing in surface waters,
red in shallow water and brown a little deeper.
SEA LETTUCE: (ULVA LACTUCA)
Is light green resembling garden lettuce and is found on rock and stones in the Atlantic
and Pacific especially where water runs into the sea. Wash and boil.
Is pale green with pod like unbranched fronds up to 50cm (2ft) long usually less.
Often abundant on rocks in rock pools & also on salted marshes in cooler waters
AROUND THE WORLD.
The Whole plant is EDIBLE either fresh or dried and pulverised. It's best picked up in
KELPS: (ALARIA & LAMINARIA)
Have a short cylindrical stem and thin wavy olive green to brown fronds often very long
on rocky shores of the Atlantic & Pacific. EDIBLE Raw but better boiled.
IRISH MOSS: (CHONDRUS CRISPUS)
Consist of forking, lobed purplish to olive green fronds often in dense bed on Atlantic
shores. Wash and boil.
Cooled the residue will set like gelatine. Fronds may be dried for storage, leave them in
the sun until they have bleached white. Especially good for sex drive!
SUGARWRACK: (LAMINARIA SACARINA)
Has long flat wavy margined yellow brown fronds attached to stones and rocks common
in the Atlantic & off China & Japan. Young fronds ARE EDIBLE Raw but better
cooked. Sweet tasting.
DULSE: (RHODYMENIA PALMATA)
Has purple red short stemmed loved fan shaped fronds and occurs in the Atlantic &
Mediterranean. Leathery but sweet; boil it. Dulse can be dried and rolled for chewing
Have thin irregularly shaped satiny red purplish or brown fronds and are found in both
the Atlantic & Pacific. Boil until tender then mash. Use as a relish or combine with grains
to make cakes. Very tasty!
NOTE: Rich in vitamins & minerals, SEAWEEDS is an IDEAL SURVIVAL
THOSE SHOWN HERE ARE COMMON AND SAFE TO EAT.
THERE ARE NO POISONOUS SEAWEED.
But some contain acids that irritate the digestive tract and some are violent purgatives. If
not identified as a known EDIBLE species try only small amount.
Even with the more EDIBLE varieties eat only a little until you have becomes used to
them DO NOT Eat seaweed if short of water. If possible wash them in freshwater
before eating to remove some of the salt.
Collect growing weed firm and smooth to the touch NOT the pieces washed up on the
beach. REJECT ANY THAT SMELL BAD.
Some which contain irritating acids can be detected by crushing between the fingers &
leaving for 5 minutes by which time they give off an unpleasant smell.
All seaweed decay rapidly out of the water. Use soon after collection or dry for later use.
FRESHWATER ALGAE: NOSTOC
Is a freshwater algae of N. America & Eurasia, forming green round jelly like marble
sized globules in pools from spring on. Dry and use as a thickener Eat only bright green
AVOID ALL BLUE GREEN ALGAE IS POISONOUS:
It is found in freshwater not in the seas and oceans, floating on the surface of stagnant
pools. Identify by its blue green colour and by its gassy smell. (Smell like shit!).
NUTS AND CEREALS:
These keep reasonably well provided they are not allowed to get damp but will keep
better if dried. Place them on hot rocks from the fire, turning them frequently until
thoroughly dried. They should then be kept in damp proof containers.
FRUIT, FUNGI AND LICHENS:
Fruits and Berries can be dried whole or cut into slices and dried by sun, smoke or heat.
Fungi also dry very readily. The Boletus species especially.
Fruit can usually be eaten dry. Fungi can be added to soup and stews or soaked in water
for several hours to regain some of their texture if being used in other ways.
To store Lichens soak them overnight, boil well and allow to dry. Grind to a powder then
boil again to form a thick syrup that can be kept in a sealed container and used to give
body to other foods.
Wash in clean water and boil for just long enough to make then tender; they are often and
Tender plants can be gently steamed if you are sure that they are safe to eat. Add to stew
after the meat are cooked and already tender. Eat fresh greens RAW as salad.
SOME ARE TOXIC BUT THE TOXINS ARE DESTROYED BY HEAT.
ALWAYS cook roots, boiling will make the toughest ones tender.
Roast roots are tasty- but boil them first. Try boiling for 5 minutes then place them in a
hole dug beneath the fire cover with ash and embers and leave until tender.
LICHENS AND MOSSES:
Soak overnight in clean water. Add to stews.
Proper Sago comes from the Sago Palm but Buri, Sugar, Fishtail and in the American
Tropics Cabbage Palm can be used in the same way.
The average Sago Palm yields about 275kg (600lb) of Sago, enough to feed one person
for a year.
Cut down the palm at the base of the trunk, trim off the tip just below the last flowering
line. Divide a large trunk into sections.
Cut lengthwise -- hard work for the outer bark is 5cm (2in) thick and hard as bamboo.
Using each section as a trough, pound #pith# into a mash, then knead in a container of
water (the bowl of the trunk will do) and strain through a cloth.
A starchy paste will precipitate in the water. Roll this into sticky balls & cook
Palm Sap is extracted from flowering parts, not the trunk. Choose a fat stalk carrying a
flowering head (at the base of the crown of the trunk).
Bruise with a club to stimulate flow of sap, then cut off head. Sweet juice will flow from
the end of the stalk. 1.5 litre (3pts) per day.
Bruise and cut daily to stimulate the flow. Drink RAW or boil then cool it to produce
toffee like lumps of almost pure sugar. Sugar, Nipa, Coconut and Buri Palms can all be
used the same way. Extracting resinous sap is dealt above. .
GRAINS AND SEEDS:
Grains are enclosed in a husk. Dry them thoroughly to allow the grain to crack out.
Thresh (or trash) it with a flail, stick or rock, or if the grain is very malleable, rub it
between your hands.
Shake out on to a flat container and occasionally toss into the air in a breeze
(winnowing). The husks (chaff) will blow away leaving the heavier seed behind.
Parch husked seeds on hot stones by the fire. The heat will cook and dry seeds without
roasting them. This pinhole will keep well.
Eat cold or reheat. Add to stews or place a handful in a mug of hot water. Tasty and
nutritious. Dry they will not be properly digested, but they will fill the belly. It is better to
grind them into flour.
Grinding flour without a proper mill is hard work but can be done by pounding with a
smooth stone on hard surface. Look for a large stone with a depression in the middle to
place the grain in. Use a circling action as with a mortar and pestle.
Another way to grind flour is to hollow a tube of hard wood and to pound a stick up
and down inside it on the grain. Mix flour with a little water and knead into a dough.
Bake in an oven or make into thin strips wrap around a shaven green stick and cook over
hot embers. (Use hard wood NEVER Evergreen.)
Another method is to make the dough into fist size balls, flatten them and then drop hot
pebble size stones into the centre and wrap the dough around them.
Lick your fingers before picking up the pebbles- if you are quick the moisture stops the
pebbles from burning you or use sticks or tongs to lift them. Flour does not have to be
made from cereal grains.
Use the flowering heads of Cat's Tail or boil and mash up peeled roots of Wild Calla for
instance, or EDIBLE bark.
Those that are not harmful raw can be steeped in water and crushed with a stick or stone
to free the starch.
Remove fibres, leave starch to settle, then pour off the water and you will have your
NATURAL MEDICINE: Notes from the Herbalists Joseph E Meyer Book;
Leaving all POISONOUS plant alone and MAKING SURE that you have properly
identified the plant.
REMEMBER that as a general rule plants will be most potent when in flower.
Different parts of the plant may have different uses.
INFUSIONS are usually made from leaves or flowers and DECOCTION from roots as
seen below. Divide the amount made into three doses to take in one day.
ALWAYS prepare infusions, decoctions and poultices freshly just before using it.
NEVER keep for more than 12 Hours. Plants vary in potency depending on season
Do not think that you will do more good by taking or administrating larger doses you will
not and you may do harm. Don't expect miracles over night. Give a treatment a fair
chance to work.
TO MAKE AN INFUSION:
Cut and crush the herb so that the juices and oils are more readily available.
You need a slack handful of herbs to a 1/2 litre (1pt) of water (30gr to 50cc/1oz to
20fl.oz). Pour boiling water over it. Stir. Leave to cool.
There is no need to strain, the herb will sink to the bottom. If you cannot boil the water
use half the amount of cold water and stand the vessel in the sun.
If there is no sun or no waters try sucking or chewing the leaves, extracting as much of
the juices as possible then spit out the pulp.
TO MAKE A DECOCTION:
Usually a preparation from roots. Cut, scrape and mash root. Soak in water (handful to
85cc/ 1-1/2pt) for at least half an hour. Bring to boil, simmer until liquid reduces by 1/3.
TO MAKE A POULTICE:
Mash up root, leaves or all of the herb and make into a flat pad. If too dry add water.
Apply to affected part and cover with a large leaf or clean cloth and bind in position.
Poultice can be applied to stiff joints, sprains and pus-filled sores.
Reduce stem and leaves of the plant to a juicy mush by crushing with hands, rocks or
Squeeze juice only into a wound and spread pulp around the affected area. Keep in place
with a large leaf and bind.
The food value of botanical is so far in advance of chemicals that there should be no
comparison & the therapeutic value of botanical in comparison to man made chemical is
open to argument.
The one big factor in favour of botanical is that they are a natural agent and harmless in
the ordinary dose, which is far more that can be said of most chemicals. Indeed many
chemicals are positively harmful.
Not all the parts of the plant are used in medicine; sometimes the seed only, in others the
flower, the leaves, root etc. in other the whole plant etc. Lets start the plant anatomy &
GATHERING BOTANICAL DRUGS:
All roots, barks, herbs, leaves, flowers and bulbs that have a medicinal value are
commonly called botanical drugs.
To get the best results from the work of collecting them, it is important to handle them
properly as well as to collect at the right time of the year.
It is also well to see that the articles you collect are not mixed with some of similar
appearance. The demand is for pure clean, properly handled goods.
DIRECTIONS FOR COLLECTING LEAVES:
Leaves should ALWAYS be collected in clear dry weather in the morning after the dew
They are at their best when the plant is in bloom and should be collected at this time.
Leaves of biennials are most valuable during the second year of their growth.
In drying; spread out thinly on a clean floor and stir occasionally until they are
thoroughly dry. Remove all stems from leaves & REMEMBER that the leaves that are
worth most are those which retain their natural green colours. Dampness will turn them
black so be careful not to let them leaves get damp.
DIRECTIONS FOR COLLECTING HERBS:
In collecting herbs, strip off the flowers, smaller leaves and very small stems and reject
the large stem. Dry same as leaves. The large woody stems are of NO value.
DIRECTIONS FOR COLLECTING FLOWERS:
Flowers are worth most from the standpoint of their medicinal value immediately upon
opening. The directions for collecting leaves also apply for flowers at their best when
their natural colour is preserved in drying.
DIRECTIONS FOR COLLECTING BULBS:
Bulbs should be gathered at the time of the leaves of the plant die, which is of course in
Autumn. The outer heavy coat should be removed & the bulb sliced, after which it should
be dried by artificial heat not to exceed 100 degrees Fahrenheit.
DIRECTIONS FOR COLLECTING BARKS:
Barks may be gathered either in the fall or spring. Wild cherry & other rough barks
should be roasted before peeling, that is the rough outer bark MUST be scraped or
shaved off and the inner bark then peeled. Barks may be dried in sunlight except green
DIRECTIONS FOR COLLECTING SEEDS:
Seeds should be gathered as soon as they ripen. Only heavy full developed seeds are of
value. Others should be removed by winnowing.
Springs from the seed make their full growth and die in one year.
It does not flower the first year but produces leaves only. The second year of its growth it
flowers after which it dies. The carrot and parsnip are some examples.
Lives for more than 2 years. If the plant retains its leaves during the winter it is known as
an evergreen if the leaves fall upon the approach of cold weather it is said to be
AN HERB IS:
A plant having a soft stem that dies down to the ground after the plant has reached, its
A SHRUB IS:
A plant that has a woody stem, grows to a height of 25 to 30 feet or less and branches
near the ground.
A TREE IS:
Has a woody stem, is higher than a shrub and does not branch near the ground.
THE ROOT ANATOMY:
The root of a plant is that portion that is usually found in the earth, the stems and leaves
being in the air. The point of union is called the collar or neck of the plant.
FIBROUS ROOT: is one composed of many spreading branches as that of barley.
CONICAL ROOT: is one where it tapers regularly from the crown to the apex as that of
FUSIFORM ROOT: is one when it tapers up as well as down as that of the radish.
NAPIFORM ROOT: When much swollen at the base, so as to become broader than
long as the turnip.
FASCICULATE ROOT: is one when some of the fibres or branches are thickened.
TUBERIFEROUS: is one when some of the branches assume the form of rounded
knobs as that of the potato.
PALMATE ROOT: is one when these knobs are branched.
AERIAL ROOT: are those emitted from the stem into the open air as that of the Indian
RHIZOME OR ROOT STOCK: Is a prostrate stem either subterranean or resting on
the surface as that of the calamus or blood root.
TUBER: Is an enlargement of the apex of a subterranean branch of the root, as that of the
common potato or artichoke
CORMUS: Is a fleshy subterranean stem of a round or oval figure as in the Indian
BULB: Is an extremely abbreviated stem clothed with scales as that of the lily.
It is that portion of the plant that grows in an opposite direction from the root, seeking the
light and exposing itself to the air.
All flowering plants possess stems. In those which are said to be stemless it is either very
short or concealed beneath the ground.
AN HERB is: one which the stem does not become woody but dies down to the ground
at least after flowering.
A SHRUB is: a woody plant branched near the ground & 1 to 6 feet high.
A TREE: Attain a greater height with a stem unbranched near ground. The stem of a tree
is usually called the trunk, in grasses it has been termed the CULM.
The stems that are too weak to stand erect are said to be decumbent, procumbent and
A STOLON is: a form of a branch which curves or falls down to the ground where they
often strike root.
A SUCKER is: a branch of subterraneous origin, which after running horizontally and
emitting roots in its course at length rises out of the ground and forms an erect stem that
soon becomes an independent plant, as that of the Rose, Raspberry etc.
A RUNNER is: a prostrate slender branch sent off the base of the parent stem.
AN OFFSET is: a similar but shorter branch with a tuft of leaves at the end as in the
A SPINE is: a short and imperfectly developed branch of a woody plant as that of the
A TENDRIL is: commonly a slender leafless branch capable of coiling spirally as in the
Is commonly raised on an unexpended part or stalk which is called the PETIOLE while
the expanded portion is termed the LAMINA, LIMB or BLADE.
When the vessels or fibres of the leaves expand immediately on leaving the stems the leaf
is said to be SESSILE.
In such case the PETIOLE is absent. When the blade consists of a single piece the leaf is
simple, when composed of 2 or 3 more with a branched petiole, the leaf is compound.
The distribution of the veins or framework of the leaf in the blade called: VENATION
A LANCEOLATE LEAF: has the form of a lance.
AN OVATE LEAF: Has the shape of ellipsis.
A CUNEIFORM LEAF: Has the shape of a wedge.
A CORDATE LEAF: has the shape of a heart.
A RENIFORM LEAF: Has the shape of a kidney.
A SAGITTATE LEAF: ............... An arrow.
A HASTATE LEAF: ...An ancient halberd.
A PELTATE LEAF: .... A shield.
A SERRATE LEAF: In which the margin is beset with sharp teeth, which point forward
towards the apex.
A DENTATE LEAF: Is one when these teeth are not directed towards the apex.
A CRENATE LEAF: Has rounded teeth.
A SINUATE LEAF: Has alternate concavities and convexities.
A PINNATE LEAF: has the shape of a feather.
A PECTINATE LEAF: Is one having very close and narrow divisions, like the teeth of
A LYRATE LEAF: Has the shape of a lyre.
A RUNCINATE LEAF: Is a LYRATE leaf with sharp lobes pointing towards the base
as in the dandelion.
A PALMATE LEAF: Is one bearing considerable resemblance to hand.
A PEDATE LEAF: Is one bearing resemblance to a bird's foot.
AN OBOVATE LEAF: Is one having the veins more developed beyond the middle of
When a leaf at its outer edge has no dentation it is said to be entire. When the leaf
terminates in an acute angle, it is acute, when in an obtuse angle it is obtuse.
An obtuse leaf with the apex slightly depressed is retuse or if more strongly notched
An OBOVATE leaf with a wider or more conspicuous notch at the apex becomes
obcordate, being a cordate leaf inverted.
When the apex is cut off by a straight transverse line the leaf is truncate.
When abruptly terminated by a small projecting point it is MUCRONATE, and when an
acute leaf has a narrowed apex it is ACUMINATE. In ferns the leaves are called
The flower assumes an endless variety of forms and we shall assume in the dissection
merely the typical form of it. The organs of a flower are of two sorts.
1st; Its leaves or envelopes and 2nd those peculiar organs having no resemblance to the
envelopes. The envelopes are of two kinds, or occupy two rows, one above or within the
The lower or outer row is termed the Calyx and commonly exhibits the green colour of
the leaves. The inner row that is usually of more delicate texture and forms the most
showy part of the flower, is termed Corolla.
The several parts of the leaves of the Corolla are called Petals and the leaves of the Calyx
have received the analogous name of Sepals.. The floral envelopes are collectively called
The ESSENTIAL organs enclosed within a floral envelope are also of two kinds and
occupy two rows one within the other. The firsts of these, those next within the petals are
A stamen consists of a stalk called the Filament that bears on its summit a rounded body
termed the Anther, filled with a substance called the Pollen.
The seeds bearing organs occupy the centre or summit of a flower & are called Pistils. A
pistil is distinguished into three parts 1st; the Ovary containing the Ovales 2nd; the Style
or columnar prolongation of the ovary; and 3rd; the Stigma or termination of the style.
All the organs of the flower are situated on or grown out of the apex of the flower-stalk,
into which they are inserted and which is called the Torus or Receptacle.
A plant is said to be monoecious where the stamens and pistils are in separate flowers on
the same individual.
Dioecious where they occupy separate flowers on different individuals and polygamous
where the stamens and pistils are separate in some flowers and united in others either on
the same or 2 or 3 different plants.
THE FRUIT: The principal kinds may be briefly stated as follows:
A FOLLICLE: Is the name given to such a fruit as borne by the Larkspur or Milkweed.
A LEGUME or POD: is the name extended to such fruit as the Pea or Bean.
A DRUPE: Is a stone fruit as the Plum, Apricot
An ACHENIUM: Is the name of the fruit as borne by the Buttercup.
A CREMOCARP: Is the fruit of the Poison Hemlock and similar plant.
A CARYOPSIS: Is such fruit as born by the Wheat tribe.
A NUT: Is the fruit of the Oak, Chestnut etc.
A SAMARA: Is the name of the fruit of the Maple, Birch and Elm.
A BERRY: is fruit fleshy & pulpy throughout as: Grape, Gooseberry
A POMME: Is the fruit such as the Apple, Pear.
A PEPO: Is to the fruit of the Pumpkin, Cucumber
A CAPSULE: Is general term for all dry fruit such as Lovelia etc.
A SILIQUE: Is fruit as of Shepherd's Purse etc.
A CONE or STOBILE: is a collective fruit of: Firtribe, Magnolia etc.
The seed like the ovule of which it is fertilised and matured state, consists of a nucleus
usually enclosed within two integuments. The outer integument or proper seed coat is
variously termed the episperm, spermoderm or testa.
DEFINITION OF MEDICAL TERM:
ABSORBENT / ANTACIDS: such medicines that counteract acidity of the stomach and
ALTERNATIVES are: medicines which in certain doses work a gradual change by
promoting the usual functions of different organs.
ANODYNES: Medicines that relieve pain.
ANTHELMINTIC: Medicines that have the power of destroying or expelling worms
from the intestinal canal.
ANTISCORBUTIC: Those used in the treatment of scurvy.
ANTISPASMODICS: Those to relieve spasm or irregular & painful action for muscles
or muscular fibres.
AROMATIC: Those with a grateful smell & agreeable pungent taste.
ASTRINGENTS: Those which when applied to the body render the solids dense and
CARMINATIVES: Those which dispel flatulency of the stomach.
CATHARTICS: Those which accelerate the action of the bowels or increase the
discharge by stool.
DEMULCENT: Those suited to modify the action or acrid and stimulating matters upon
the mucous membranes as in the throat.
DIAPHORETICS: Those that promote or cause perspirable discharge by the skin.
DIURETICS: Those which increase the flow of urine by their action upon the kidneys.
EMETICS: Those which produce vomiting.
EMOLLIENTS: those which when applied to the solids of the body render them soft
ERRHINES: Those which when applied to the lining membrane of the nostrils, occasion
a discharge of mucus.
EPISPASTIC: Those which cause blisters when applied to the surface of the body
EXPECTORANTS: Those capable of facilitating excretion of mucus.
NARCOTICS: Those having the property of diminishing the action of the nervous and
vascular systems and of inducing sleep.
RUBEFACIENTS: Those which excite the vessels of the skin & increase its heat &
SEDATIVES: Those which have the power of allaying the action or of lessening the
exercise of some particular function.
SIALAGOGUE: Those which increase the flow of the saliva (salt).
STIMULANTS: Those capable of exciting the vital energy, whether as exerted in
sensation or motion.
TONICS: Those which sharpen appetite & promote strength & tone. (Gin tonic?).
The more valuable and perishable articles should be shipped in boxes or barrels others by
bags. See that all goods are dry before shipping otherwise they will mould on the way
and be worthless when arriving at destination. Address via plants to check?? Indiana
Botanical Garden Box 5 Hammond Indiana USA?.
CRUEL TO BE KIND:
Sick survivors need your care and attention but they MUST also be kept interested and
If a man with pneumonia is left to curl up in a corner of the shelter, he will probably die.
Get him on his feet and keep him occupied with minor tasks. Give him plenty of fluids &
coach him to eat.
Do not let him lie down. The hepatitis case MUST be forced to eat. You can not allow
strength or moral to be depleted.
URINE AS ANTISEPTIC: YES!
It can be used as such to wash out wounds. If patient is fussy let him use his own. If sick
enough they won't care whose.
Is often used to wash wounds and keep it clean. Sea water is even better for that purpose
providing it is fresh.
They have been used for centuries to clean wounds. In Tropical Countries an open wound
is soon infested with them, but they do keep it open and clean until better treatment can
be given. Keep watch that they don't devour good tissues.
For centuries fire as been used to clean wounds. Cauterising with heat requires fortitude
in the patient, but if they can stand it and you have ammunition, placing powder around a
wound and lighting. It can prevent gangrene.
The roots of Comfrey and to a certain extent Solomon's Seal are so rich in starch that they
will set hard when they have been well boiled and reduced.
Allow to cool slightly and pack around an injured limb or joint. Good for holding
DOVE'S-FOOT CRANE'S BILL: Expressed juice.
GIANT PUFFBALL: Packed as poultice.
PERIWINKLE: Expressed juice of leaves. PLANTAINS: Pounded leaves as poultice
SELF-HEAL: Expressed juice
STORK'S-BILL: Expressed juice of leaves. WOUNDWORT: Expressed juice.
CLEANSING RASHES / SORES / WOUNDS:
NOTE: Use these plants EXTERNALLY to bathe the skin or where indicated as a
poultice. Apply 2 or 3 times a day.
BURDOCK: Decoction of root, crushed raw root and salt for animal bites /
CAMOMILE: infusion of flowers as poultice / CHICKWEED: expressed juice of
leaves / CLEAVERS: infusion of whole plant except roots / COMFREY: Decoction of
root as poultice
DEAD-NETTLE: Infusion of flowers and shoots./ DOCKS: crushed leaves.
ELDER: Expressed juice of leaves / ELM: infusion of bark / HOREHOUND: Infusion
of whole plant except root.
MALLOW: Decoction of leaves and flowers as poultice MARSH MALLOW:
Decoction of root, infusion of leaves & flowers as poultice / OAK: Decoction of bark /
SANICLE: Infusion of whole plant except root /
SCURVY GRASS: crushed leaves./ SHEPHERD'S PURSE: Infusion of whole plant
but root as poultice
SILVERWEED: Infusion of whole plant except root SOLOMON'S SEAL: decoction
of root as poultice.
ST. JOHN WORT: Infusion of flowers & shoots. SORREL: Crushed leaves / TANSY:
WATERCRESS: Expressed juice.
WOUNDWORT: Infusion whole plant except roots. YARROW: Infusion of whole
plant but roots.
NOTE: These plants can be used Externally or Internally. THEY ARE
PARTICULARLY USEFUL FOR WOUNDS THAT BECOME INFECTED!
GARLIC: Expressed juice. / MALLOW: infusion of leaves and flowers / MARSH
MALLOW: decoction of root, infusion of flowers and leaves.
HORSERADISH: Decoction of root.
THYME: Infusion of leaves and flowers.
ACHE / PAINS / BRUISES / STIFFNESS:
NOTE: Where indicated use Externally.
BALM: Infusion of leaves. / BIRCH: infusion of leaves / BORAGE: infusion of whole
plant, but roots / BURDOCK: decoction of root.
CAMOMILE: Expressed juice of flowers applied to swelling / CHICKENWEED:
infusion of whole plant except root / COMFREY: decoction of root applied to swelling /
COWBERRY: infusion of leaves and fruits.
DOCK: Crushed leaves applied to bruises / DOVE'S FOOT & CRANE'S-BILL:
infusion of whole plant but roots applied to swellings / ELM: Infusion of bark.
FIGWORT: Decoction of whole plant except root; use externally to draw bruises and
blood clots. /
GARLIC: Expressed juice applied to swelling.
#1 ANTISEPTIC too!
HOREHOUND: Expressed juice or leaves to = EARACHE / POPLAR: infusion of
leaf buds/ SOLOMON'S SEAL: decoction of root; use externally.
SORREL: Crushed leaves applied to bruises. / ST. JOHN'S WORT: Infusion of
flowers & shoots applied to bruises / TANSY: crushed leaves applied to bruises /
WILLOW: Decoction of bark.
These plants will induce perspiration to break a fever.
CAMOMILE: Infusion of leaves and flowers / ELDER: infusion of flowers and fruit /
ELM: decoction of bark / FEVERFEW: infusion of whole plant except roots / LIME:
infusion of flowers.
COLDS / SORE THROATS / RESPIRATORY:
AGRIMONY: Infusion of whole plant but roots / ANGELICA: decoction of root /
BILBERRY: infusion of leaves and fruits / BISTORT: infusion of whole plant but roots
/ BORAGE: infusion of whole plant except roots BURDOCK: decoction of roots.
CAMOMILE: infusion of flower use as gargle (garlic too?): COLT'S FOOT: Infusion
of leaves and flowers / COMFREY: infusion of whole plant /
GREAT MULLEIN: infusion of whole plant but roots, decoction of root as gargle.
HOREHOUND: Infusion of whole plant but roots / HORSERADISH: raw root/
LIME: infusion of flowers / LUNGWORT: infusion of whole plant but roots.
MALLOW: Infusion of flowers and leaves /MARSHMALLOW: decoction of root and
infusion of leaves & flowers / MINT: infusion of whole plant but roots / MOUNTAIN
AVENS: infusion of whole plant, use as gargle.
NETTLE: Infusion of leaves / OAK: decoction of bark; use as gargle / PLANTAIN:
infusion of leaves and stems POPLARS: infusion of leaves buds.
ROSE: Decoction of hips / SANICLE: infusion of whole plant but nut roots SELF-
HEAL: infusion of whole plant but roots, use as gargle.
ST. JOHN'S WORT: Infusion of flowers & shoots / THYME: infusion of leaves &
flowers/ WILLOW: decoction of bark / YARROW: infusion of whole plant but roots
use as inhalant.
BALM: Infusion of leaves / BILBERRY: decoction of fruit / BRACKEN: infusion of
leaves / DANDELION: decoction of whole plant.
HORSERADISH: Infusion of root / MINT: infusion of whole plant but roots with
crushed charcoal / SOLOMON'S SEAL: decoction of roots / SANICLE: infusion of
roots / YARROW: infusion of leaves and flowers
NOTE: Take 2 or 3 times daily till symptoms subside.
BILBERRY: Decoction of fruit / BISTORT: Infusion of whole plant but roots /
BRAMBLE: infusion of leaves or decoction of fruit. /
COWBERRY: Decoction of fruit / ELM: infusion of bark / GREAT BURNET:
infusion of leaves and shoots / HAZEL: infusion of leaves. /
MARSHMALLOW: Infusion of leaves & flowers, decoction of root. / MINT: infusion
of whole plant but roots / MOUNTAIN AVENS: infusion of whole plants but roots /
OAK: Decoction of bark / PLANTAIN: infusion of leaves and stems / PERIWINKLE:
infusion of leaves NOT TO USE for long periods / SILVERWEED: infusion of whole
plant but roots.
AGRIMONY: Infusion of whole plant but roots. BARBERRY: Expressed juice of fruit
CLEAVERS: infusion of whole plant but roots. COUCH GRASS: (Elymus): decoction
of root. DANDELION: Decoction of whole plant.
ELDER: Expressed juice of fruit / FEVERFEW: infusion of leaves and flowers /
ROWAN: expressed juice of fruit / ROSE: decoction of hips / WALNUT: decoction of
NOTE: Apply externally 2 or 3 times a day.
BILBERRY: Expressed juice of fruit / CAMOMILE: infusion of leaves and flowers /
ELM: decoction of bark LESSER CELANDINE: expressed juice of leaves /
OAK: Decoction of bark / PLANTAIN: expressed juice / POPLAR: decoction of leaf
SILVERWEED: Infusion of whole plant but root / SOLOMON'S SEAL: Decoction of
BRACKEN: Infusion of root / FEVERFEW: decoction leaves and flowers /
FIGWORT: infusion of whole plant but roots / TANSY: infusion of leaves & flowers,
use sparingly in small amount.
REMEMBER ESPECIALLY FOR HEADACHE:
WILLOW leaves and barks make a decoction containing Salicin a base for Aspirin.
FOR HEALING: Expressed the juice from COMFREY leaves to Aid tissue regrowth
(Cuts / Burns).
TROPICAL MEDICINAL PLANTS:
Many thousands of Tropical plants are known to have medicinal properties and are used
by tribal people. Relatively few have been studied by Western scientists or are widely
The following are a few of the many plants that may be of use but lacking the accurate
information on them you will do better to take medicines with you whenever you can.
NEVER experiment with something that you can not positively identify unless you are
ready to study & take the risk to die or be very sick from it.
COPPERLEAF: (acalypha indica)
Is one of several similar shrubs in India & S-WEST Asia reaching 2-3m (6 1/2 -10 feet):
with oval to heart shaped leaves that are often variegated in shades of red bright pink and
In Malaysia the leaves are dried and drunk like tea. A decoction of roots & leaves is
laxative & restorative.
ALSTONIA: Including Alsostonias scholaris;
Are found from India east to Philippines & South to Indonesia & parts of Australia.
Boil the bark in water to produce a Tonic, reduce fever, relieve diabetes and kill internal
Occur from India to China & Indonesia, a decoction of leaves & bark will Help to
suppress Malaria and Dysentery. Use oil from seeds to treat ulcers and skin complaints.
Occur in many fairly similar forms from India to China & South to Australia. All parts
are bitter tasting.
Take seeds of Brucea Sumatra for Diarrhoea & Dysentery. Crushed leaves = Relieve
external bleedings soothe boils & insect bites.
Is a relative of Ginger found in India & part East. Is a tall herbaceous plant with thick
fleshy rhizomes and a long branched head of flowers.
Use seeds or expressed juice of fruit for settling the Digestion and relieving nausea.
China barks or red barks, large trees, typically with red brown trunks, wild in tropical
South America have been taken all over the world.
Take a decoction of the QUININE containing bark to Suppress Malaria.
IS A FAIRLY COMMON EDIBLE PLANT OF THE TROPICS. Used expressed
juice from the roots & leaves to treat Skin eruption & inflammations.
Is another Asian tree whose bark when cut yields a latex like sap. Use this sap in small
amounts to treat Worms.
Is an erect downy annual up to 1m (3ft 4in): tall with oblong toothed leaves and
yellowish flowers. It occurs from India east to Taiwan Use an infusion of the leaves for
Coughs & Fevers. The seeds are mildly Laxative.
Have stems with stiff spreading hairs, broadly oval leaves up to 15cm (5in): long and
small greenish white flowers. It grows in Tropical Africa.
Use tender leaves and shoots as a potherb or in a strong infusion to treat Tapeworm &
Diarrhoea. Use a poultice of leaves on Boils, Abscesses & Wounds.
Is found from India east to Papua, New Guinea & Polynesia. A decoction of bark and
leaves relieves Upset stomachs feverish aches & pains.
Use leaves to promote Sweating to relieve colds fevers & asthma & a decoction of the
bark to suppress Malaria.
Scrape gum off the bark use to treat Worms & Diarrhoea.
MEDICINAL PLANTS: PART 2
The following plants are found in Temperate climates. Many are very common and all
are quite safe.
Use them to Staunch bleeding & heal wounds for fevers colds & digestive upsets & other
treatments as described. Some have several uses but they have been grouped here under
their most common application.
GENERAL & ANTISEPTICS:
EYEBRIGHT: (EUPHRASIA OFFICINALIS)
Grow to about 30cm (1ft): with oval often downy leaves and white flowers tinged violet
or purple veined and with a yellow spot, in grassy places, often in mountains in Eurasia.
A strained infusion of the whole plant is excellent for Eye infection. It is also said to
Ease; Hay-Fever & Catarrh & Nasal congestion.
Occur in many varieties in most Temperate and now Tropical PART the smell will lead
you to them. Most have long strap like leaves arising from the bulb and a tall stem topped
with a cluster of small pinkish or white flowers.
THE BULB IS POWERFULLY ANTISEPTIC use as expressed juice externally
diluted with water to treat Wounds & swellings and eat garlic to treat and to Prevent
Colds. It also contains a natural antibiotic.
WILD THYME: (THYMUS SERPYLLUM)
Is a small aromatic mat forming with small oval leaves and reddish purple flowers; in dry
grassy places in western Eurasia but other species occur elsewhere. Use its Antiseptic
qualities. In an infusion for Coughs & Colds or as a potherb.
FIGWORT: SCROPHULARIA NODOSA
Grow to 90cm (3ft): with square stems pointed oval leaves and red brown flowers; in
woods clearing and scrub in Eurasia.
There are many different kinds. Apply as a decoction to Reduce Swellings, Sprains, Boils
& Bruises, to dissipate blood clots & for treating Haemorrhoids.
SELF-HEAL: (PRUNELLA VULGARIS)
Is a downy creeping plant with pointed oval leaves and heads of violet flowers in dry
grassy and waste places in Eurasia. Use as expressed juice to Staunch bleeding or by
infusion for internal haemorrhage.
Grow to 30cm (1ft): with a hairy stem deeply loved leaves and small pinkish five petals
flowers in dry grassy and waste places. Use as expressed juice to STAUNCH
BLEEDING OR AS A DECOCTION FOR INTERNAL HAEMORRHAGE.
Is strong smelling hairy up to 90cm (3ft): tall with toothed heart shaped leaves and spikes
of dark pink to purple white blotted flowers usually found in damp places, similar species
by woodland edges and shady waste place.
Use as expressed juice to STAUNCH BLEEDING OR BY INFUSION FOR
BATHING ACHES SPRAINS & WOUNDS.
SANICLE: (SANICULA EUROPAEA)
Grow to 50cm (20in): with a hand shaped deeply lobed leaves and tiny white or pinkish
flowers in a compact head widespread in woodland in Eurasia.
USE AS EXPRESSED JUICE TO STAUNCH BLEEDING OR BY INFUSION
FOR INTERNAL HAEMORRHAGE.
GREATER PERIWINKLE: (VINCA MAJOR)
Grow to 50cm (20in): with a leathery evergreen broadly spear shaped leaves and large
blue violet flowers in woody scrubby and rocky places in Eurasia There are many kinds
of Periwinkle in other parts of the world.
USE EXPRESSED JUICE EXTERNALLY TO = STAUNCH BLEEDING.
Provide juice for Treating wounds and for treating Chest pains & complaints.
MOUNTAIN AVENS: (DRYAS OCTOPETALA) In Mountainous rocky & Northern
Resemble a creeping wild Strawberry, with well lobed leaves, paler below and large
white yellow staminate flowers.
Use an infusion of stems leaves and flowers for Diarrhoea or as a Gargle.
BALM: (MELISSA OFFICINALIS)
Is lemon scented and hairy, growing to about 60cm (2ft) with toothed oval greenish
yellow leaves and whorls or small white flowers at the leaf bases. In grassy places in the
warmer part of Eurasia.
Use an infusion of the whole plant for Fevers and nausea. Can also be used to Ease
WATER MINT: (MENTHA AQUATICA)
Is aromatic hairy ALWAYS near fresh water with toothed pointed oval leaves a purplish
stem to 80cm (32in) and cluster of pinkish flowers.
Use as infusion of the leaves for Diarrhoea as a digestive and heated to induce
perspiration in fevers.
Similar mints are also effective. If made too strong the infusion may become #EMETIC.#
Are tall trees with large oval tooted leaves green disc-shaped fruits and often suckers at
the base of the trunk.
Use a decoction of the bark for Diarrhoea & skin eruptions.
CLEAVERS OR GOOSEGRASS: (GALLIUM APARINE)
Is straggling with long prickly stems whorls of narrow prickly leaves and small white
flowers, widespread on moist woody and waste ground.
Young plants can be boiled and eaten like spinach. Use an infusion to ease Constipation.
Give frequent dose mixed with an equal quantity of Marsh mallow for #cystitis# .
AGRIMONY: (AGRIMONIA EUPATORIA)
Grow to 90cm (3ft) with a downy stem toothed spear-shaped leaflets, greyish below and
a tall spike of yellow flowers in dry grassy places. There are several different kinds.
Use as an infusion of the whole plant to ease constipation & acid stomach, also use to
treat Cystitis giving small doses frequently.
Grow to 20cm (8in) with shiny dark green heart shaped leaves and yellow flowers, in wet
woodland and damp ground in Eurasia.
Apply the expressed juice externally for Haemorrhoids. Do not confuse with its
POISONOUS relatives; BUTTERCUPS
SOLOMON'S SEALS: (POLYGONATUM)
Are small patch forming with arching stems bearing tube shaped greenish white flowers
in woody scrubby areas.
Use a decoction of the root externally for Haemorrhoids & Bruises, or take an infusion
The starchy root is EDIBLE like parsnip but when boiled and dried it sets hard as
makeshift plaster for a splinting agent.
Either as infusion or poultice made from the woodered root will ease bruising.
BEWARE: BERRIES ARE POISON.
Also provide an infusion for treating disgetive disturbances & haemorrhoids.
FEVERS/ COUGHS/ COLDS:
FEVERFEW: (TANACETUM PARTHENIUM)
Is very aromatic, grows to 45cm (18in) with delicate yellowish leaflets and many daisies
like flowers. In waste and grassy places in Eurasia. Eating the leaves ease headchaes &
migraines / But to some people this can cause blistering in the mouth.
It is SAFER to use an infusion of the whole plant for fever, headaches and general pains
or tincture for insect bites.
Frequent small doses of a hot infusion help regulate contraction for childbirth
CAMOMILE: (CHAMAEMELUM NOBILE)
Is aromatic creeping with finely dissected leaves and daisy like flowers; in grassy places
Use an infusion of the whole plant for fevers, headaches, migraines, & colds or the
expressed juice of the flowers for aches and sprains
It has calming influence especially on nervous excited children.
COLT'S FOOT: (TUSSILAGO FARFARA)
Is common from LATE WINTER ON BARE & WASTE GROUND. Large, yellow
Dandelion like flowers top asparagus like stems. Heart shaped leaves follow the flowers.
Use the leaves by infusion for colds & coughs.
LUNGWORT: (PULMONARIA OFFICINALIS)
Is downy up to 30cm (1ft) with pale spotted spear shaped leaves and bells shaped pink or
purplish blue flowers, in mixed woods and scrub in Eurasia.
An infusion of the whole plant is excellent for Chest complaints and useful for diarrhoea,
for coughs: Use with equal parts of Colt's Foot.
HOREHOUND: (MARRUBIUM VULGARE)
Is thyme scented downy with squarish stems up to 50cm (20in) roundish crinkly greenish
white leaves and whorls of whitish flowers; in dry scrubby places in Eurasia.
Use an infusion of the whole plant for chills & respiratory disorder.
Oil expressed from the leaves soothes earache. It is a good cough treatment for children.
In large doses it is laxative.
YARROW: (ACHILLEA MILLEFOLLIUM)
Is downy aromatic up to 60cm (2ft) with dissected feathery dark green leaves and heads
of tiny white or pink flowers. In grassy places.
Use an infusion of the whole plant but not the roots. For colds & fevers. Also hasten,
speeds clothing of blood in an injury & reduces blood pressure & bleeding
MUSK MALLOW: (MALVA MOSCHATA)
Grow in grassy and scrubby places to about 60cm (2ft) with a hairy stem deeply divided
leaves and large pink five petals flowers. Mallows are widespread and come in many
varieties. Use this like Marsh Mallows.
TREE MALLOW: (LAVATERA ARBOREA)
Grow to 3m (9ft) with a hairy stem woody at the base ivy shaped leaves & pink purple
flowers streaked darker in rocky coastal areas from Europe to Asia Minor. Use this like
MARSH MALLOW: (ALTHAEA OFFICINALIS)
Grow to 90cm (3ft) downy grey with large lobed leaves and pale pink flowers. THE
COOKED ROOT IS EXCELLENT TO EAT.
Use an infusion of the whole plant for CHEST COMPLAINTS or one just of the root to
relieve giddiness caused by loss of blood & to clean wounds and sores.
A rubbing with bruised leaves soothes insect bites. Boiled leaves are a good poultice for
skin eruptions. An infusion of the leaves will relax & sooth irritation & inflammations of
the alimentary system.
GREAT MULLEIN: (VERBASCUM THAPSUS)
Is covered in pale woody down, growing to 2m (6ft) with large spear shaped leaves and a
dense spike of 5 petals yellow flowers in dry warm grassy places.
Use an infusion of flowers and leaves for coughs & chest complaints or a decoction of the
root as a gargle. Powder the flowers to make a sedative & pain reliving tea.
Grow to 60cm (2ft) with small oblong translucently spotted leaves and a head of golden
yellow flowers that exude a red juice when crushed; in open woods, grassy and bushy
places. Use an infusion of the whole plant for colds and chest complaints.
20 Favourite scents of men and women 1966 study in England
1= Honeysuckle 2= Fresh strawberry 3= Red Rose 4 = New dawn Rose 5 = Wild Rose 6
= Emily Gray rose 7 = Sweet pea 8= Stock & Bonds? 9 = Mock orange blossoms 10 =
1= Sweet pea 2= Red Rose 3 = Honeysuckle 4 = New Dawn rose 5= Fresh strawberry 6=
Emily Gray rose 7= Stock & bonds? 8= English Lavender oil 9 = Meadowsweet flower
10 = French Lavender oil.
Men seem to prefer mock orange, honeysuckle, wild rose, musk ambrette, ilang-ilang and
lemon grass much more than women. Women prefer alpine violet perfume, bay leaf and
Women also prefer perfume and food associated odours. (They love to eat and complain
about their weight all out of whack) Oh dear, dear!
POISONOUS PLANTS DON'T EAT:
WHERE FOUND/ POISONOUS PARTS / RESULT:
1) Buttercup: Fields / All / Indigestion
2) CherryTrees: Shrubs /Twigs, Foliage /DEATH
3) Crocus: Autumn/ Flower garden /Bulbs/Vomiting
4) Daphnia: Ornament / plant / Berries /DEATH
5) Elderberry: Trees, shrubs / Shoots / Nausea
6) Foxglove: Flower garden /Leaves / Irregular heart beat
7) Hemlock: Fields/ All / DEATH
8) Hyacinth: House plant / Bulbs / Nausea & DEATH
9) Iris: Flower / garden / Underground stems / Indigestion
10) Jimsonweed: Fields / All /DEATH / Indigestion
11) Larkspur: Flower garden / Young plant seeds / DEATH/ indigestion
12) Lily of Valley: Flower garden / Leaves, flowers / Irregular heart beat
13) Nightshade: Fields / All / especially berries = / DEATH
14) Oak Trees: Shrubs Foliage,/ acorns / Kidney injury
15) Oleander: House plant / Leaves/ branches / Indigestion & DEATH
16) Red Sage: Ornament plant /Green Berries /DEATH
17) Rhododendron: Ornament plant /All / DEATH
18) Rhubarb: Vegetable garden / Leaf - blade /DEATH
19) Wisteria: Ornament plan / seeds, pods / Indigestion
20) Yew: Ornament plant / Berries, foliage / DEATH