SUBMARINES Nuclear Reactors Friend or Foe

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        Nuclear Reactors
              Friend or Foe?

 Part 1: How A Nuclear Reactor Works
 Part 2: Diesel Subs V. Nuclear Subs
 Part 3: Health Risks (Short Term & Long)
          PART 1: First, What Is A Nuclear Reactor?


   “Nuclear reactors are basically heat engines. As uranium
fissions, the breaking apart of atoms releases energy, much
of it in the form of heat, which can then be used to do work.
    In a nuclear-powered submarine, reactor heat produces
    steam to drive the turbines that provide the submarine's
     actual power. The development of compact, safe, and
  highly reliable pressurized water reactors for naval use in
  the early 1950s was the major technological achievement
                     But How Does it Work?!
   The First Half of the Process….

   Standard nuclear submarines, like those used in the U.S.
    Navy use pressurized water reactors. These reactors
    include both a primary and secondary cooling system.
    “The primary system circulates water, which is
    pressurized to keep it from boiling, in a closed loop.” As
    water moves through the actual reactor, it is made
    extremely hot. The heated water travels through the
    steam generator where the water transfers the heat to
    generate steam (In the second cooling system). The
    water then travels back to the initial reactor chamber
    where the process is repeated.
          Quote taken from
                                 But How Does it Work?!
   The Second Half of the Process….

   While in the steam chamber, described during the first
    half of the process, the heat is sent through a “watertight
    boundary to the secondary system, also a closed loop.
    The unpressurized water in the secondary system turns
    to steam when heated. The steam, in turn, flows through
    the secondary system to the propulsion turbines, which
    turn the propellers, and to the turbine generators, which
    supply electricity. As it cools, it condenses to water and
    is pumped back to the steam generator.” (3)
       Nuclear Reactor Demonstration

 The final process should look like This.

PART 2: Diesel V. Nuclear Subs
   There are two main types of submarines.

   Type One: Nuclear Submarines

   Type Two: Diesel Powered Submarines

   Objective: To find which is more efficient and safe
• Before Nuclear Submarines were
  created, Diesel Fuel was used to both…

• A) Power the batteries which ran all the
  mechanics on the submarine…

• B) And run the sub’s propellers.

 For this reason, multiple engines were needed.
                         Diesel Fuel: Type 1
•       When submarines run off of Diesel fuel, another OXYGEN is
    needed in order for the engine to run.

• Because submarines generally run underwater, oxygen is not easily
  accessible unless the ship submerges to restock.

• This could put a sub in the sights of an enemy ship. Submarines, using
  diesel fuel, use massive amounts of energy for their multiple engines.

• Also remember, the crew has to breathe. In this respect, it is known
  that diesel subs must rise often.

• In addition to this, diesel fuel can be very harmful to personnel aboard
  the ship if ever there was a problem.

• On the other hand, diesel fuel is extremely easy to get at lower costs
  than nuclear components.
                 Nuclear Fuel: Type 2

   Nuclear Fuel is nearly tenfold more efficient than
    diesel submarines, one of the reasons they are
    so regularly made.
   Nuclear reactors usually use a single engine
    which can moderate itself to split power to both
    the propellers and energy needed to run sub’s
    internal mechanisms.
   Also, NO OXYGEN is needed.
   Nuclear Reactors run off of water pressure and a
    base reactor element (usually uranium)
       Part 3: Health Risks
 If a nuclear submarine is built
  carefully and maintained/serviced
  regularly, there crew should not be
  affected by it.
 One possible risk is a ‘nuclear

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