Unit1 Hit the Nail on the Head
千万别害怕，hit the nail on the head 不是恐怖片中的坏人或变
态狂用钉子敲进无辜者大脑的恐怖镜头。这里的 head 是指 nail
This idiom means “Say exactly a right thing, answer to a question in
exactly the right way or be exactly right about something.”
If you say someone has hit the nail on the head, you mean he/she has answered
to a question or described something in exactly the right way.
1.She hit the nail on the head when she proposed her plan
at the last meeting. It's exactly the thing we need to do
2.A: I think education is the most important thing we need
to work on if we want to make this city a better place.
B: You've hit the nail on the head! I completely agree with
3.Mike hit the nail on the head in his speech on the demerits of
the existing housing policy.
About the author and his book:
The Author-Alan Warner (1912- ) English teacher at
Makerere College, Kampala, Uganda. The selection is
Chapter 7 of his book A Short Guide to English Style
(1961), which consists of three parts: Part One, How to
write clean English; Part Two, The development of
English style; and Part Three, English styles today. In
writing the book, the author has tried to keep in mind
the special needs and difficulties of those students for
whom English is not the mother tongue.
Have you ever watched a clumsy man hammering
a nail into a box? He hits it first to one side, then to
another, perhaps knocking it over completely,
so that(here ‘so that’ indicates a relationship of result,
while under other circumstances where no comma is
used, ‘so that’ indicates a relationship of purpose
instead. cf: I stopped so that you could catch
我停下来以便你能赶上 .Everybody lent a hand, so
that the work was finished ahead of schedule.(result))
in the end he only gets half of it into the wood. A
skillful carpenter, on the other hand, will drive home
the nail with a few firm, deft blows, hitting it each time
squarely on the head. (deft: quick and skillful; adroit.
synonym:dexterous,adept apt clever expert hand
y ingenious nimble proficient skillful awkward
clumsy unskillful 姐姐是个心灵手巧的人, 做的衣
服很漂亮。 My sister is a clever and deft person who
can make pretty dresses.) (squarely:directly; without
evasion; in a straight or straightforward manner: to
face a problem squarely.) So with language;(The same
is true of language. This is also the case with language.
It is the same with language.) the good craftsman will
choose words that drive home his point firmly and
exactly. A word that is more or less right, a loose phrase,
an ambiguous expression, a vague adjective, will not
satisfy a writer who aims at clean English. He will try
always to get the word that is completely right for his
The French have an apt phrase for this. They
speak of "le mot juste", the word that is just right.
Stories are told of scrupulous writers, like Flaubert,(To
keep a balance of the sentence, the prepositional
phrase ‘of scrupulous writers’ is put after the verb.)
who spent days (in) trying to get one or two sentences
exactly right.( 中国古人有 “ 闭门觅句 ” 之说 , 大意如
因以“闭门觅句”形容作诗时冥思苦想。lit. lock the
door and search for the right word; fig. the serious
hard work of writing) Words are many and various;
they are subtle and delicate in their shades of meaning,
and it is not easy to find the ones that express precisely
what we want to say. It is not only a matter of having a
good command of language and a fairly wide
vocabulary; it is also necessary to think hard and to
observe accurately. Choosing words is part of the
process of realization, of defining our thoughts and
feelings for ourselves, as well as for those who hear or
read our words. (this prepositional phrase ‘of…’is used
to explain ‘of realization’ more clearly)Someone once
remarked: "how can I know what I think till I see what
I say?" This sounds stupid, but there is a great deal of
truth in it. (a grain of truth, a pint of truth, an ounce of
truth, a mountain of truth, etc.)
It is hard work choosing the right words, but we
shall be rewarded by the satisfaction that finding them
brings. The exact use of language gives us
mastery over(of) the material we are dealing
with. Perhaps you have been asked "what sort of man
is so-and-so 某某?" You begin: "Oh, I think he is quite
a nice chap but he's rather..." and then you hesitate
trying to find a word or a phrase to express what it is
about him that you don't like, that constitutes his
limitation.( 现在分词作状语) When you find the right
phrase you feel that your conception of the man is
clearer and sharper....
Some English words have a common root but are
used in very different senses. Consider human and
humane, for example. Their origin is the same and their
meanings are related, but their usage is distinct. A
human action is not the same thing as a humane action.
We cannot speak of a Declaration of Humane
Rights. ----There is a weapon called a humane killer 麻
醉屠宰机，无痛苦屠宰机, but it is not a human killer.
We don't have to look far afield to find
evidence of bad carpentry in language. A student,
replying to an invitation to dinner, finished his letter: "I
shall be delighted to come and I'm looking forward to
the day with anxiety." Anxiety carries with it
suggestions of worry and fear. What the writer meant
was possibly eagerness. Anxiety has some kinship with
eagerness but it will not do as a substitute in this
The leader of a political party in Uganda write a
letter to the Press which contained this sentence:
Let us all fight this selfishness, opportunism
机会主义, 投机主义, cowardice and ignorance now
rife(In widespread existence, practice, or use;
increasingly prevalent. be [grow, wax] rife with (idioms)
充斥着; 富于, 充满(习语等)) in Uganda and put in
their place truth, manliness, consistency and singularity
The stirring appeal is spoilt by a malapropism 词
语误用, 用词错误可笑 in the last phrase, the word
singularity. What the writer means, I think, was
singleness of mind, holding steadfastly to the
purpose in mind, without being drawn aside by less
worthy objects. Singularity means oddity 奇异, 古怪,
怪癖 or peculiarity, something that singles a man out
from other men.(writing skill: 主语+谓语+宾语+同
The only way that they can preserve their history is to
recount it as sagas--legends handed down from one
generation of story-tellers to another.
解读:legends 作 sagas 的同位语,后接被动分词短语做
主 谓 结 构 + 同 位 语 + 定 语 :I parted with my
sweetheart, a nightmare I simply could not survive.)
Without being a malapropism, a word may still
fail to be the right word for the writer's purpose, the
"mot juste". A journalist, writing a leader 社论 about
Christmas, introduced a quotation from Dickens by
All that was ever thought and written about
Christmas is imprisoned in this sentence....
Imprisonment suggests force, coercion 强迫, 威压, as if
the meaning were held against its will. It would better to
write contained or summed up. Epitomized 摘要, 概括,
成 为 ... 缩 影 might do, though (it is) rather a
clumsy-sounding word. Searching a little farther for the
"mot juste" we might hit on 偶然发现 the word distilled.
This has more force than contained or summed up.
Distillation suggests essence and we might further
improve the sentence by adding this word at the
The essence of all that was ever thought or
written about Christmas is distilled in this sentence.
English has a wide vocabulary and it is a very flexible
language. There are many different ways of making a
statement (or asking an question). But words that
are very similar in meaning have fine shades of
difference, and a student needs to be alive to (aware of;
sensitive to:意识到的；敏感的： alive to the moods of
others.对别人情绪很敏感)these differences. By using
his dictionary, and above all(most importantly) by
reading, a student can increase his sensitivity to these
shades of difference and improve his ability to express
his own meanings exactly. (It follows that the
cultivation of language sense is very important.)
Professor Raleigh once stated: "There are no
synonyms, and the same statement can never be
repeated in a changed form of words."( “You can never
step in the same river twice.” –Heraclitus 赫拉克利特
( 纪元前五世纪的希腊哲学家 )) This is perhaps too
absolute, but it is not easy to disapprove. Even a slight
alteration in the wording of a statement can subtly shift
the meaning. Look at these two sentences:
(1) In my childhood I loved to watch trains go by.
(2) When I was a child I loved watching trains go by.
At first glance these two sentences are exactly the
same. But look more closely and you will see that there
are very tiny differences.(结构:祈使句+and+陈述语气
eg: Water the seeds and they will grow.=If you water the
seeds, they will grow. 有时祈使句中的动词也省略了.
如:One more step forward, and you are done for 完蛋.
改错: A couple of miles from our house, and you will
find that the road curves around in a S. cf.p335) In my
childhood is a shade(?, phrase, wording) more abstract
than when I was a child. (grammatical metaphor: clause
→ prepositional phrase → more condensed, more
abstract)Watching perhaps emphasizes the looking at a
train a little more than to watch. This is a very subtle
example, and it would be possible to argue about it, but
everyone would at once agree that there is a marked
difference between the next two statements: (at once:
all at one time; simultaneously: 同 时 ： Everything
happened at once. The view of the skyline is at once
awesome, grand, and disappointing.所有的事都一起发
景色.at once…and…:Luxun ’s pen is at once simple and
(1) He died poor.(informal)
(2) He expired in indigent circumstances.(formal)
In one sense expired is a synonym for died and in
indigent circumstances for poor, but when the whole
statement is considered, we cannot maintain that the two
are the same. The change in words is a change in style,
and the effect on the reader is quite different. It is
perhaps easier to be a good craftsman with wood and
nails than (it is to be)a good craftsman with words, but
all of us can increase our skill (in)and
sensitivity(to)(English/the English language) with a
little effort and patience. In this way we shall not only
improve our writing, but also (improve) our reading....
English offers a fascinating variety of words for
many activities and interests. Consider the wide range
of meanings that can be expressed by the various words
we have to describe walking, for example. We can say
that a man is marching, pacing, patrolling, stalking,
striding, treading, tramping, stepping out, prancing,
strutting, prowling, plodding, strolling, shuffling,
staggering, sidling, trudging, toddling, rambling,
roaming, sauntering, meandering, lounging, loitering, or
The foreign student of English may be
discouraged and dismayed(alliteration) when he learns
that there are over 400,000 words in the English
language. More than half of these words are dead. They
are not in current use. Even Shakespeare used a
vocabulary of only some(about, approximately) 20,000
words. The average English man today perhaps has a
vocabulary range of from 12,000 to 13,000 words. It is
good to make your vocabulary as complete as you can,
but a great deal can be said and written with a
vocabulary of no more than 10,000 words. The
important thing is to have a good control and command
(alliteration) over the words you do know. Better know
two words exactly than three vaguely. A good carpenter
is not distinguished by the number of his tools, but by
the craftsmanship with which he uses them. So a good
writer is not measured by the extent of his vocabulary,
but by his skills in finding the "mot juste", the word that
will hit the nail cleanly(squarely) on the head.
From Alan Warner, pp. 34-38
The main idea of this article is to facilitate one’s
own process of cognition and one’s
communication with others, one must be able to
choose the right word from the extensive
vocabulary of the English language. The author
Warner uses the writing techniques such as
analogy which is effective in that there is a
likeness between “hammering a nail”, a subject
not in the least strange/unfamiliar to an average
reader, and “using exact words”, a subject
relatively abstract. By the time the reader has
understood the analogy, he is already
half-prepared for the actual discussion that
II. Library Work
1. Find out who the following are.
1) Gustave Flaubert:
(1821-1880), French novelist, was associated
with, though not representative of, the
movement of naturalism and known as one of
the greatest realists of nineteenth-century
France. He devoted his life to long hours spent in
heavy toil over his work. His writing is marked
by exactness and accuracy of observation,
extreme impersonality 客 观 and objectivity of
treatment, and precision and expressiveness in
style, or the principle of the ‘mot juste’.
French writer considered a forerunner of
naturalism and known for his precise literary
style. His works include the novel Madame
Bovary (1857) and the short story “A Simple
Heart” (1877).福楼拜，古斯塔夫：(1821-1880) 法国作
的著作包括包法利夫人 （1857 年）和短篇小说“纯朴的心”
2) Mrs. Malaprop
Mrs. Malaprop is a famous character in
Sheridan’s comedy The Rivals (1775). She is
noted for her blunders in the use of words. “As
headstrong 刚愎自用的，固执已见的 as an allegory
(alligator) on the banks of the Nile” is one of her
grotesque misapplications 误用, 滥用. She also
requests that no delusions 欺骗，骗局 (allusions
典故；引用) to the past be made. She has given us
the word malapropism as a name for such
Malaprop , a character in The Rivals, a play by
Richard Brinsley Sheridan
2. Find out where Hindi and Swahili are used.
Hindi 北印度语 is a literary and official language of
northern India. Swahili 斯 瓦 希 里 语 is a Bantu
language 班图语 that is a trade and governmental
language over much of East Africa and in the
Congo 刚果 region. Bantus are people belonging to
a group of tribes found in equatorial and southern
The Bantu language of the Swahili that is the
official language of Tanzania and is widely used as
a lingua franca in eastern and east-central Africa.
Also called In this sense, also called Kiswahili
Discuss & conclude how many sections this article
may contain and their gist 中心思想:
Section I (paragraph 1-3): Raising the subject:
Importance of choosing the right
Para 1: Introducing the topic by drawing
an analogy between the
carpenter hammering a nail and the
writer using words.
Para 2-3:Elaborating on the importance of
choosing the right word –
It is a process of realizing, defining and
clarifying your thought.
Section 2 (paragraph 4–10):
Explaining the various aspects in the
profile of a word
Para4-7:I Illustrating how words with
common roots have different
meanings (Semantic aspect)
Para 8: Illustrating how words with similar
meanings may have different
associations (Connotational 内涵意
Para 9: Illustrating how words with similar
meanings may have stylistic
Para 10: Pointing out that a general notion
may be expressed by a variety of
specific words (Variation in
Section 3 (paragraph 11): Conclusion:
Quality is more important than quantity
in learning vocabulary (with an
analogy to echo the beginning)
1) (line 3) drive something home: force (the nail)
into the right place; make something unmistakably
Advertisers keep repeating the names of the
product in order to drive the message
home.(=drive home the message)
The person who wins the argument is the one
who drives home his points.(=drives his
(also: drive home to sb. sth.)
You must drive home to John where the
You must drive it home to John that we don’t
have enough money.
2) (line 4) hitting it squarely on the head: directly,
used both literally and figuratively, examples:
The boxer hit his opponent squarely on the
A true warrior dares to face a bleak life
3) (line 7) clean English: English which is precise
and clear (in contrast with vague, slovenly
4) (line 10) scrupulous writers: writers who are
very careful and detail-minded 一丝不苟的作家.
“scrupulous” generally means being painstaking,
He is scrupulous in his business dealings. (谨
The nurse treated him with the most
The paper is not entirely scrupulous in setting
its assumptions 假定, 设想.
He pays scrupulous attention to style.
Compare: “unscrupulous” 不 择 手 段 的
(usually negative in association)
5)shades of meaning: slight differences in
6)Some useful sentence patterns in this section
(line 13) It is not only a matter of …, it is
“not only … but also …”是一个并列连词词组，其意思
基本等于“both … and …”，但侧重点放在“but also”上，
1. *Sitting up late last night, Tom not only read
the assignment but also many poems by his favourite poet.
2. *Not only the students but also the teacher were
1. Sitting up late last night, Tom read not only the
assignment but also many poems by his favourite poet.
2. Not only the students but also the teacher was
一、使用 not only … but also … 时须注意的几点：
1. not only 与 but also 后面所连接的词的词性必须对等：
(1) Franklin was considered not only an inventor, but also
a statesman. 富兰克林不仅被看作发明家，而且被看作政治家。
(2) The nurse was not only competent but also kind. 这
(3) They not only broke into his office and stole his books,
but also tore up his manuscripts. 他们不仅闯进他的办公
(4) Not only you but also she has to attend the ceremony.
(5) In production, we should always keep an eye not only
on quantity but also on quality. 在生产中，我们不仅要关
(6) They completed the project not only punctually but
also perfectly. 他们不仅准时完成工程，而且完成得很出色。
2. not only 只能连用，而 but also 既可连用，也可分开用,
a. He speaks not only English, but also French. 他不仅
b. Television is not only boring, but it also wastes a lot
of time. 电视不仅乏味，而且还浪费许多时间。
c. She was not only compelled to stay (at) home, but she
was also forbidden to see her friends. 她不仅被强迫蹲在
3.谓语动词的数应与 but also 后主语的数保持一致：
Not only you but also Mr. Zhang teaches in this college.
4. not only 放在句首，后接句子时要用倒装结构：
(1) Not only should proletarians emancipate themselves
but also the whole mankind. 无产者不仅要解放他们自己，
(2) Not only does television appeal to those who can read
but to those who can't. 电视不仅吸引阅读的人，而且也吸
(3) Not only was everything Albert Einstein had taken away
but also his citizenship was deprived of. 爱因斯坦的财
(4) Not only had the poor man been fined, but also he had
been sent to prison. 这个可怜的人不仅被罚款，而且还被送
(5) 在宾语从句中,not only 若置于句首, 倒装的情况比不倒
装的情况普遍. 如:I think not only are you asking the wrong
question, you are asking a question that will make things
worse, not better.
二、not only，but also 的几种常见的变体形式：
1.not only 的变体形式：
常见的变体有 not just, not merely, not simply, not solely
(1) Such work is not just devalued in that country, its
nature is widely misunderstood there. 这种工作在那个国
(2) There is not merely concision in these lines but also
(3) Not simply did he teach school, but he wrote novels.
(4) This novel is not solely suitable for us in studying
modern fiction but can also be used in the teaching. 这
2. but also 的变体形式：
a: 省去 also，只留 but；b: 省去 but，只留 also；c: but…as
well；d: but also 全部省略。
(1) Scarlett quaked lest she and Frank lose not only their
freedom but the house, the store and mill. 斯佳丽害怕得
(2) She's not only an excellent housewife also a first
class mathematician. 她不仅是一个出色的家庭主妇，而且是
(3) Not only does he write the words to the songs, but he
composes the music as well. 他不仅给歌曲写词，也谱曲。
(4) Such a change would improve not only his social image
but his health as well. 这样的变化不仅会提高他的社会形
(5) Not only did I hear the car, I actually saw it crash.
(line 19) It is hard work + doing sth.
It is hard work doing the hard work that is
It is hard work to be a salesman but his work is
freer than a nine-to-five job 朝九晚五的工作.
(line 22) …hesitate doing sth. (also .. hesitate
about doing sth., hesitate to do sth., hesitate at
7) distinct: adj. A. different in kind e.g.
We should keep the two ideas distinct. 我们
Donkeys and horses are distinct animals. 不
B. clearly marked, plain, e.g.
a distinct improvement 明显的进步
a distinct pronunciation 清晰的发音
8) afield: adv. away from one's home or usual
Don’t go too far afield.
In the text, it may be interpreted as: There is no
need for us to make an effort to find proof of bad
carpentry in language. Namely, “You can find
examples of bad usage everywhere around you.”
9) rife: (predicative only) widespread, common,
increasingly prevalent. e.g.
Superstition is still rife in the country. (Not:
Crime and violence were rife in this city
Disease used to be rife in this country.
The country was rife with rumors of war.
10)Coercion: to do sth. under coercion; to get sth.
Coerce: to coerce sb. into doing sth.
He paid the money under coercion.被迫
The terrorists got what they wanted by
The terrorists coerced the pilot into accepting
their demand not to land. 胁迫
discouraged and dismayed …(line 87)
to have a good control and command over …
similar to “safe and sound”
12)take courage: be brave, be confident e.g.
It’s a challenging job, but take courage
and work hard at it, and you’ll be
Organization and Development
The article begins with an analogy to dramatize
the importance of choosing the right word for
one’s purpose and ends with an emphasis on
quality rather than quantity in the mastery of
words. In the body of the article various aspects of
the problem have been addressed. Now identify
the paragraph(s) that is (are) devoted to each of
the following points:
1.stylistic differences between synonyms
Para. 9 “Prof. Raleigh… but also our reading.”
2.semantic differences between words having the
Paras. 4-7 “Some English words… from other men.”
3.the significance of finding the right words
Paras. 2-3 “The French have… your conception of
the man is clearer and sharper”
4.wrong choice of words caused by failure to
recognize their connotations 内涵
Para. 8 “Without being a malapropism… his own
5.the abundance of specific words in English for
Para. 10 “English offers a… loitering or creeping. ”
To explain is to make something clear. But the
task will not be so easy where we have to explain
something vast, remote, abstract or specialized,
like the importance of using exact words and the
acquisition of such a skill. When this happens, we
are likely to turn to an analogy to bring it to life.
Analogy is a special kind of comparison and a
more concrete way to explain things. Like
comparison, analogy shows similarities, but unlike
comparison, analogy aims at what is common
between two things of different classes. For
instance, to liken lions to tigers is a comparison
because they both belong to the cat family,
whereas to illustrate the sameness between how
to drive a nail home and how to use exact English
words is an analogy because it draws attention to
the similar qualities of two things that are
obviously different. Of the two unlike things being
compared, one is an unfamiliar subject 对 象 ,
usually a difficult or abstract subject the writer
makes a point of clarifying, and the other a familiar
subject, normally an easy subject the writer
utilizes to help explain his unfamiliar subject. By
comparing back and forth between the familiar
and the unfamiliar, the reader may visualize
something useful in connection with his better
understanding of an idea which is not so simple to
define. Warner’s analogy is effective in that there
is a likeness between “hammering a nail”, a
subject not in the least strange to an average
reader, and “using exact words”, a subject
relatively far-reaching. By the time the reader has
finished the analogy, he is already half-prepared
for the actual discussion that follows.
It should be noted that an analogy does not
attempt to point out the similarities only. A
successful analogy should be meaningful.
Warner’s analogy is certainly not designed to
equate a skilful carpenter with a language master.
What it does is to show that the way a skilful
carpenter hits a nail is similar to the way how a
language master uses words. From this, he goes
on to emphasize that one should learn to choose
exact words to best express his own idea, just as a
good carpenter knows where to hit to most
effectively drive a nail home. Also, an experienced
writer would rather plan his analogy in such a way
that only those details that can best serve their
purposes are included.( His, her, or its: 他的，她的，
或它的：“It is fatal for anyone who writes to think of
their sex”(Virginia Woolf) “写作时考虑性别对任何人都
是致命的”(弗吉尼亚·沃尔夫)) Let us look at the
following statements in the opening paragraph of
this passage and see how closely the details in the
analogy correspond to the points Warner wants to
1. A skilful carpenter, on the other hand, will drive
home the nail with a few firm, deft blows, hitting it
each time squarely on the head.
2. So with language; the good craftsman will
choose words that drive home his point firmly and
I. Judge which of the following best summarizes
the main idea of the article.
A. To be able to use the right word is an
important component of one’s mastery of the
B. To facilitate one’s own process of cognition
and one’s communication with others, one must be
able to choose the right word from the extensive
vocabulary of the English language.
C. It is more important to know exactly the
meaning and use of a relatively small number of
words than to know vaguely a larger number.
II. Determine which is the best choice for each of
the following questions.
1. “Clean English” in the first paragraph means .
A. English of a dignified style
B. English free from swear words
C. English which is precise and clear
2.The word “realization” in the sentence
“Choosing words is part of the process of
realization…” means .
A. articulating sounds
B. fulfilling one’s goals
C. becoming aware of what one thinks and
3. The example given in para. 3 of a man searching
for the right word for his feelings about his friend
illustrates the function words perform in .
A. defining out thoughts and feelings for
B. defining our thoughts and feelings for those
who hear us
C. both A and B
4. The word “cleanly” in the last sentence
5.The examples of the untranslatability of some
words given in para. 11 best illustrate which
sentence of the paragraph?
A. The first sentence.
B. The second sentence.
C. The third sentence.
III. Answer the following questions.
1. Which sentence in the first paragraph
establishes the link between the driving of a nail
and the choice of a word?
2. What does the word “this” in sentence 1, para. 2,
3. Do you agree with the author that there is a
great deal of truth in the seemingly stupid
question “How can I know what I think till I see
what I say”? Why or why not?
4. Explain why the word “imprison” in the example
given in para. 9, though not a malapropism, is still
not the right word for the writer’s purpose.
5. What is the difference between “human” and
“humane”? And the difference between “human
action” and “humane action”, and also that
between “human killer” and “humane killer”?
6. What does the word “alive” in the sentence “a
student needs to be alive to these differences”
(para. 9) mean?
7. Why is it difficult and sometimes even
impossible to translate a word from one language
into another as illustrated in para. 11? Supply
some such examples with English and Chinese.
8. The writer begins his article with an analogy
between the unskilled use of the hammer and the
improper choice of words. Identify the places
where the analogy is referred to in the rest of the
I. Read the following list of words and consider
carefully the meaning of each word. Then
complete each of the sentences below using the
correct form of an appropriate word from the list.
Creep Loiter March Meander Pace Patrol
Plod Prowl Ramble Roam Saunter
Shuffle Stagger Stalk Step Stride Strut
Stroll Toddle Tramp Tread Trudge Walk
1. After the maths examination Fred, feeling
exhausted, across the campus.
2. The soldiers reached their camp after 15
miles through the deep snow.
3. It is pleasant to in the park in the evening.
4. After the cross-country race Jack to the
5. Last night when he sleepily to the ringing
telephone, he accidentally bumped into the
6. We saw him towards the station a few
minutes before the train’s departure.
7. The old couple through the park, looking for
a secluded bench to sit on and rest.
8. The newly-appointed general about the
room like a latter-day Napoleon.
9. Peter whistled happily as he along the
10. These old people liked to about the antique
ruins in search of a shady picnic spot.
11. Many tourists about the mall,
12. We were fascinated by the view outside the
room----a beautiful verdant meadow and
brooks through it.
13. Mary used to about the hills and pick wild
flowers for her mother.
14. Eager to see the pony in the stable, the
children down the staircase, their hearts
15. The lion had the jungle for a long time
before it caught sight of a hare.
16. My brother began to when he was ten
17. The farmers often let their horses freely in
the meadow so that they could eat their fill of
18. The patrols were along through the
undergrowth when the bomb exploded.
19. The thugs were reported to be the streets
for women workers who were on their way home
after the afternoon shift.
20. The first-year students not only learned how
to , they were also taught how to take aim and
shoot when they had military training.
21. Sometimes Tom, our reporter, would up
and down the study, deep in thought.
22. When he was Third Street, Fred found the
little match girl lying dead at the street corner.
23. Secretaries hated seeing their new
manager in and out of the office without even
casting a glance at them.
24. Mother asked us to lightly so as not to
25. The refugees for miles and miles all day
hunting for a place to work.
26. When the pop singer out of the car, his fans
ran to him, eager to get his autograph.
27. The laborers on their way home after
working in the plantation the whole day.
28.The lion was feeling pretty good as he
(A) through the jungle. Seeing a tiger, the lion
“Who is the King of the jungle?” the lion demanded.
“You, O lion, are the King of the jungle,” replied the
Satisfied, the lion (B) on, until he came across
a large, ferocious-looking leopard.
“Who is the King of the jungle?” asked the lion, and
the leopard bowed in awe. “You, mighty lion, you
are the King of the jungle,” it said humbly and
Feeling on top of the world, the lion proudly
(D) up to a huge elephant and asked the same
question. “Who is the King of the jungle?”
Without answering, the elephant picked up the lion,
swirled him round in the air, smashed him to the
ground and jumped on him.
“Look,” said the lion, “there’s no need to get mad
just because you didn’t know the answer.”
II. Make a list of more specific words for each of
the following general terms. For example, for
WALK, you could list stride, stroll, saunter, plod,
toddle and so on. Give sentences to illustrate how
the words may be used.
1. SAY 2. SEE 3. BEVERAGE 4. EXCITEMENT 5.
DELIGHT 6. SKILFUL
III. In the following sentences three alternatives
are given in parentheses for the italicized words.
Select the one which you think is most suitable in
1. A clumsy (heavy, stupid, unskillful) workman is
likely to find fault with his tools.
2. As John was a deft (skillful, clever, ready)
mechanic, he was hired by the joint-venture in no
3. The writer made a point of avoiding using loose
(vague, unbound, disengaged) terminology in his
4. We didn’t appreciate his subtle (delicate, tricky,
profound) scheme to make money at the expense
of the customers.
5. Annie Oakley became famous as one of the
world’s most precise (accurate, scrupulous, rigid)
6. The government in that newly-independent
country has decided to make a shift (alteration,
turn, transference) in its foreign policies.
7. Misunderstanding arose on account of the
vague (undetermined, confused, ambiguous)
instructions on the part of the manager.
8. If soldiers do not pay scrupulous (exact, vigilant,
conscientious) attention to orders they will not
defeat the enemy.
9. In some areas, the virgin forest has been cut
through ignorance (blindness, want of knowledge,
darkness) of the value of trees.
10. Since many pure metals have such
disadvantages (harm, unfavourableness,
drawbacks) as being too soft and being liable to
rust too easily, they have little use.
11. My colleague, Mr. Hill, has a small but
well-chosen library, where it is said he spends
most of his spare time cultivating (nourishing,
tilling, developing) his mind.
12. If you think photography is my hobby, your
belief is quite mistaken (fraudulent, erroneous,
13. What appears to the laymen as unimportant
(minute, trivial, diminutive) and unrelated facts is
often precious to the archaeologist.
14. The lounge has a seating capacity of 30 people
but it is too dark (dim, dingy, gloomy) to read there.
15. These career-oriented women are used to
flexible (adaptable, willowy, docile) working hours
in the office.
16. Only experts with a professional eye can tell
the fine (fair, pleasant, subtle) distinction between
the two gems.
17. The goose quill pen has a great sentimental
(tender, emotional, soft) appeal to Emily as it was
a gift from her best friend.
18. Being thoughtful of and enthusiastic towards
others is the essence (gist, kernel, quintessence)
19. When Iraq destroyed some of its nuclear and
chemical weapons, it acted under coercion
(repression, concession, compulsion).
20. My uncle’s oft-repeated anecdotes of his
adventures in Africa were fascinating (catching,
pleasing, absorbing ) to listen to.
IV. Give one generic term that covers each of the
following groups of words.
1. artificer, turner, joiner, carpenter, weaver,
binder, potter, paper-cutter
2. volume, brochure, pamphlet, treatise, handbook,
manual, textbook, booklet
3. painter, sculptor, carver, poet, novelist,
4. grin, smirk, beam, simper
5. donation, subscription, alms, grant, endowment
6. bandit, poacher, swindler, fraud, embezzler,
7. nibble, munch, devour, gulp
8. drowse, doze, slumber, hibernate, coma, rest,
9. manufacture, construct, weave, compose,
10. ancient, antique, old-fashioned, obsolete,
11. slap, tap, pat, thump, whack
12. alight, descend, dismount, disembark
V. Fill in each blank with an appropriate word.
In discussing the relative difficulties of analysis
which the exact and inexact sciences face, let me
begin with an analogy. Would you agree that
swimmers are (1) skilful athletes than runners
(2) swimmers do not move as fast as runners?
You probably would (3) . You would quickly
point out (4) water offers greater (5) to
swimmers than the air and ground do to
(6) Agreed, that is just the point. In seeking to
(7) their problems, the social scientists
encounter (8) resistance than the physical
scientists. By (9) I do not mean to belittle the
great accomplishments of physical scientists who
have been able, for example, to determine the
structure of the atom (10) seeing it. That is a
tremendous (11) yet (12) many ways it is
not so difficult as what the social scientists are
expected to (13) . The conditions under which
the social scientists must work would drive a
(14) scientist frantic. Here are five of
(15) conditions. He can perform
(16) experiments; he cannot measure the
results accurately; he (17) control the
conditions surrounding (18) experiments; he is
of the expected to get quick results
(19) slow-acting economic forces; and he must
work with people, (20) with inanimate
VI. Following Warner’s model of establishing an
analogy between two dissimilar things, write a
passage, discussing the learning of a foreign
language. You are supposed to use an analogy to
help you explain. For instance, you may compare
the learning of a foreign language to that of
swimming, bike-riding, etc.
UNIT 1 TEXT 1
I. B ;
II. 1.C 2.C 3.C 4.A 5.C ;
III. 1. “So with language; …firmly and exactly.”
2. Getting the word that is completely right for the
3. Yes, I do. It sounds irrational that a person does
not know what he himself thinks before he sees
what he says. But as a matter of fact, it is quite
true that unless we have found the exact words to
verbalize our own thoughts we can never be very
sure of what our thoughts are; without words, our
thoughts cannot be defined or stated in a clear and
4. “Malapropism” means the unintentional misuse
of a word by confusing it with one that resembles
it, such as human for humane, singularity for
singleness. But the misuse of “imprison” is a
different case. It is wrongly chosen because the
user has failed to recognize its connotation.
5. human=of, characterizing, or relating to man
humane=characterized by kindness, mercy,
Thus: human action=action taken by man; humane
action=merciful action; human killer=person that
kills humans ; humane killer=that which kills but
causes little pain
6. sensitive, alert
7. Those are words denoting notions which are
existent only in specific culture, not universally
shared by all cultures. English words difficult to be
turned into Chinese: privacy, party, lobby (v.), etc.
Chinese words difficult to be turned into English:
8. “We don’t have to look far afield to find evidence
of bad carpentry.”
“It is perhaps easier to be a good craftsman with
wood and nails than a good craftsman with
“A good carpenter is not distinguished by the
number of his tools, but by the craftsmanship with
which he uses them. So a good writer is not
measured by the extent of his vocabulary, but by
his skill in finding the ‘mot juste’, the word that will
hit the nail cleanly on the head.”
I. 1. shuffled/trudged 2. trudging 3. stroll 4.
staggered 5. staggered 6. striding 7. strolled 8.
strutted 9. sauntered/strolled 10. ramble/roam 11.
loitered 12. meandering 13. roam 14. crept 15.
prowled 16. toddle 17. roam 18. creeping 19.
prowling 20. march 21. pace 22. patrolling 23.
stalking 24. tread 25. tramped 26. stepped 27.
plodded 28. A. prowled/strutted B.
strolled/sauntered C. walked/crept D.
II.1.SAY: speak, tell, declare, pronounce, express,
state, argue, affirm, mention, allege, recite, repeat,
2. SEE: behold, look at, glimpse, glance at, view,
survey, contemplate, perceive, notice, observe,
discern, distinguish, remark, comprehend,
3. BEVERAGE: liquor, wine, beer, tea, coffee, milk
drink, soft drink
4. EXCITEMENT: agitation, perturbation,
commotion, disturbance, tension, bustle, stir,
5. DELIGHT: joy, gladness, satisfaction, charm,
rapture, ecstasy, pleasure, gratification
6. SKILFUL: apt, ingenious, handy, ready, quick,
smart, expert, capable, able, gifted, talented,
III. 1. clumsy----unskillful 2. deft----skillful 3.
loose----vague 4. subtle----tricky 5.
precise----accurate 6. shift----alteration 7.
8. scrupulous----conscientious 9. ignorance----want
of knowledge 10. disadvantages----drawbacks 11.
cultivation----developing 12. mistaken----erroneous
13. unimportant----trivial 14. dark----dim 15.
flexible----adaptable 16. fine----subtle 17.
IV. 1. craftsman 2. book/publication 3. artist 4.
smile 5. contribution 6. law-breaker 7. eat 8. sleep
9. make 10. old 11. hit 12. get off
V. 1. less 2. because/since/as 3. not 4. that 5.
resistance 6. runners 7. solve 8. greater/more 9.
that 10. without 11. achievement/feat 12. in 13. do
14. physical 15. those 16. few 17. cannot 18. the 19.
with 20. not
Phrases involving repeated "that"s
"That" can be used five times in a row, in a
grammatically correct sentence:
He said that that 'that' that that man used
Or six times:
He said that that 'that' that that 'that'
modified was wrong.
Or seven times:
Did the editor know that, that that 'that'
that that 'that' followed was redundant?
The same thing is possible with the German
equivalent of that 'das', with the exception that
'das' is sometimes written 'dass' (or older 'daß') to
make it easier to read, though it is pronounced the
The pattern can be repeated indefinitely and
retain its grammatical correctness:
Did you know that that 'that' that that 'that'
that that 'that' that that 'that'...
Other patterns of grammatically correct multiple
consecutive occurrences are also possible. For
That that is is that that that that is not is