REPORT TITLE: LEARNING STYLES AND THEIR IMPACTS PRESENTED TO: MADAM S. N. SHAIKH PRESENTED BY: MUHAMMAD UMAIR SHEIKH NIDA AZHAR PRESENTED FOR: METHODS TO BUSINESS WRITING DATE: 29,DECEMBER,2008 DEDICATION We would like to dedicate this report to our beloved parents because this report was supported by the prayers of our parents. And to our respected Madam Salma Shaikh,their encouragement were the force behind our accomplishment. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS MEMBERS NAME MUHAMMAD UMAIR SHEIKH AND NIDA AZHAR We both have made efforts to make this FINAL REPORT in different valuable ways… CONTENTS Introduction ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Learning Styles Models ---------------------------------------------------------- Assessment Method --------------------------------------------------------------5 6 8 Applications: Learning Styles In The Classroom ---------------------------- 9 Five Different Learning Styles: Advantages & Disadvantages ---------10 Types Of Learning Styles: Learning Cycle ----------------------------------- 14 Tutoring Tips Based On Three Common Learning Styles ---------------- 15 Graphical Representation Of Learning Styles ------------------------------- 17 Learning Styles Theory Impacts Education ---------------------------------- 18 Interesting Things About Learning Styles ------------------------------------- 19 Learning For Life -------------------------------------------------------------------- 21 Questionnaire ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 22 Pie Chart Representation --------------------------------------------------------- 24 Bibliography -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 25 INTRODUCTION LEARNING STYLES Learning styles are, simply put, various approaches or ways of learning.They involve educating methods, particular to an individual, that are presumed to allow that individual to learn best. It is commonly believed that most people favor some particular method of interacting with, taking in, and processing stimuli or information.Based on this concept, the idea of individualized "learning styles" originated in the 1970s, and has gained popularity in recent years.It has been proposed that teachers should assess the learning styles of their students and adapt their classroom methods to best fit each student's learning style.The alleged basis for these proposals has been extensively criticized. The way a person prefers to learn is called his/her learning style. There is no right or wrong/good or bad learning style. It has nothing to do with intelligence or skills. It has everything to do with the way a person's brain works to learn and store information efficiently. Since everyone learns differently, understanding learning styles can help you become a better tutor. LEARNING STYLES MODELS 1.David Kolb's Model The David Kolb styles model is based on the Experiential Learning Theory, as explained in David A Kolb's book Experiential Learning: Experience as the source of learning and development (1984) 1. 2. 3. 4. Converger; Diverger; Assimilator; Accomodator; Convergers are characterized by abstract conceptualization and active experimentation. They are good at making practical applications of ideas and using deductive reasoning to solve problems.Divergers tend toward concrete experience and reflective observation. They are imaginative and are good at coming up with ideas and seeing things from different perspectives.Assimilators are characterized by abstract conceptualization and reflective observation.They are capable of creating theoretical models by means of inductive reasoning.Accommodators use concrete experience and active experimentation. They are good at actively engaging with the world. 2.Anthony Gregorc's Model Dennis W. Mills, Ph. D., discusses the work of Anthong F. Gregorc and Kathleen A. Butler in his article entitled ―Applying What We Know: Student Learning Styles‖. Gregorc and Butler worked to organize a model describing how the mind works.This model is based on the existence of perceptions—our evaluation of the world by means of an approach that makes sense to us. These perceptions in turn are the foundation of our specific learning strengths, or learning styles. In this model, there are two perceptual qualities 1) concrete and 2) abstract; and two ordering abilities 1) random and 2) sequential. Concrete perceptions involve registering information through the five senses, while abstract perceptions involve the understanding of ideas, qualities, and concepts which cannot be seen. In regard to the two ordering abilities, sequential involves the organization of information in a linear, logical way and random involves the organization of information in chunks and in no specific order. There are four combinations of perceptual qualities and ordering abilities based on dominance: 1) Concrete Sequential; 2) Abstract Random; 3) Abstract Sequential; 4) Concrete Random. Individuals with different combinations learn in a different ways—they have different strengths, different things make sense to them, different things are difficult for them, and they ask different questions throughout the learning process. 3.Sudbury Model of Democratic Education Some critics of today's schools, of the concept of learning disabilities, of special education, and of response to intervention, take the position that every child has a different learning style and pace and that each child is unique, not only capable of learning but also capable of succeeding.Sudbury Model democratic schools assert that there are many ways to study and learn. They argue that learning is a process you do, not a process that is done to you; That is true of everyone. It's basic. The experience of Sudbury model democratic schools shows that there are many ways to learn without the intervention of teaching, to say, without the intervention of a teacher being imperative. Some teach themselves letter sounds, others syllables, others whole words. Sudbury model democratic schools adduce that in their schools no one child has ever been forced, pushed, urged, cajoled, or bribed into learning how to read or write, and they have had no dyslexia. ASSESSMENT METHOD Learning Style Inventory The Learning Style Inventory (LSI) is connected with Kolb’s model and is used to determine a student’s learning style. The LSI diagnoses an individual’s preferences and needs regarding the learning process. It does the following: 1) allows students to designate how they like to learn and indicates how consistent their responses are; 2) provides computerized results which show the student’s preferred learning style; 3) provides a foundation upon which teachers can build in interacting with students; 4) provides possible strategies for accommodating learning styles; 5) provides for student involvement in the learning process; 6) provides a class summary so students with similar learning styles can be grouped together. APPLICATIONS: LEARNING STYLES IN THE CLASSROOM Various researchers have attempted to provide ways in which learning style theory can take effect in the classroom. Two such scholars are Dr. Rita Dunn and Dr. Kenneth Dunn. In their book, Teaching Students Through Their Individual Learning Styles: A Practical Approach, they give a background of how learners are affected by elements of the classroom and follow it with recommendations of how to accommodate students’ learning strengths. Dunn and Dunn write that ―learners are affected by their: (1) immediate environment (sound, light, temperature, and design); (2) own emotionality (motivation, persistence, responsibility, and need for structure or flexibility); (3) sociological needs (self, pair, peers, team, adult, or varied); and (4) physical needs (perceptual strengths, intake, time, and mobility)‖. They analyze other research and make the claim that not only can students identify their preferred learning styles, but that students also score higher on tests, have better attitudes, and are more efficient if they are taught in ways to which they can more easily relate. Therefore, it is to the educator’s advantage to teach and test students in their preferred styles. Some of these changes include room redesign, the development of small-group techniques, and the development of Contract Activity Packages. Redesigning the classroom involves locating dividers that can be used to arrange the room creatively (such as having different learning stations and instructional areas), clearing the floor area, and incorporating student thoughts and ideas into the design of the classroom. FIVE DIFFERENT LEARNING STYLES There are twenty questions in this survey that help identify five different learning styles. The questions we've asked are designed to find out which learning styles best suit you. Some of us have strengths in one particular area, others may find that a combination of learning styles suits them. There has been a great deal of research done on different people's learning styles, some of which focus on dimensions such as cognitive ability, personality type and environmental preferences. This survey focuses on the following five learning systems: 1) listening/reading (auditory learners) 2) seeing/visualising (visual learners) 3) experiencing/hands-on learning (kinaesthetic learners) 4) feeling/belonging (social/emotional learners) 5) reflecting/evaluating (metacognitive learners) To find out more about the advantages and disadvantages of each learning style, read on. 1.The Visual Learner You learn by Seeing and visualizing. Visual Learners take numerous detailed notes tend to sit in the front are usually neat and clean often close their eyes to visualize or remember something find something to watch if they are bored like to see what they are learning benefit from illustrations and presentations that use color are attracted to written or spoken language rich in imagery prefer stimuli to be isolated from auditory and kinesthetic distraction find passive surroundings ideal Advantages A visual learner enjoys images. As a visual learner, you will be good at visualising events and imagining situations. You can use visual strategies for remembering information. You probably get considerable pleasure from learning involving visual and creative skills. You may also see the whole picture when discussing or working on a problem or task. Disadvantages You may need more time to complete tasks. You can be more interested in the appearance of something than its actual value - which may be a disadvantage in some situations, though not in all. You may not spend enough time on, or give enough attention to specific details. 2.The Auditory Learner If you scored mostly b's, you may have an auditory learning style. You learn by hearing and listening. Auditory Learners sit where they can hear but needn't pay attention to what is happening in front may not coordinate colors or clothes, but can explain why they are wearing what they are wearing and why hum or talk to themselves or others when bored acquire knowledge by reading aloud remember by verbalizing lessons to themselves (if they don't they have difficulty reading maps or diagrams or handling conceptual assignments like mathematics). Advantages An auditory learner likes listening. If you are an auditory learner you benefit from talks and lectures. You should also be able to absorb a lot of information from radio programmes. You are very likely to have skills in sequencing and organising information and have a methodical approach to many aspects of life. You may remember information by using a checklist. You can often be considered a reliable and independent worker Disadvantages It's highly likely that you are unable to multitask, having to complete one job before embarking on another. There is also a possibility that you focus on small bits of information and do not obtain a holistic and broad picture of something you are working on. You may also prefer to work on your own rather than work in groups. 3.The Kinaesthetic Learner If you had mostly c's, you may have a kinesthetic learning style. You learn by touching and doing. Tactile/Kinesthetic Learners need to be active and take frequent breaks speak with their hands and with gestures remember what was done, but have difficulty recalling what was said or seen find reasons to tinker or move when bored rely on what they can directly experience or perform activities such as cooking, construction, engineering and art help them perceive and learn enjoy field trips and tasks that involve manipulating materials sit near the door or someplace else where they can easily get up and move around are uncomfortable in classrooms where they lack opportunities for hands-on experience communicate by touching and appreciate physically expressed encouragement, such as a pat on the back. Advantages The kinaesthetic learner enjoys learning through doing. This active learning style is useful for assembling and making products. You may find it easy to demonstrate how to do something. You are likely to be able to enjoy the actual experience of learning. Disadvantages You may miss some instructions or information if it is presented orally. You may find it difficult to concentrate on a lengthy written task while seated. You might find it hard to pay attention to detail - especially if it is in written form. 4.Social/Emotional Learners Advantages The social/emotional learner tends to enjoy working with others or in a team. You tend to encourage others to be involved in a task and therefore you could be seen as quite motivational. You probably enjoy working in groups and will have a prime concern for the wellbeing of colleagues and friends. You thrive on discussion and this can be very stimulating for you. Disadvantages You may become too dependant on assistance from others. You may find it difficult to structure a task if you are completely on your own. It is possible that you are greatly influenced by your feelings and this might affect your judgement. 5.The Metacognitive Learner Advantages The metacognitive learner wants to gain an overview. You tend to be good at reflecting and problem solving. You should be able to use previous learning effectively, when learning new information. You may need time to consider all possibilities and this can be appreciated by others; they may seek out and trust your advice. Disadvantages Your style of learning may be frustrating to others if you are working in a group. You may take a long time to carry out a task, and could appear to be pedantic because of this. TUTORING TIPS BASED ON THREE COMMON LEARNING STYLES You may proceed with this exercise after viewing the chart below: AUDITORY LEARNERS TACTILE/KINESTHETIC VISUAL LEARNERS LEARNERS Encourage them to Encourage them to pick up Let them take notes during the explain the material to the book as they are reading tutoring session. you, as if they were the or talking. tutor. Ask them to read Have them write while they Use a blackboard or notepaper explanations out loud. are reading or talking. for both of you to write questions and answers. Ask the student to make Encourage them to walk Encourage the use of colorup a song using the around the LRC for coded highlighting. subject material. The appropriate books and other 'crazier' the better. resources. Tell the students they can Advise them to sit near the Use graph paper to help them review audio tapes while front of their classroom and create charts and diagrams they drive. to take notes. This will keep that demonstrate key points. the student focused. Advise them that when Advise them to spend extra Have them use mnemonics, they are learning new time in any labs offered. acronyms, visual chains, and information, state the mind maps. problem out loud. Reason through solutions out loud. Ask the student to say Encourage them to use the Advise them to use the words in syllables. computer to reinforce computer to organize materials learning using their sense of and to create graphs, tables, touch. charts, and spreadsheets. Refer them to our study Advise them to write with Ask the student to organize skills videotapes. their fingers in sand. the material. Encourage them to make Have them write lists Use visual analogies. Use up and repeat rhymes to repeatedly. photographs. remember facts, dates, names, etc. Make sure they go over all important facts aloud. Advise the student to join or create a study group, or to get a study partner. To learn a sequence of steps, write them out in sentence form, then read them out loud. Ask the student to use mnemonics and word links. Advise them to exaggerate Use visual metaphors. lip movements in front of a mirror. Ask them to stand while they When you ask them to explain explain something to you. something, suggest they do so by writing the explanation down. Ask them to use rhythm Ask them to make flashcards, (beats) to memorize or then use them during explain something. the session/s. The act of writing (the cards) and viewing them doubles their comprehension. Involve the student in a As the student is explaining Encourage them to visualize discussion of the something, have the student the scene, formula, material. point to the subject matter in words, charts, etc. the book, on the board, etc., while reading it out loud. Refer them to the Study Ask them to use gestures Refer them to the TASC's CDSkills videotapes. when giving explanations. ROM's or other computer software. Advise them to make models Use illustrations. that demonstrate the key concept. (The purpose here is the act of making the model.) Advise students to use Refer them to the Study Skills hands-on experience when videotapes. possible. Make flashcards for each step in the procedure. Put the cards in order until the sequence becomes automatic. Use audio tapes from classes. Play them while they walk or exercise. Ask them to stretch and move in the chairs. Refer them to the Study Skills videotapes. DISCUSSION The concept of learning styles is rooted in the classification of psychological types. The learning styles theory is based on research demonstrating that, as the result of heredity, upbringing, and current environmental demands, different individuals have a tendency to both perceive and process information differently. The different ways of doing so are generally classified as: 1. Concrete and abstract perceivers–Concrete perceivers absorb information through direct experience, by doing, acting, sensing, and feeling. Abstract perceivers, however, take in information through analysis, observation, and thinking. 2. Active and reflective processors–Active processors make sense of an experience by immediately using the new information. Reflective processors make sense of an experience by reflecting on and thinking about it. Traditional schooling tends to favor abstract perceiving and reflective processing. Other kinds of learning aren’t rewarded and reflected in curriculum, instruction, and assessment nearly as much. HOW THE LEARNING STYLES THEORY IMPACTS EDUCATION Curriculum–Educators must place emphasis on intuition, feeling, sensing, and imagination, in addition to the traditional skills of analysis, reason, and sequential problem solving. Instruction–Teachers should design their instruction methods to connect with all four learning styles, using various combinations of experience, reflection, conceptualization, and experimentation. Instructors can introduce a wide variety of experiential elements into the classroom, such as sound, music, visuals, movement, experience, and even talking. Assessment–Teachers should employ a variety of assessment techniques, focusing on the development of ―whole brain‖ capacity and each of the different learning styles. INTERESTING THINGS Latest Findings About Learning Styles by Stacy Mantle MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES How many ways are there to learn about a subject? According to the latest findings by several leading psychologists, there are seven specific types of learning styles. This means that in order to maximize learning advantages, you must define the type of learner that you have, and cater the lesson to that particular learning style. For example, if your child is primarily a linguistic learner, you could incorporate several novels into your curriculum. You could encourage short stories to explain scientific developments, or allow the student to rewrite a difficult math problem into a story problem. If he/she is primarily logical, you will want to emphasize charts, tables, and diagrams. Venn diagrams work well with a logical learner. Read each description below to determine which style best describes your student. Remember that it is possible to have more than one style of learning, particularly in the intrapersonal and interpersonal categories (numbers six and seven), which have traditionally been interpreted as personality types. 1. Linguistic: This type of learner loves to read, write, and tell stories. They tend to memorize places, dates, names, and trivia very easily, and are always mesmerizing you with their incredible tales. 2. Logical: This child is very mathematically inclined. They enjoy solving problems, particularly if they are math related. They are similar to Dr. Spock, on Star Trek, in that they are very logical, straight-forward types of learners. They will plague you with questions on how things work, how things relate to one another, and why things are here. 3. Spatial: These are the visualizers. They spend most of the day dreaming, watching movies, and staying as far away from reality as possible. If they seem particularly "down", asking them to draw a picture will get you much further into the nature of the problem, than asking them to tell you about it. Allow them to develop their senses and their natural artistic abilities. 4. Musical: If your child is always walking around the house humming a tune, or always needs music to study by, then he/she is likely a musical learner. This type of learner is best at noticing details, pitches, and rhythms that escape the normal listener. 5. Bodily: This type of learner is always on the move. They constantly walk around, they have to touch everything, and they use body language to convey their feelings. They would rather play sports or do a craft than sit down and read a book. They need active education! Keep them moving. Take them camping to learn about geography and nature. 6. Interpersonal: These are the "social butterflies". They adapt easily to any type of social situation, have many friends and are excellent leaders. They are patient, understanding, and very empathetic, which makes them a favorite among their playmates. They generally make good leaders because of their ability to mediate conflict, and are often referred to as "the Peacemaker" of the family. 7. Intrapersonal: These strong willed people work best alone. They pursue their one interests and have a deep understanding of themselves. They pride themselves on being independent and original, and they tend to stand out from the crowd without even trying. CAREER CHOICE What are the implications of learning style on career choice? It may not be as black and white as one would think. For example, a visual learner who finds it difficult to work in a traditional library setting, may overcome these difficulties by creating a more visual appeal to both the library and the actual job.This shows that the phrase 'square peg in a round hole' is not always cast in stone. Most jobs can be adapted to make them suitable, to some extent, to most styles. However, it is important to carefully consider your learning style/personality type before choosing a particular career as you may feel it necessary to favour some occupations over others to ensure the best possible fit. LIFE CHOICES AND CHANCES Many events in life are out of our control. Many, however, are within one's control. Decisions we make about employment, friends, marriage partners, accommodation and location of our home are all, to a certain extent, conscious ones and within our control. Learning styles/personality type can also influence the successful outcome of these. For instance, a very visual person may become unhappy if the room they work in looks onto a brick wall, or an auditory learner may find it very hard to concentrate if there is a radio on in the background.Nothing is really 'cast in stone' people adapt, circumstances change and environmental factors can differ. Nevertheless most people have a longstanding and deeply ingrained preference for tackling tasks and for living their lives (work and play) in a particular way. Learning styles can help us understand ourselves and put that information to good use in life and work. LEARNING FOR LIFE Learning styles are important not only for learning, but for helping us through our everyday lives. Learning styles relate to a person's preferences for absorbing information, for solving problems and for success in social and personal situations. They can have implications for learning, family life, marriage, leisure and work.It is important that people are aware of their learning styles so they can relate them to personality type and life preferences, leading to greater self-knowledge; knowing more about yourself helps you gain maximum success and benefit from both leisure and work. QUESTIONAIRE 1. I understand something better after I (a) try it out. (b) think it through. 2. I would rather be considered (a) realistic. (b) innovative. 3. In reading nonfiction, I prefer (a) something that teaches me new facts or tells me how to do something. (b) something that gives me new ideas to think about. 4. When I'm analyzing a story or a novel (a) I think of the incidents and try to put them together to figure out the themes. (b) I just know what the themes are when I finish reading and then I have to go back and find the incidents that demonstrate them. 5. When considering a body of information, I am more likely to (a) focus on details and miss the big picture. (b) try to understand the big picture before getting into the details. 6. When writing a paper, I am more likely to (a) work on (think about or write) the beginning of the paper and progress forward. (b) work on (think about or write) different parts of the paper and then order them. 7. I think I am a: (a) Visual Learner (b) Auditory Learner (c) Tactile Learner 8. When I am learning a new subject, I prefer to (a) stay focused on that subject, learning as much about it as I can. (b) try to make connections between that subject and related subjects. 9. I prefer courses that emphasize (a) concrete material (facts, data). (b) abstract material (concepts, theories). 10. When solving problems in a group, I would be more likely to (a) think of the steps in the solution process. (b) think of possible consequences or applications of the solution in a wide range of areas. PIE CHART FROM THE ANSWERS OF THE QUESTIONAIRE Tactile Innovati ve Realistic Learner 15% 11% 8% Auditory Learner 20% Visual Learner 46% Tactile Learner Auditory Learner Visual Learner Innovative Realistic BIBLOGRAPHY www.chaminade.org/INSPIRE/learnstl.html www.usd.edu/trio/tut/ts/styleres.html www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learning_styles www.trcc.commnet.edu/Ed_Resources/TASC/Traini ng/Learning_Styles.htm www.ldpride.net/learningstyles.MI.htm www.learning4liferesources.com/learning_style.html www.funderstanding.com/content/learning-styles QUESTIONAIRE 11. I understand something better after I (a) try it out. (b) think it through. 12. I would rather be considered (a) realistic. (b) innovative. 13. In reading nonfiction, I prefer (a) something that teaches me new facts or tells me how to do something. (b) something that gives me new ideas to think about. 14. When I'm analyzing a story or a novel (a) I think of the incidents and try to put them together to figure out the themes. (b) I just know what the themes are when I finish reading and then I have to go back and find the incidents that demonstrate them. 15. When considering a body of information, I am more likely to (a) focus on details and miss the big picture. (b) try to understand the big picture before getting into the details. 16. When writing a paper, I am more likely to (a) work on (think about or write) the beginning of the paper and progress forward. (b) work on (think about or write) different parts of the paper and then order them. 17. When I have to work on a group project, I first want to (a) have "group brainstorming" where everyone contributes ideas. (b) brainstorm individually and then come together as a group to compare ideas. 18. When I am learning a new subject, I prefer to (a) stay focused on that subject, learning as much about it as I can. (b) try to make connections between that subject and related subjects. 19. I prefer courses that emphasize (a) concrete material (facts, data). (b) abstract material (concepts, theories). 20. When solving problems in a group, I would be more likely to (a) think of the steps in the solution process. (b) think of possible consequences or applications of the solution in a wide range of areas.
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