The four stroke engine was first demonstrated by Nikolaus Otto in 18761

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The four stroke engine was first demonstrated by Nikolaus Otto in 18761 Powered By Docstoc
					          Требования к выполнению контрольных работ
                     по английскому языку



1. Выполнение контрольной работы является обязательным этапом в
   процессе, предусмотренным государственным образовательным
   стандартом высшего профессионального образовании РФ.

2. Необходимо не позднее, чем за неделю до начала сессии
   зарегистрировать и сдать на кафедру «Общеобразовательных
   дисциплин» контрольную работу по английскому языку на проверку.
   По истечении данного срока контрольные не принимаются.

3. За каждую контрольную работу студент получает «зачтено» или «не
   зачтено». При наличии недопустимого количества ошибок контрольная
   возвращается студенту для выполнения этого же варианта контрольной
   работы заново. При отсутствии работы студент не допускается к сдаче
   зачета/экзамена по предмету.

4. Вариант контрольной работы определяется по порядковому номеру
   студента в списке группы/ведомости. Если вариант выбран ошибочно,
   контрольная работа на проверку не принимается.

5. Контрольная работа по английскому языку выполняется печатным
   компьютерным текстом на листах формата А4 с абзацным отступом 3
   см и полями шириной 5 см. При выполнении контрольной работы
   необходимо сохранить структуру работы и последовательность
   заданий. Листы работы подшиваются в папку.




                            Сочи 2010
              Министерство образования и науки РФ
    ГОУ ВПО Московский автомобильно-дорожный государственный
                Технический университет (МАДИ)
                       Сочинский филиал



                                         Регистрационный №________
                                             Дата регистрации__________
                                                   Методист


                КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА № _______
                по дисциплине ____________________
                         Вариант № ___




Выполнил(а) студент(ка) группы ПА_________
_________________________________________
          (фамилия, имя, отчество)
Проверил(а) ______________________________
     (ученая степень, звание, должность)
_________________________________________
           (фамилия, имя, отчество)




Проверена _______________________________
            (дата, подпись преподавателя)




                             Сочи 2010
                                  Требования
    Для успешного выполнения заданий 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 части контрольной работы
№ 3 необходимо усвоить следующие разделы курса английского языка по
рекомендуемым учебникам:
    1. Времена групп Simple, Continuous, and Perfect.
    2. Страдательный залог.
    3. Правила согласования времен в английском языке.
    4. Условные предложения I, II, III, типа.
    5. Условное, сослагательное и повелительное наклонение в английском
языке.
Для успешного выполнения 4-й части контрольной работы необходимо
внимательно ознакомиться с требованиями написания резюме по учебнику
Бизнес-курс английского языка. / И.С. Богацкий, Н.М. Дюканова Москва,
2007-352с.




                                Сочи 2010
Variant 1

                                              Часть 1
                                    Developmental factors
       Child developmental factors — Young children do not understand or react to complex
traffic situations in the same way as adults. Their developmental immaturity means that in the
traffic environment young children lack certain abilities that adults possess and this increases
their risk to road traffic crashes. In addition, the need of young children to exert physical energy,
explore and play – combined with a lack of safe areas to do so – may predispose them to a
greater likelihood of being hit by a vehicle.
       Youth-related risk taking — While young children may inadvertently take risks because
they lack appropriate skills to do otherwise, older children and adolescents may indeed have the
skills but may actively seek out risk. Risk-taking behaviour may allow adolescents to feel a
sense of control over their lives or sometimes to oppose authority. Research shows that there are
high levels of ‘sensation seeking’ behaviour among young adults and a need to maintain a
heightened level of physiological arousal. Young people consequently seek new situations and
experiences to maintain this level, irrespective of the risks inherent in the experience. Such
sensation-seeking frequently focuses on risky behaviours, including while driving a vehicle or
crossing a road. Sensation-seeking has been shown to rise between the ages of 9 and 14 years,
peaking in late adolescence or the early 20s, and then declining steadily with age. Across all ages
and particularly among the young, sensation-seeking is more common among males than
females.
       Peer influence — As young children become adolescents, peer influence becomes
increasingly important, compared to the earlier strong influence of parents. For many young
people, their peers are the most important people in their lives and are often also their primary
source of behavioural norms. Teenagers can be led by what is considered “cool”, not necessarily
what is safe. Peer pressure can mean that young people are more likely to behave in a risky
manner on the road, both as novice drivers or riders, and as pedestrians.
       Other social pressures — In considering the developmental factors that predispose youth
towards increased risk for road traffic collisions, the environmental pressures that may
exacerbate inherent risks should be taken into account.
       Factors, such as risk-taking and peer pressure, that direct young people towards high-risk
behaviours are often used in marketing techniques targeted to appeal to youth. Large
corporations and industries can influence both individual behaviour and social norms in a
manner that may increase risk on the roads.
       For this reason, one needs to consider not only individual behaviours, but also the
environmental factors – including media messages, community norms, and public and
institutional policies – that may support high-risk behaviours.

     I. Переведите выделенные слова на русский язык. Переведите следующие слова
на английский язык.
       дорожно-транспортное происшествие –
       невнимательно –
       чувство –
       возбуждение –
       опыт –
       период полового созревания –
       женщина –
       давление со стороны –
       влияние –
       СМИ сообщения –

     II. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту:
     1. What increases children’s risk to road traffic crashes?
     2. Why do older children and adolescents seek out risk?
     3. What gender is sensation-seeking more common to?
     4. What can peer pressure mean?
     5. What one needs to consider, except individual behaviours?
     6. What factors should one take into consideration to reduce risk on the roads?

     III. Письменно переведите абзацы 1, 2 на русский язык.
                                              Часть 2
                                    Safety Engineering
      This field of engineering has as its object the prevention of accidents. In recent years safety
engineering has become a speciality adopted by individuals trained in other branches of
engineering. Safety engineers develop methods and procedures to safeguard workers in
hazardous occupations. They also assist in designing machinery, factories, ships and roads,
suggesting alterations and improvements to reduce the possibility of accident.
      In the design of machinery, for example, the safety engineer try to cover all moving parts or
keep them from accidental contact with the operator, to put cutoff switches within reach of the
operator and to eliminate dangerous sharp parts. In designing roads the safety engineer seeks to
avoid such hazards as sharp turns and blind intersections that lead to traffic accidents.
      Engineers in the field of mechanical engineering design, test, build, and operate machinery
of all types; they also work on a variety of manufactured goods and certain kinds of structures.
The field is divided into machinery, mechanisms, materials, hydraulics, and pneumatics; and
heat as applied to engines, work and energy, heating, ventilating, and air conditioning. The
mechanical engineer, therefore, must be trained in mechanics, hydraulics, and thermodynamics
and must know such subjects as metallurgy and machine design. Some mechanical engineers
specialize in particular types of machines such as pumps or steam turbines. A mechanical
engineer designs not only the machines that make products but the products themselves, and
must design for both economy and efficiency. A typical example of modern mechanical
engineering is the design of a car or an agricultural machine.

     I. Переведите выделенные слова на русский язык. Переведите следующие слова
на английский язык. Выпишите из текста по одному предложению, в котором
употреблено данное слово. Переведите эти предложения на русский язык.
     техника безопасности –
     приспособленный –
     отрасль –
     меры безопасности –
     снизить –
     машина, механизм –
     переключатель –
     крутой поворот –
     пневматика –
     насос –
     II. Письменно выполните перифраз первого абзаца.
     III. Поставьте к тексту пять вопросов разных типов.
                                           Часть 3
    I. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глагол в нужной форме
    1. The weather (to be) bad yesterday. It (to be) raining all the time.
    2. I (to come) home at 5 o’clock tomorrow.
    3. He (to be) at school now.
    4. Ann (to be) at the museum tomorrow evening?
    5. You (to read) books every day?
    6. Listen! Somebody (to sing) in the next room.
    7. He (not to go) to the library tomorrow evening.
    8. I (to go) to Paris last year.
    9. Where he (to go) every morning?
    10. When you (to get up) every day?
        – I (to get up) at 7 o’clock every day.
    11. My sister (not to rest) now. She (to help) mother in the kitchen.
    12. When we (to come) to the station, our train already (to leave), and we (to have) to wait
         for two hours before another one (to come).
    13. What you (to do) now? I (to see) that you not to read.
    14. My mother (not to be) at the butcher’s yesterday.
    15. I did not recognize Helen as I (not to see) her for a very long time and she greatly (to
        change).
    16. It (to be) cold in autumn. It often (to rain).
    17. How you usually (to spend) evenings?
    18. His wish (to come) true, he (to become) a famous singer.
    19. When the teacher told the boy to recite the poem? The boy (to burst) into tears: he (not
        to remember), though he (to try) to learn his lesson so hard.
    20. When we (to come) to the station, our train already (to leave), and we (to have) to wait
        for two hours before another one (to come).
    II. Переделайте предложения в активном залоге в предложения в
    страдательном залоге.
Образец:
    The stone broke the window. - The window was broken by the stone.
    1. Margaret sang a song.
    2. The teacher taught the class.
    3. The boys kicked the ball.
    4. The woman ate all the cake.
    5. John answered all the questions.
    6. The boys did the exercises.
    7. I took the book.
    8. Richard threw a stone.
    9. They have promised me some books on this problem.
    10. A passer-by showed us the way to Trafalgar square.
    11. They sent you the invitation last week.
    12. I am sure they will offer you a very interesting job.
    13. They recommended me several articles on that problem.
    14. Someone taught him French and gave him a dictionary.
    15. They have just shown me a new magazine.
     III. Поставьте глагол в правильной форме, согласно правилам согласования
     времен
     1. Our Holy Books tell us that man ------------------ mortal. (to be)
      2. The teacher asked the boys whether they ------------------ the problems. (to solve)
      3. He spoke so fast that I ------------------- not follow him. (can)
      4. His health has improved since he -------------------- from the hills. (return)
      5. He kept quite that he --------------------- please me. (may)
      6. Who told you that goats ----------------- on grass? (to live)
      7. He said that he -------------------- not believe it even if he saw it with his own eyes.
      (would)
      8. She ------------------ since she graduated from college. (to teach)
      9. She went for a walk in the park when the weather ----------------- good.
      10. Yesterday the patient ---------------- better than he ------------------ today. (to feel/to
       feel)
      11. By the time he returned, I --------------- ten pages of the report. (to type)
      12. The surgeon who was going to perform the operation ---------------- ill yesterday. (to
        fall)
      13. While I ------------------- TV, the telephone rang. (to watch)
      14. She goes for a walk in the park when the weather --------------- good. (to be)
      15. John ------------- vegetables and later sold them. (to raise)
         IV. Переведите предложения на английский язык, определите тип условного
        предложения
Образец:
   Если бы я видела его вчера, я бы спросила его об этом. – If I had seen him yesterday, I
   should have asked him about it. (условное предложение III типа)
   1. Он бы не простудился, если бы надел теплое пальто.
   2. Мы были бы благодарны, если бы Вы были любезны прислать нам Ваш каталог
   дизелей.
   3. Если бы я увидел его завтра, я бы спросил у него об этом.
   4. Он не окончит работу вовремя, если не будет усердно работать.
   5. Если бы ваши указания были получены десять дней тому назад, товар был бы
   отгружен вчера пароходом «Свирь».
   6. Если завтра будет хорошая погода, мы поедем за город.
   7. Я дам вам эту книгу при условии, что вы вернете ее на следующей неделе.
   8. Если я увижу его завтра, я спрошу его об этом.
   9. Если бы я увидел своего приятеля вчера, я бы помог ему с переводом статьи.
   10. Если вы его увидите, попросите его позвонить мне по телефону.
  V. Переведите предложения на английский язык, обращая внимание на
  наклонение.
Образец:
   Он вышел из дому, взял такси и поехал на вокзал. - He left the house, took a taxi and
   drove to the station. (Indicative Mood)
    1. Давай-ка садись и веди себя тихо.
    2. Необходимо, чтобы вы сделали это задание в устной форме.
    3. Кто-нибудь, ответьте по телефону/возьмите трубку, пожалуйста!
    4. Он посмотрел на меня так, как будто бы не узнал меня.
    5. Я бы желал, чтобы они совсем не приходили. (Как жаль, что они пришли).
    6. Ну, ты, давай мне твой бумажник!
    7. Обязательно свяжись со мной вскоре.
    8. Ей не хотелось, чтобы мы шли за ней.
    9. Пусть вам сопутствует удача!
   10. Я писал письмо уже, час когда он пришел.
                                              Часть 4
  Составьте резюме для устройства на работу.
Variant 2

                                             Часть 1
                                      Smart carburetor
            It's a bold company that spends nearly eight years improving a product that may not
be around 20 years from now. But that's what the Vacuum Carburetor Corp. of San Antonio,
Texas, has done. The firm has developed a new vacuum-controlled constant-velocity carburetor,
better known as “the Econo-Carb”, which its maker says offers several advantages over ordinary
carburetors - including 25 per cent better gasoline mileage, improved engine performance and
easier starting. The device which has only 54 parts compared with some 300 in regular
carburetors, has no choke or accelerator pump - and therefore cannot flood. The device
constantly adjusts the mix of fuel and air in the manifold, which regular carburetors with fixed
mixes cannot do. “When your engine demands fuel, it will give it just enough to do the job,” says
Frank Greene, president of Vacuum Carburetor. “It’s the same concept as a cruise control.”
            The vacuum carburetor is not a new idea - some of the earliest carburetors (in the
1920s and 1930s) were vacuum-type. Al Woodworth, Californian, invented a modern vacuum
carburetor several years ago; what Vacuum Carburetor has done is modify Woodworm's
creation, mainly by adding a fuel-injection "cold-start" mechanism that, the company claims,
helps the engine turn over immediately in frigid weather.
            Though “the Econo-Carb” has been on sale for less than a year, it's already being
used by municipal car, truck and cab fleets in Nashville, Denver and San Antonio. What's more,
Saudi Arabia, China and Denmark are interested in importing the device. William Moreton, an
executive at Vacuum Carburetor's production plant in Kansas, says “the Econo-carb's” natural
market is as a replacement for existing carburetors, especially in V-6 and V-8 engines.

     I. Переведите выделенные слова на русский язык. Переведите следующие слова
на английский язык.
            постоянная скорость –
            преимущества –
            насос приемистости –
            круиз контроль –
            вакуумного типа –
            коллектор –
            современный –
            впрыск топлива –
            грузовик –
            вытеснение –

      II. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту.
     1. What did the firm develop?
     2. Why is the Vacuum Carburetor Corp. of San Antonio, Texas called a
        bold company?
     3. What are the advantages of “the Econo-Carb” over ordinary carburetors?
     4. What can help the engine turn over immediately in frigid weather?
     5. When your engine demands fuel, it will give it just enough to do the job,
        won’t it?
     6. Where is it already being used?

     III. Письменно переведите абзацы 2, 3 на русский язык.
                                              Часть 2
                            Automated Production Lines
          An automated production line consists of a series of workstations connected by a
transfer system to move parts between the stations. This is an example of fixed automation,
since these lines are set up for long production runs, making large number of product units and
running for several years between changeovers. Each station is designed to perform a specific
processing operation, so that the part or product is constructed stepwise as it progresses along the
line. A raw work part enters at one end of the line, proceeds through each workstation and
appears at the other end as a completed product. In the normal operation of the line, there is a
work part being processed at each station, so that many parts are being processed simultaneously
and a finished part is produced with each cycle of the line. The various operations, part transfers,
and other activities taking place on an automated transfer line must all be sequenced and
coordinated properly for the line to operate efficiently.
       Modern automated lines are controlled by programmable logic controllers, which are
special computers that can perform timing and sequencing functions required to operate such
equipment. Automated production lines are utilized in many industries, mostly automobile,
where they are used for processes such as machining and pressworking.
       Machining is a manufacturing process in which metal is removed by a cutting or shaping
tool, so that the remaining work part is the desired shape. Machinery and motor components are
usually made by this process. In many cases, multiple operations are required to completely
shape the part. If the part is mass-produced, an automated transfer line is often the most
economical method of production. Many separate operations are divided among the
workstations.

     I. Переведите выделенные слова на русский язык. Переведите следующие слова
на английский язык. Выпишите из текста по одному предложению, в котором
употреблено данное слово. Переведите эти предложения на русский язык.
     автоматизированная линия производства –
     жёсткая автоматизация –
     переналадка –
     поэтапно –
     одновременно –
     цикл –
     передаточная линия –
     необходимые функции –
     прессование –
     форма –

     II. Письменно выполните перифраз третьего абзаца.
     III. Поставьте к тексту пять вопросов разных типов.
                                             Часть 3
     I. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глагол в нужной форме
     1. My brother (to be) at school now.
     2. At 7 o’clock yesterday he (to look) out of the window.
     3. They (not to drink) tea now.
     4. Nobody (to want) to play tennis.
     5. They (to be) at school last week?
     6. When the teacher told the boy to recite the poem? The boy (to burst) into tears: he (not
         to remember), though he (to try) to learn his lesson so hard.
    7. When we (to come) to the station, our train already (to leave), and we (to have) to wait
         for two hours before another one (to come).
    8. Mary doesn’t go to school. She (to be) ill?
    9. His wish (to be) to become a painter.
    10. Nobody (to be) at the office tomorrow.
    11. Peter (not to be) at school yesterday.
    12. The work (to be) very hard.
    13. He (to be) at the cinema last week.
    14. His sister (to bring) a kitten last week.
    15. My friend (not to be) in the park now. He (to be) at school.
    16. Tomorrow at 5 o’clock Peter and Mary (to be) in the yard.
    17. When your sister (to be) at home?
    18. My sister (to be) a student last year, but she (to be) a doctor now.
    19. When the train (to stop), I (to look) out of the window but (not to see) any of my
         friends there.
    20. We were greatly surprised not to find Ann at home. It turned out that her sister (to
         forget) to give her our message, and Ann (to leave) the house fifteen minutes before we
         (to come).
    II. Переделайте предложения в активном залоге в предложения в
    страдательном залоге.
Образец:
    The stone broke the window. - The window was broken by the stone.
    1. He offered me a chair.
    2. We gave him all the money.
    3. Mother promised the boy a new toy.
    4. Nobody has told me the news yet.
    5. They asked us to be there at eight o’clock.
    6. Mary caught the ball.
    7. She learned the poem.
    8. The boy broke the window.
    9. Sam wrote this letter.
    10. Mother cooked the dinner.
    11. Tom threw the stone.
    12. Sam had taken the ball
    13. I bought this book yesterday
    14. Snow will cover the ground
    15. I am writing a new book
    III. Поставьте глагол в правильной форме, согласно правилам согласования
    Времен
   1. I thought that she --------------- knew that he had taken the first place in the chess
        tournament. (to know)
   2. John sold vegetables that he --------------- . (to raise)
   3. Renee ------------ had washed the car when George arrived. (to wash)
   4. The teacher told the children that water -------------- at 100 degrees centigrade. (to boil)
   5. He refused to go to the theatre as he ------------------ an examination in English in a few
        days. (to have)
   6. He ------------------- once stronger than he ------------------ now. (to be/ to be)
   7. It ------------------- not so cold yesterday as it --------------- today. (to be/ to be)
   8. It is necessary that he ------------------- us the documents. (to send)
   9. I am not satisfied with what I ---------------- (to do).
   10. We have never discovered who --------------- it. (to do)
   11. He has said that he ------------------- a letter yesterday. (to receive)
    12. He has said that he ------------------- a letter. (to receive)
    13. Mary knows that you ---------------- busy. (to be)
    14. Once you ----------------- something, you cannot take it back. (to say)
    15. If you want to show another person your feelings, never ------------------- a letter. (to
        write)
     IV. Переведите предложения на английский язык, определите тип условного
    предложения
Образец:
   Мы бы подписали контракт, если бы нам дали хорошую скидку. – We would have
   signed the contract if they had given us a good discount. (условное предложение III типа)
  1. Если бы Арина пришла, я был бы рад.
  2. Если бы Элеонора знала адрес гражданина Чернова, она бы посетила его во время
      своего визита в Минск.
  3. Если Стив придет, покажите ему этот доклад.
  4. Если бы у моего брата было время сейчас, он бы помог им.
  5. Он мог бы это сделать, если бы попытался.
  6. Вы могли бы застать его там, если бы зашли в шесть часов.
  7. Если бы я видела его вчера, я бы спросила его об этом.
  8. Если бы вы работали усерднее в прошлом году, вы бы теперь хорошо знали
      английский язык.
  9. Мы будем подписывать контракт, если нам будут предоставлены выгодные скидки.
  10. Если бы я была принцессой, я бы жила во дворце.
  V. Переведите предложения на английский язык, обращая внимание на
   наклонение.
Образец:
  Управляющий вошел в офис, сел за письменный стол и начал просматривать утреннюю
  почту. – The manager entered the office, sat down at his desk, and began to look through the
  morning mail. (Indicative Mood)
   1. Прекратите же драться, ребята!
   2. Всем расслабиться!
   3. Прошлой зимой я проводил много времени в библиотеке.
   4. Если бы мы так много знали о ней, мы бы знали и о Монике.
   5. Я сказал, что уже напишу письмо к пяти часам.
   6. Желательно, чтобы он был здесь в пять часов.
   7. Смотрите, не захлопните дверь при выходе.
   8. Было необходимо, чтобы они приняли меры немедленно.
   9. Мы переведем статью к пяти часам.
  10. Он сказал, что он уже сдаст экзамены к первому июля.
\
                                           Часть 4
    Составьте резюме для устройства на работу.
Variant 3

                                                Часть 1
                      More Bold Automotive Ides Intelligent Wheels
        Sophisticated electronics are playing a big role in current automotive research. One of
the latest applications is the "intelligent" wheel-computerized systems that continually monitor
the air pressure of automobile tires and alert drivers if their tires are over- or under inflated.
Neotech Industries of Dallas is developing a digital electronic monitoring system. Another firm,
Technical Guidance Inc. of Santa Clara, Calif., has devised a product that not only monitors air
pressure in tires but adjusts it automatically. The system, called entire control, also enables a
driver to set tire pressure while seated. Technical Guidance claims entire control, which is still
being tested, will enhance the safety and fuel efficiency of a car.
        Entire control consists of three separate modules. The first is the dashboard display,
which houses the system's main microprocessor, programming buttons and warning signals. It
contains a tire-pressure display, which provides psi (pounds per square inch) readings for the
front and back tires (in pairs); tire-positions indicators that light up when a tire is losing pressure;
selectors that establish optimum tire pressure for city and highway driving; and buttons for
setting specific tire pressure (within pre-programmed limits). The second component is the
detector/drive module — which is essentially four microchips attached, in one unit, to the
chassis. Each chip "faces" a tire and detects pressure changes that may occur. When they do,
transistors within the module signal the third component - a programmable actuator transducer
(PAT), which is attached to each wheel and inflates or deflates the tire. It includes half-inch-
thick tubes containing compressed carbon dioxide that surround the inside of the wheel and
connect to a mixing valve. If there is a hole in the tire and it cannot be inflated, the system will
alert the driver.

     I. Переведите выделенные слова на русский язык. Переведите следующие слова
на английский язык.
            водитель –
            шина –
            эффективность –
            дюйм –
            колесо –
            давление воздуха –
            топливо –
            сдуваться, спускаться –
            безопасность –
            смесительный клапан –

      II. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту.
      1. What kind of computerized system can monitor the air or pressure of automobile tires?
      2. What enterprises are developing automotive monitoring systems?
      3. Is it possible to apply these systems for regulating traffic?
      4. What is the latest application of the "intelligent" wheel-computerized systems?
      5. Does entire control system enable a driver to set tire pressure while seated?
      6. What will entire control system do if there is a hole in the tire and it cannot be inflated?

      III. Письменно переведите абзац 2 на русский язык.
                                             Часть 2
                                   Mechanical Power
      Electrical power transmission has replaced mechanical power transmission in all but the
very shortest distances. From the 16th century through the industrial revolution to the end of the
19th century mechanical power transmission was the norm. The oldest long-distance power
transmission technology involved systems of push-rods connecting waterwheels to distant mine-
drainage and brine-well pumps. A surviving example from 1780 exists at Bad Kösen that
transmits power approximately 200 meters from a waterwheel to a salt well, and from there, an
additional 150 meters to a brine evaporator. This technology survived into the 21st century in a
handful of oilfields in the US, transmitting power from a central pumping engine to the
numerous pump-jacks in the oil field.
       Factories were fitted with overhead line shafts providing rotary power. Short line-shaft
systems were described by Agricola, connecting a waterwheel to numerous ore-processing
machines. While the machines described by Agricola used geared connections from the shafts to
the machinery, by the 19th century, drive belts would become the norm for linking individual
machines to the line shafts. One mid 19th century factory had 1,948 feet of line shafting with
541 pulleys.
        Mechanical power may be transmitted directly using a solid structure such as a
driveshaft; transmission gears can adjust the amount of torque or force vs. speed in much the
same way an electrical transformer adjusts voltage vs current.
        Hydraulic systems use liquid under pressure to transmit power; canals and hydroelectric
power generation facilities harness natural water power to lift ships or generate electricity.
Pumping water or pushing mass uphill with (windmill pumps) is one possible means of energy
storage. London had a hydraulic network powered by five pumping stations operated by the
London Hydraulic Power Company, with a total effect of 5 MW.
       Pneumatic systems use gasses under pressure to transmit power; compressed air is
commonly used to operate pneumatic tools in factories and repair garages. A pneumatic wrench
(for instance) is used to remove and install automotive tyres far more quickly than could be done
with standard manual hand tools. A pneumatic system was proposed by proponents of Edison's
direct current as the basis of the power grid. Compressed air generated at Niagara Falls would
drive far away generators of DC power. The War of Currents ended with alternating current
(AC) as the only means of long distance power transmission.

     I. Переведите выделенные слова на русский язык. Переведите следующие слова
на английский язык. Выпишите из текста по одному предложению, в котором
употреблено данное слово. Переведите эти предложения на русский язык.
     передача энергии –
     механическая энергия –
     водяное колесо –
     приблизительно –
     соляной выпариватель –
     нефтяное месторождение –
     трансмиссионный вал –
     карданный вал –
     хранение –
     единая энергосистема –

     II. Письменно выполните перифраз второго абзаца.
     III. Поставьте к тексту пять вопросов разных типов.
                                            Часть 3
     I. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глагол в нужной форме
     1. Mary (to break) her mother’s favourite vase.
     2. Peter and Sasha (to watch) TV set at the moment.
     3. My mother (to look) for her glasses at 7 p.m. yesterday?
     4. My friend (not to live) in Moscow, he (to live) in Sochi.
     5. When the train (to stop), I (to look) out of the window but (not to see) any of my
         friends there.
     6. I (to send) them the telegram and hoped that they (to meet) me.
     7. As I (to discover) later, they (to receive) it ten minutes before the train arrived and
         could not meet me.
     8. We were greatly surprised not to find Ann at home. It turned out that her sister (to
         forget) to give her our message, and Ann (to leave) the house fifteen minutes before we
         (to come).
     9. I decided not to put on my raincoat as it (to stop) raining already and the sun (to shine)
         brightly.
     10. The performance already (to begin), and they (to have) to wait till the first act (to be)
         over.
     11. Nina never (to be) here before and she (to like) the theatre very much.
     12. I did not recognize Helen as I (not to see) her for a very long time and she greatly (to
         change).
     13. When the teacher told the boy to recite the poem? The boy (to burst) into tears: he (not
         to remember), though he (to try) to learn his lesson so hard.
     14. When we (to come) to the station, our train already (to leave), and we (to have) to wait
         for two hours before another one (to come).
     15. My mother and sister (to talk) at 7 o’clock yesterday morning?
     16. My wish (to be) to become an artist, that is why I (to study) at the Arts Academy.
     17. Everybody (to be) in the garden.
     18. He (to go) to the theatre tomorrow.
     19. Look! Kate (to go) to school.
     20. At 5 o’clock last week she (to learn) to drive the car.
     II. Переделайте предложения в активном залоге в предложения в
страдательном залоге.
Образец:
   The stone broke the window. - The window was broken by the stone.
   1. Yablochkov invented the electric lamp.
   2. Mary had helped John before Mother came.
   3. Richard threw a stone.
   4. They offered me a chair.
   5. He got all the money.
   6. A mother promised a new toy to the boy.
   7. The snow will cover the ground.
   8. The twister left a path of destruction.
   9. Kathy chose James to be her assistant.
   10. Software Workshop hosted many fine sites.
   11. They asked us to be there at eight o’clock.
   12. Mary caught the ball.
   13. The children of Sparta got a military education.
   14. They will complete the experiments by the end of this week.
   15. She looked after her little sister when her mother was at work.
   III. Поставьте глагол в правильной форме, согласно правилам согласования
   времен
    1. He ------------------- once stronger than he ------------------ now. (to be/ to be)
    2. It ------------------- not so cold yesterday as it --------------- today. (to be/ to be)
    3. It is necessary that he ------------------- us the documents. (to send)
    4. I am not satisfied with what I ---------------- (to do).
    5. We have never discovered who --------------- it. (to do)
    6. He has said that he ------------------- a letter yesterday. (to receive)
    7. He has said that he ------------------- a letter. (to receive)
    8. Mary knows that you ---------------- busy. (to be)
    9. Once you ----------------- something, you cannot take it back. (to say)
    10. If you want to show another person your feelings, never ------------------- a letter. (to
        write)
    11. He spoke so fast that I ------------------- not follow him. (can)
    12. His health has improved since he -------------------- from the hills. (return)
    13. He kept quite that he --------------------- please me. (may)
    14. Who told you that goats ----------------- on grass? (to live)
    15. He said that he -------------------- not believe it even if he saw it with his own eyes.
        (would)
    IV. Переведите предложения на английский язык, определите тип условного
    предложения
Образец:
    Мы бы подписали контракт, если бы нам дали хорошую скидку. – We would have
    signed the contract if they had given us a good discount. (условное предложение III типа)
   1. Если бы я жил во дворце, у меня бы ли бы слуги, которые бы обслуживали меня.
   2. Если бы я был богат, я бы отправился в кругосветное путешествие.
   3. Что бы ты делал, если бы твой ребенок свалился в воду?
   4. Если я не буду много гулять, я смогу больше поработать.
   5. Вечером, когда я приду домой, я приму ванну.
   6. Если бы я видела его вчера, я бы спросила его об этом.
   7. Ecли на выходных будет дождь, я останусь дома.
   8. Если я пойду за покупками, я куплю газету.
   9. Если бы я был в Вашингтоне, я бы увидел Белый Дом.
   10. Что бы ты делал, если бы увидел приведение?
   V. Переведите предложения на английский язык, обращая внимание на
    наклонение.
Образец:
  Управляющий вошел в офис, сел за письменный стол и начал просматривать утреннюю
  почту. – The manager entered the office, sat down at his desk, and began to look through the
  morning mail. (Indicative Mood)
   1. Вы работали в этом банке с 1999?
   2. Он предложил, чтобы вопрос был обсужден на следующем собрании.
   3. Не ждите.
   4. Он живет в Москве пять лет.
   5. Они покрыли товары брезентом, чтобы они не были повреждены дождем.
   6. Непременно приходите к нам сегодня вечером.
   7. Как бы я хотел бы, чтобы он был с нами!
   8. Пусть Мария сходит за словарем.
   9. Берегите себя, пожалуйста.
   10. Я думаю, что так много любви могло бы вас убить.
                                           Часть 4
 Составьте резюме для устройства на работу.
Variant 4

                                             Часть 1
                             Advantages and disadvantages
             In the United States the car is now used for about 98% of all urban transportation,
85% of all travel to and from work. In widely dispersed American cities like L-A, Detroit,
Denver, Phoeuix and Houston, 88% to 94% of the people drive to and from work. The number of
cars and trucks in the USA is growing twice as fast as the number of people. With only 48% of
the word's people, the US has 1/3 of the word's 400 mil.cars. By contrast, China and India, with
37% the world's people, have only 0,5% of its cars.
         In America's dispersed cities cars are not just a necessity, they are a way of life. The
average distance each US motorist travels has doubled since 1960. No wonder British author
J.B.Priestley remarked, "In America, the cars have become the people." Though we tend to deny
it, riding in cars is one of the most dangerous things we do in our daily lives. Worldwide, cars
and trucks kill an average of 320,000 people, maim 500,000 and injure 10 million a year. Half of
the world's people will be involved in an accident some time during their life. Each year the
USA motor vehicle accidents kill around 48,000 people and seriously injure at least 300,000.
These accident cost society about $ 60 billion annually in lost income and in insurance,
administrative, and legal expenses.
         By providing almost unlimited mobility, automobiles and highways have been a major
factor in urban sprawl in the US and other countries with large livable land areas. This dispersal
of cities has made it increasingly difficult for subways, trolleys, and buses to be economically
feasible alternatives to the private car.
        In the US motor vehicles account for 63% of the country's oil consumption (up from 50%
in 1973) and produce at least 50% of the country's air pollution, even though US emission
standards are as strict as any in the world. Motor vehicle use is also responsible for water
pollution from oil spills, gasoline spills, and the dumping of used engine oil. What do you think
should be done?

     I. Переведите выделенные слова на русский язык. Переведите следующие слова
на английский язык.
      городской транспорт –
      повреждать –
      потребление нефти –
      страховка –
      грузовик –
      расстояние –
      автомобиль –
      опасный –
      в среднем –
      авария –

      II. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту.
      1. What is the percentage of using the car of all urban transportation in the United States?
      2. Where do people go by a car in the USA and what is the percentage of using the car in
this case?
      3. What are the contrasts between the USA and China and India in using the cars?
      4. What is motor vehicles the country's oil consumption in the US?
      5. What kinds of pollution do cars produce in the USA?
      6. What do you think should be done in the USA with the cars?
     III. Письменно переведите абзацы 3, 4 на русский язык.
                                             Часть 2
                                     A Diesel Engine
      A diesel engine (also known as a compression-ignition engine and sometimes capitalized as
Diesel engine) is an internal combustion engine that uses the heat of compression to initiate
ignition to burn the fuel, which is injected into the combustion chamber during the final stage of
compression. This is in contrast to spark-ignition engines such as a petrol engine (gasoline
engine) or gas engine (using a gaseous fuel as opposed to gasoline), which uses a spark plug to
ignite an air-fuel mixture. The diesel engine is modeled on the Diesel cycle. The engine and
thermodynamic cycle were both developed by Rudolf Diesel in 1897.
      The diesel engine has the highest thermal efficiency of any regular internal or external
combustion engine due to its very high compression ratio. Low-speed diesel engines (as used in
ships and other applications where overall engine weight is relatively unimportant) often have a
thermal efficiency which exceeds 50 percent.
      Diesel engines are manufactured in two stroke and four stroke versions. They were
originally used as a more efficient replacement for stationary steam engines. Since the 1910s
they have been used in submarines and ships. Use in locomotives, large trucks and electric
generating plants followed later. In the 1930s, they slowly began to be used in a few
automobiles. Since the 1970s, the use of diesel engines in larger on-road and off-road vehicles in
the USA increased. As of 2007, about 50 percent of all new car sales in Europe are diesel.
      Diesel engines have several advantages over other internal combustion engines: they burn
less fuel than a petrol engine performing the same work, due to the engine's higher temperature
of combustion and greater expansion ratio. The life of a diesel engine is generally about twice as
long as that of a petrol engine. They generate less waste heat in cooling and exhaust. The low
vapor pressure of diesel is especially advantageous in marine applications, where the
accumulation of explosive fuel-air mixtures is a particular hazard.

     I. Переведите выделенные слова на русский язык. Переведите следующие слова
на английский язык. Выпишите из текста по одному предложению, в котором
употреблено данное слово. Переведите эти предложения на русский язык.
     дизельный двигатель –
     внутреннее сгорание –
     камера сгорания –
     бензин –
     тепловой кпд –
     превышать –
     паровой двигатель –
     продажи –
     выхлоп –
     морской –

     II. Письменно выполните перифраз четвертого абзаца.
     III. Поставьте к тексту пять вопросов разных типов.
                                            Часть 3
      I. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глагол в нужной форме
     1. He (to play) the guitar at the concert tomorrow evening.
     2. Why you (to decide) to become a writer?
     3. Mary (to break) her mother’s favourite vase.
     4.   Peter and Sasha (to watch) TV set at the moment.
     5.   My mother (to look) for her glasses at 7 p.m. yesterday?
     6.   What book you (to read) now?
     7.   He (not to play) chess every day.
     8.   He (to go) for a walk after dinner
     9.   I decided not to put on my raincoat as it (to stop) raining already and the sun (to shine)
          brightly.
      10.The performance already (to begin), and they (to have) to wait till the first act (to be)
          over.
      11.Nina never (to be) here before and she (to like) the theatre very much.
      12.My mother and sister (to talk) at 7 o’clock yesterday morning?
      13.My wish (to be) to become an artist, that is why I (to study) at the Arts Academy.
      14.We were greatly surprised not to find Ann at home. It turned out that her sister (to
          forget) to give her our message, and Ann (to leave) the house fifteen minutes before we
          (to come).
      15.I decided not to put on my raincoat as it (to stop) raining already and the sun (to shine)
          brightly.
      16.The performance already (to begin), and they (to have) to wait till the first act (to be)
          over.
      17.Listen! Somebody (to sing) in the next room.
      18.He (to play) the guitar at the concert tomorrow evening.
      19.When the teacher told the boy to recite the poem? The boy (to burst) into tears: he (not
          to remember), though he (to try) to learn his lesson so hard.
      20.I (to send) them the telegram and hoped that they (to meet) me.
      II. Переделайте предложения в активном залоге в предложения в
страдательном залоге.
Образец:
     Software Workshop hosts many fine sites. - Many fine sites are hosted by Software
Workshop.
    1. We must finish our work as soon as possible.
    2. Mary will have helped John.
    3. You ought to translate this article at once.
    4. Tom will deliver the mail.
    5. A team of famous scientists have made all observations.
    6. The hurricane has destroyed several houses last week.
    7. I've already bought a new computer.
    8. They grow cotton in Egypt.
    9. They were discussing a new plan when we came.
    10. She always does her work in the evening.
    11. I love my mother.
    12. A masked gunman shot him.
    13. I am watering my plants every day.
    14. Jack stole 100 dollars.
    15. The panda is eating shoots and leaves.
III. Поставьте глагол в правильной форме, согласно правилам согласования времен
  1. He spoke so fast that I ------------------- not follow him. (can)
  2. His health has improved since he -------------------- from the hills. (return)
  3. My sister (not to rest) now. She (to help) mother in the kitchen.
  4. It is necessary that he ------------------- us the documents. (to send)
  5. He has said that he ------------------- a letter. (to receive)
 6. Our Holy Books tell us that man ------------------ mortal. (to be)
 7. The teacher asked the boys whether they ------------------ the problems. (to solve)
 8. We have never discovered who --------------- it. (to do)
 9. He has said that he ------------------- a letter yesterday. (to receive)
 10. Our Holy Books tell us that man ------------------ mortal. (to be)
 11. He ------------------- once stronger than he ------------------ now. (to be/ to be)
 12. It ------------------- not so cold yesterday as it --------------- today. (to be/ to be)
 13. I am not satisfied with what I ---------------- (to do).
 14. I thought that she --------------- knew that he had taken the first place in the chess
     tournament. (to know)
 15. He refused to go to the theatre as he ------------------ an examination in English in a few
     days. (to have)
     IV. Переведите предложения на английский язык, определите тип условного
     предложения
Образец:
     Если бы я был Премьер Министром, я бы увеличил налог для богатых людей. – If I
were Prime Minister, I’d increase tax for rich people. ( II )
 1. Если бы у них были деньги, они бы купили новую машину?
 2. Если бы она знала ответ, то сказала бы нам.
 3. Если бы мы жили в России, мы бы быстро выучили русский язык.
 4. Если завтра будет хорошая погода, мы поедем за город.
 5. Я дам вам эту книгу при условии, что вы вернете ее на следующей неделе.
 6. Если я увижу его завтра, я спрошу его об этом.
 7. Вы могли бы застать его там, если бы зашли в шесть часов.
 8. Если бы я видела его вчера, я бы спросила его об этом.
 9. Если бы вы работали усерднее в прошлом году, вы бы теперь хорошо знали
     английский язык.
 10. Мы будем подписывать контракт, если нам будут предоставлены выгодные скидки.
 V. Переведите предложения на английский язык, обращая внимание на
 наклонение.
Образец:
  Управляющий вошел в офис, сел за письменный стол и начал просматривать утреннюю
  почту. – The manager entered the office, sat down at his desk, and began to look through the
  morning mail. (Indicative Mood)
   1. Уходи-ка ты!
   2. Не выбрасывайте ничего такого, что может пригодиться.
   3. Не прикидывайся невинной (овечкой).
   4. Если бы я был на вашем месте, я бы принял их предложение.
   5. Он говорил, как если бы он был специалистом по этому вопросу.
   6. Оденьтесь как можно теплее.
   7. Кто-нибудь, ответьте по телефону/возьмите трубку, пожалуйста!
   8. Ну, ты, убирайся!
   9. Как бы я хотел бы, чтобы он был с нами!
   10. Пусть Мария сходит за словарем.
                                         Часть 4
    Составьте резюме для устройства на работу
Variant 5

                                            Часть 1
                                          Seat-belts
       When a vehicle is involved in a crash it comes to an abrupt halt. If not restrained, the
bodies of the occupants will either be catapulted forward into the structure of the vehicle – most
likely into the steering wheel if they are driving, or into the back of the front seats if they are
back-seat passengers – or be ejected from the vehicle completely. Seat-belts are designed to help
keep people away from the vehicle structure or from serving as projectiles, and to distribute the
forces of a crash over the strongest parts of the human body, thereby causing the minimum
amount of damage to the body’s sot tissues.
      Failure to use a seat-belt is a major risk factor for road traffic deaths and injuries among
vehicle occupants. Passengers who were not wearing their seat-belts at the time of a collision
account for the majority of road traffic fatalities among this group. In addition, passengers who
do not wear seat-belts and have a frontal crash are most likely to suffer a head injury.
      Ejection from the vehicle is one of the most harmful events that can happen to a person in
a crash. Analysis of statistics from the United States from 2004 found that among crashes
involving a death, 21% of occupants who were killed had been completely ejected from the
vehicle. Seat-belts are effective in preventing total ejections: in fatal crashes, only 3% of the
occupants using restraints were totally ejected, compared with 37% of unrestrained occupants.
    Rates of seat-belt use vary greatly between countries, governed to a large extent by the type
of laws that require seat-belts to be fitted in vehicles and cars, and the laws requiring them to be
worn. Rates are also dependent on the degree to which these laws are enforced. In many low-
income countries there is no requirement for belts to be fitted or used, and rates of use are
therefore correspondingly low.
    The problem of enforcing seat-belt laws is exacerbated in the many parts of the world where
there exists a large but unregulated taxi industry.
    However, even in some high-income countries that do mandate seat-belt use, rates remain
low, particularly for passengers seated in the rear of the vehicle.
    Youth and seat-belts – compared with older drivers, young drivers and front-seat
passengers are less likely than older drivers and passengers to use seat-belts while in a moving
vehicle.
    In 2002, in the United States, more than 60% of the 5625 young adults aged 16 to 20 years
who were killed when riding in passenger vehicles were not wearing seat-belts. In particular,
young male drivers have been found to use seat-belts less than other groups, thus increasing
their risk of injury. This problem is made worse by the fact that young drivers are less likely to
use seat-belts in situations where there is a higher risk of a crash, such as late at night or when
they have been drinking.
    Young occupants are also at increased risk of being killed by ejection from a vehicle. The
North American studies mentioned above found that a higher proportion of occupant fatalities
among 16–20 year-olds – compared with the general population – were ejections, illustrating the
need to promote seat-belt use in this age group.

     I. Переведите выделенные слова на русский язык. Переведите следующие слова
на английский язык.
     транспортное средство –
     вынужденная остановка –
     рулевое колесо –
     повреждение –
     ремни безопасности –
     усугубляться –
     взрослые –
     риск –
     выбрасывание –
     возрастная группа –

     II. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту:
     1. What are seat-belts designed?
     2. What is a major risk factor for road traffic deaths and injuries among vehicle
         occupants?
     3. What is one of the most harmful events that can happen to a person in a crash?
     4. What are rates of seat-belt use dependent on?
     5. Who are less likely to use seat-belts while in a moving vehicle?
     6. Why are young occupants at increased risk of being killed by ejection from a vehicle?

     III. Письменно переведите абзацы 1, 2 на русский язык.
                                              Часть 2
                                 Manual Transmission
       A manual transmission, also known as a manual gearbox or standard transmission is a type
of transmission used in motor vehicle applications. It generally uses a driver-operated clutch,
typically operated by a pedal or lever, for regulating torque transfer from the internal combustion
engine to the transmission, and a gear stick, either operated by hand (as in a car) or by foot (as on
a motorcycle). A conventional manual transmission is frequently the base equipment in a car;
other options include automated transmissions such as an automatic transmission, a semi-
automatic transmission, or a continuously variable transmission (CVT).
      Manual transmissions often feature a driver-operated clutch and a movable gear stick. Most
automobile manual transmissions allow the driver to select any forward gear ratio "gear" at any
time, but some, such as those commonly mounted on motorcycles and some types of racing cars,
only allow the driver to select the next-higher or next-lower gear. This type of transmission is
sometimes called a sequential manual transmission. Sequential transmissions are commonly used
in auto racing for their ability to make quick shifts.
      Manual transmissions are characterized by gear ratios that are selectable by locking
selected gear pairs to the output shaft inside the transmission. Conversely, most automatic
transmissions feature epicyclic (planetary) gearing controlled by brake bands and/or clutch packs
to select gear ratio. Automatic transmissions that allow the driver to manually select the current
gear are called Manumatics. A manual-style transmission operated by computer is often called
an automated transmission rather than an automatic.
      Contemporary automobile manual transmissions typically use four to six forward gears and
one reverse gear, although automobile manual transmissions have been built with as few as two
and as many as eight gears. Transmission for heavy trucks and other heavy equipment usually
have at least 9 gears so the transmission can offer both a wide range of gears and close gear
ratios to keep the engine running in the power band. Some heavy vehicle transmissions have
dozens of gears, but many are duplicates, introduced as an accident of combining gear sets, or
introduced to simplify shifting. Some manuals are referred to by the number of forward gears
they offer (e.g., 5-speed) as a way of distinguishing between automatic or other available manual
transmissions. Similarly, a 5-speed automatic transmission is referred to as a "5-speed
automatic."

     I. Переведите выделенные слова на русский язык. Переведите следующие слова
на английский язык. Выпишите из текста по одному предложению, в котором
употреблено данное слово. Переведите эти предложения на русский язык.
      передача –
     коробка передач –
     рычаг переключения передач –
     ручной –
     гоночная машина –
     переключение –
     задний ход –
     грузовик –
     авария –
     доступный –

     II. Письменно выполните перифраз второго абзаца.
     III. Поставьте к тексту пять вопросов разных типов.
                                           Часть 3
     I. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глагол в нужной форме
     1. I (to come) home at 5 o’clock tomorrow.
     2. It (to be) cold in autumn. It often (to rain).
     3. He (not to go) to the library tomorrow evening.
     4. I (to send) them the telegram and hoped that they (to meet) me.
     5. His wish (to come) true, he (to become) a famous singer.
     6. His wish (to be) to become a scientist.
     7. My father (to work) every day, but today he (not to work).
     8. At 5 o’clock last week she (to learn) to drive the car.
     9. As I (to discover) later, they (to receive) it ten minutes before the train arrived and
         could not meet me.
     10. I did not recognize Helen as I (not to see) her for a very long time and she greatly (to
         change).
     11. Nick (to do) his homework now, because he (to go) to school tomorrow.
     12. The weather (to be) bad yesterday. It (to be) raining all the time.
     13. My sister (to eat) sweets every day.
     14. When the train (to stop), I (to look) out of the window but (not to see) any of my
         friends there.
     15. As I (to discover) later, they (to receive) it ten minutes before the train arrived and
         could not meet me.
     16. Diana never (to be) here before and she (to like) the theatre very much.
     17. At 3 o’clock yesterday he (to look) out of the window.
     18. His sister (to bring) a kitten last week.
     19. Why you (to decide) to become a writer?
     20. You (to be) a doctor after finishing university?
     II. Переделайте предложения в активном залоге в предложения в
     страдательном залоге.
Образец:
    Software Workshop hosts many fine sites. - Many fine sites are hosted by Software
Workshop.
   1. Kathy chose James to be her assistant.
   2. Software Workshop hosted many fine sites.
   3. They asked us to be there at eight o’clock.
   4. Mary caught the ball.
   5. The children of Sparta got a military education.
   6. They will complete the experiments by the end of this week.
   7. She looked after her little sister when her mother was at work.
   8. Mary had helped John before Mother came.
   9. Richard threw a stone.
   10. They offered me a chair.
   11. I am sure they will offer you a very interesting job.
   12. They recommended me several articles on that problem.
   13. Someone taught him French and gave him a dictionary.
   14. A masked gunman shot him.
   15. I am watering my plants every day.
   III. Поставьте глагол в правильной форме, согласно правилам согласования
   времен
    1. Renee ------------ had washed the car when George arrived. (to wash)
    2. The teacher told the children that water -------------- at 100 degrees centigrade. (to boil)
    3. He refused to go to the theatre as he ------------------ an examination in English in a few
         days. (to have)
    4. He ------------------- once stronger than he ------------------ now. (to be/ to be)
    5. It ------------------- not so cold yesterday as it --------------- today. (to be/ to be)
    6. It is necessary that he ------------------- us the documents. (to send)
    7. I am not satisfied with what I ---------------- (to do).
    8. We have never discovered who --------------- it. (to do)
    9. He has said that he ------------------- a letter yesterday. (to receive)
    10. She ------------------ since she graduated from college. (to teach)
     11. She went for a walk in the park when the weather ----------------- good.
     12. The surgeon who was going to perform the operation ---------------- ill yesterday. (to
     fall)
     13. Yesterday the patient ---------------- better than he ------------------ today. (to feel/to feel)
     14. By the time he returned, I --------------- ten pages of the report. (to type)
    15. When we (to come) to the station, our train already (to leave), and we (to have) to wait
      for two hours before another one (to come).
    IV. Переведите предложения на английский язык, определите тип условного
    предложения
Образец:
   Мы бы подписали контракт, если бы нам дали хорошую скидку. – We would have
   signed the contract if they had given us a good discount. (условное предложение III типа)
   1. Если я пойду за покупками, я куплю газету.
   2. Если бы я был в Вашингтоне, я бы увидел Белый Дом.
   3. Если бы я видела его вчера, я бы спросила его об этом.
   4. Что бы ты делал, если бы увидел приведение?
   5. Если бы я жил во дворце, у меня бы ли бы слуги, которые бы обслуживали меня.
   6. Если бы я был богат, я бы отправился в кругосветное путешествие.
   7. Что бы ты делал, если бы твой ребенок свалился в воду?
   8. Если я не буду много гулять, я смогу больше поработать.
   9. Вечером, когда я приду домой, я приму ванну.
   10. Если на выходных будет дождь, я останусь дома.
  V. Переведите предложения на английский язык, обращая внимание на
   наклонение.
Образец:
  Управляющий вошел в офис, сел за письменный стол и начал просматривать утреннюю
  почту. – The manager entered the office, sat down at his desk, and began to look through the
  morning mail. (Indicative Mood)
   1. Он сказал, что он уже сдаст экзамены к первому июля.
   2. Смотрите, не захлопните дверь при выходе.
   3. Прекратите же драться, ребята!
 4. Всем расслабиться!
 5. Прошлой зимой я проводил много времени в библиотеке.
 6. Если бы мы так много знали о ней, мы бы знали и о Монике.
 7. Мы переведем статью к пяти часам.
 8. Я сказал, что уже напишу письмо к пяти часам.
 9. Желательно, чтобы он был здесь в пять часов.
 10. Было необходимо, чтобы они приняли меры немедленно.
                                    Часть 4
Составьте резюме для устройства на работу.
Variant 6

                                             Часть 1
                                          Car safety
       Many modern cars have steering columns which will collapse under the weight of the
driver rather than impale him. Improvements have been made in windscreen materials. Both
toughened glass and laminated "high penetration resistant" glass reduce the number and extent
of disfiguring injures. The possibility of injury can also be reduced by replacing all sharp edges
inside the car by rounded edges and padded surfaces.
      The most effective way of reducing injures inside the car is to hold people firmly in their
seats. Throughout the period of impact and deceleration various passive restraint systems have
been developed. A few years ago it was thought that air bags would provide the answer. These
would inflate on impact and pin the occupants of the car to their seats. Although many
thousands of cars were equipped with air bags in the USA, opinion is turning them. They are
expensive and, it is alleged, cannot be relied upon to inflate on impact, especially if they have
been in the car for several months.
      The most acceptable way of holding people in their seats is by using ordinary seat belts.
Expert opinion overwhelmingly believes that seat belts save lives and reduce the severity of
injures. Modern seat belts are comfortable and easy to use. It is compulsory to wear seat belts at
least some of the time in all the EFC expect Britain and Italy. Everyone who drives a car can
contribute to road safety by taking care of their car maintenance and by driving with care. We
can all improve our own chances of survival by always wearing a seat belt when we are in a car.

     I. Переведите выделенные слова на русский язык. Переведите следующие слова
на английский язык.
      подушка безопасности –
      автомобиль –
      приемлемый –
      обязательный –
      надуваться –
      повреждения –
      ремень безопасности –
      полагаться на –
      мнение –
      оборудован –

     II. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту.
     1. What improvements have been made in cars?
     2. How can the possibility of injury be reduced?
     3. What is the most effective way of reducing injures inside the car nowadays?
     4. What was the opinion about air bags and what is the opinion about air bags nowadays?
     5. How can and should everyone who drives a car contribute to road safety?
     6. What countries is not it compulsory to wear seat belts?

     III. Письменно переведите абзацы 2, 3 на русский язык.
                                             Часть 2
                          A semi-automatic transmission
     A semi-automatic transmission is one that cannot change gears automatically but only half-
automatically. ("Semi" meaning half in Latin.) This requires the driver to intervene in order to
execute a gear change by moving a gear lever or pressing a clutch pedal or actuating a switch
lever or other action. An automated transmission (also known as self-changing transmission,
clutchless manual transmission, automated manual transmission, flappy-paddle gearbox, or
paddle shift gearbox) is a system which uses electronic sensors, pneumatics, processors and
actuators to execute gear shifts on the command of the driver or by a computer. This removes the
need for a clutch pedal which the driver otherwise needs to depress before making a gear change,
since the clutch itself is actuated by electronic equipment which can synchronise the timing and
torque required to make gear shifts quick and smooth. The system was designed by automobile
manufacturers to provide a better driving experience, especially in cities where congestion
frequently causes stop-and-go traffic patterns.
      Many modern automated transmissions can also operate in the same manner as a
conventional type of automatic transmission by allowing the transmission's computer to
automatically change gear if, for example, the driver were redlining the engine. The ability to
shift gears manually, often via paddle shifters, can also be found on certain automatic
transmissions (manumatics such as Tiptronic) and continuous variable transmissions (CVTs)
(such as Lineartronic). Despite superficial similarity to other automated transmissions,
automated transmissions differ significantly in internal operation and driver's "feel" from
manumatics and CVTs. A manumatic, like a standard automatic transmission, uses a torque
converter instead of clutch to manage the link between the transmission and the engine, while a
CVT uses a belt instead of a fixed number of gears.
      The automated transmission may be derived from a conventional automatic; for instance
Mercedes-Benz's AMG SPEEDSHIFT MCT automated transmission is based on the 7G-Tronic
manumatic, however the latter's torque converter has been replaced with a wet, multi-plate
launch clutch. Other automateds have their roots in a conventional manual; the SMG II drive
logic (found in the BMW M3 (E46) is a Getrag 6-speed manual transmission, but with an
electro-hydraulically actuated clutch pedal, similar to a Formula One style transmission.

     I. Переведите выделенные слова на русский язык. Переведите следующие слова
на английский язык. Выпишите из текста по одному предложению, в котором
употреблено данное слово. Переведите эти предложения на русский язык.
     передача –
     рычаг переключения передач –
     механическая трансмиссия –
     коробка передач –
     электронный датчик –
     привод –
     затор –
     переключать скорости –
     с ручным и автоматическим управлением –
     похожий –

     II. Письменно выполните перифраз второго абзаца.
     III. Поставьте к тексту пять вопросов разных типов.
                                           Часть 3
      I. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глагол в нужной форме
     1. At 5 o’clock yesterday they (to watch) the film.
     2. Where she (to go) tomorrow evening?
     3. – What you (to do) here yesterday the whole evening?
          – We (to listen) to the tape-recorder.
     4. My mother (to be) a teacher, but she (to be) on pension now.
     5.   As a rule, she (to get up) at 7 o’clock, but today she (to get up) very early.
     6.   I (to go) to the seaside tomorrow. You (to go) with me?
     7.   Look! Mary (to dance). She (to dance) every day at 8 o’clock in the morning.
     8.   Mary (not to go) to the cinema every Sunday.
     9.   I did not recognize Helen as I (not to see) her for a very long time and she greatly (to
          change).
     10. I (to go) to Paris last year.
     11. I (to want) to get the higher education. It (to be) easy?
     12. When the train (to stop), I (to look) out of the window but (not to see) any of my
          friends there.
     13. As I (to discover) later, they (to receive) it ten minutes before the train arrived and
          could not meet me.
     14. We were greatly surprised not to find Ann at home. It turned out that her sister (to
          forget) to give her our message, and Ann (to leave) the house fifteen minutes before we
          (to come).
     15. I (to read) books in the evening.
     16. I (to write) an exercise now.
     17. Who that man (to be) who (to stand) in the doorway?
     18. Nobody (to want) to play tennis.
     19. He (not to wash) the dishes now. He (to play) in the yard.
     20. When the teacher told the boy to recite the poem? The boy (to burst) into tears: he (not
          to remember), though he (to try) to learn his lesson so hard.
     II. Переделайте предложения в активном залоге в предложения в
     страдательном залоге.
Образец:
    Software Workshop hosts many fine sites. - Many fine sites are hosted by Software
Workshop.
   1. I am sure they will offer you a very interesting job.
   2. Mother cooked the dinner.
   3. We bought this book yesterday
   4. Mary had helped John before Mother came.
   5. Richard threw a stone.
   6. They offered me a chair.
   7. I am sure they will offer you a very interesting job.
   8. They recommended me several articles on that problem.
   9. Someone taught him French and gave him a dictionary.
   10. A masked gunman shot him.
   11. I am watering my plants every day.
   12. Yablochkov invented the electric lamp.
   13. They have promised me some books on this problem.
   14. A passer-by showed us the way to Trafalgar square.
   15. They sent you the invitation last week.
   III. Поставьте глагол в правильной форме, согласно правилам согласования
   времен
    1. The teacher told the children that water -------------- at 100 degrees centigrade. (to boil)
    2. Our Holy Books tell us that man ------------------ mortal. (to be)
    3. He spoke so fast that I ------------------- not follow him. (can)
    4. I thought that she --------------- knew that he had taken the first place in the chess
         tournament. (to know)
    5. John sold vegetables that he --------------- . (to raise)
    6. His health has improved since he -------------------- from the hills. (return)
    7. Who told you that goats ----------------- on grass? (to live)
    8. He said that he -------------------- not believe it even if he saw it with his own eyes.
     (would)
    9. Yesterday the patient ---------------- better than he ------------------ today. (to feel/to feel)
    10. By the time he returned, I --------------- ten pages of the report. (to type)
    11. The surgeon who was going to perform the operation ---------------- ill yesterday. (to
     fall)
     12. While I ------------------- TV, the telephone rang. (to watch)
     13. She goes for a walk in the park when the weather --------------- good. (to be)
     14. John ------------- vegetables and later sold them. (to raise)
     15. Peter ------------ had washed the car when George arrived. (to wash)
     IV. Переведите предложения на английский язык, определите тип условного
     предложения
Образец:
     Если бы я был Премьер Министром, я бы увеличил налог для богатых людей. – If I
were Prime Minister, I’d increase tax for rich people. ( II )
   1. Если я не буду много гулять, я смогу больше поработать.
   2. Вечером, когда я приду домой, я приму ванну.
   3. Если бы я видела его вчера, я бы спросила его об этом.
   4. Если бы я жил во дворце, у меня бы ли бы слуги, которые бы обслуживали меня.
   5. Если бы я был богат, я бы отправился в кругосветное путешествие.
   6. Что бы ты делал, если бы твой ребенок свалился в воду?
   7. Он бы не простудился, если бы надел теплое пальто.
   8. Мы были бы благодарны, если бы Вы были любезны прислать нам Ваш каталог
        дизелей.
   9. Я дам вам эту книгу при условии, что вы вернете ее на следующей неделе.
   10. Если бы ваши указания были получены десять дней тому назад, товар был бы
        отгружен вчера пароходом «Свирь».
   V. Переведите предложения на английский язык, обращая внимание на
    наклонение.
Образец:
  Управляющий вошел в офис, сел за письменный стол и начал просматривать утреннюю
  почту. – The manager entered the office, sat down at his desk, and began to look through the
  morning mail. (Indicative Mood)
   1. Вы работали в этом институте с 2000?
   2. Я думаю, что так много любви могло бы вас убить.
   3. Берегите себя, пожалуйста.
   4. Он предложил, чтобы вопрос был обсужден на следующем собрании.
   5. Не ждите.
   6. Он живет в Москве пять лет.
   7. Они покрыли товары брезентом, чтобы они не были повреждены дождем.
   8. Непременно приходите к нам сегодня вечером.
   9. Как бы я хотел бы, чтобы он был с нами!
   10. Пусть Евгений сходит за учебником.
                                              Часть 4
    Составьте резюме для устройства на работу.
Variant 7
                                             Часть 1
                 The importance of emergency medical services
    Many initiatives for cutting the volume of road traffic injuries focus on preventing crashes
and on stopping their consequences from occurring. Much, though, can be done to reduce the
deaths and injuries that occur as a result of road traffic crashes by strengthening a country’s
emergency medical services – not only for children and young people, but for all road traffic
victims. This includes pre-hospital care, hospital care and rehabilitation.
    Pre-hospital care. At the scene of the crash, prompt high-quality pre-hospital care can save
many lives after a road traffic crash has occurred. In places where formal emergency medical
services exist, usually with ambulances, they are most effective if their equipment, training,
infrastructure and operations are standardized. These vehicles need to be equipped with supplies
and medical devices for children as well as for adults, e.g. airway tubes, cervical collars, blood
pressure cuffs, etc. In addition, staff need to be trained on how to evaluate and manage injured
children who are not “just little adults” - what is normal in an adult may not necessarily be
normal in a child and vice versa.
    Where no pre-hospital trauma care system exists, the first and most basic tier of a system can
be established by teaching interested community members basic first aid techniques. In many
countries, organizations like the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent
Societies or St John’s Ambulance teach young, interested members of a community how to
recognize an emergency, call for help and provide basic first aid until formally trained health-
care personnel arrive to give additional care.
    Starting a new emergency medical service can be a reasonable step, especially along busy
roads with high crash rates. However, these services can be costly. In all cases, and especially
in those where there are no formal emergency medical services, pre-hospital care can be
improved by building upon existing, even if informal, systems of pre-hospital care and transport.
    Hospital care. The moment that an injured child enters the hospital is another point at which
lives can be saved. Improving the organization and planning of trauma care services is an
affordable and sustainable way to raising the quality and outcome of care. This includes
improving the human resources that are required to provide this care – including skills, training
and staffing – and the physical resources, such as the equipment and supplies needed for the
services. Although the essential elements of trauma care need not be expensive, the cost of care
can be a barrier to access, especially when user fees are required in advance of services in
emergency situations.
    Rehabilitation. Finally, many injured survivors of traffic crashes lead lives of disability.
Much of this disability, particularly among youth, could be avoided with improved rehabilitation
services. This includes improved services in health care facilities and improved access to
community-based rehabilitation. Strengthening such rehabilitation services globally is needed to
help minimize the extent of disability after injury and to help those with persistent disabilities
achieve their highest potential, leading full and meaningful lives.

     I. Переведите выделенные слова на русский язык. Переведите следующие слова
на английский язык.
   количество –
   снизить –
   авария –
   доврачебная помощь –
   высококвалифицированный –
   манжетка для измерения кровяного давления –
   непредвиденный случай, крайняя необходимость –
   персонал, трудовые ресурсы –
   взнос –
   нетрудоспособность –

     II. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту:
     1. What can be done to reduce the deaths and injuries that occur as a result of road traffic
         crashes?
     2. What need vehicles with ambulances to be equipped with?
     3. Why need staff to be trained on how to evaluate and manage injured children?
     4. What can the first and most basic tier of a system, where no pre-hospital trauma care
         system exists be established?
     5. What is an affordable and sustainable way to raising the quality and outcome of
         hospital care? What does it include?
     6. How can disability be avoided?

     III. Письменно переведите абзацы 2, 3 на русский язык.
                                              Часть 2
                                          The Clutch
        A clutch is a mechanical device which provides for the transmission of power (and
therefore usually motion) from one component (the driving member) to another (the driven
member). The opposite component of the clutch is the brake. Clutches are used whenever the
ability to limit the transmission of power or motion needs to be controlled either in amount or
over time (e.g. electric screwdrivers limit how much torque is transmitted through use of a
clutch; clutches control whether automobiles transmit engine power to the wheels).
        In the simplest application clutches are employed in devices which have two rotating
shafts. In these devices one shaft is typically attached to a motor or other power unit (the driving
member) while the other shaft (the driven member) provides output power for work to be done.
In a drill for instance, one shaft is driven by a motor and the other drives a drill chuck. The
clutch connects the two shafts so that they may be locked together and spin at the same speed
(engaged), locked together but spinning at different speeds (slipping), or unlocked and spinning
at different speeds (disengaged).
       Modern clutches typically use a compound organic resin with copper wire facing or a
ceramic material. A typical coefficient of friction used on a friction disc surface is 0.35ų for
organic and 0.25ų for ceramic. Ceramic materials are typically used in heavy applications such
as trucks carrying large loads or racing, though the harder ceramic materials increase flywheel
and pressure plate wear.
        In a modern car with a manual transmission the clutch is operated by the left-most pedal
using a hydraulic or cable connection from the pedal to the clutch mechanism. On older cars the
clutch might be operated by a mechanical linkage. Even though the clutch may physically be
located very close to the pedal, such remote means of actuation are necessary to eliminate the
effect of vibrations and slight engine movement, engine mountings being flexible by design.
With a rigid mechanical linkage, smooth engagement would be near-impossible because engine
movement inevitably occurs as the drive is "taken up." No pressure on the pedal means that the
clutch plates are engaged (driving), while pressing the pedal disengages the clutch plates,
allowing the driver to shift gears or coast.

     I. Переведите выделенные слова на русский язык. Переведите следующие слова
на английский язык. Выпишите из текста по одному предложению, в котором
употреблено данное слово. Переведите эти предложения на русский язык.
     сцепление –
     движение –
     ограничить –
     вращающий момент –
     колеса –
     блок питания –
     скорость –
     медь –
     маховое колесо –
     жёсткий –

     II. Письменно выполните перифраз четвертого абзаца.
     III. Поставьте к тексту пять вопросов разных типов.
                                            Часть 3
      I. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глагол в нужной форме.
     1. He (to go) to the theatre tomorrow.
     2. Look! Kate (to go) to school.
     3. My mother (to work) at the factory.
     4. You (to work) at the office?
     5. The weather (to be) bad yesterday. It (to be) raining all the time.
     6. I (to come) home at 5 o’clock tomorrow.
     7. He (not to go) to the library tomorrow evening.
     8. I (to send) them the telegram and hoped that they (to meet) me.
     9. Look! The cat (to play) with its tail.
     10. I decided not to put on my raincoat as it (to stop) raining already and the sun (to shine)
          brightly.
     11. The performance already (to begin), and they (to have) to wait till the first act (to be)
     over.
     12. Nina never (to be) here before and she (to like) the theatre very much.
     13. When we (to come) to the station, our train already (to leave), and we (to have) to wait
          for two hours before another one (to come).
     14. Nobody (to want) to play tennis.
     15. His sister (to bring) a kitten last week.
     16. As I (to discover) later, they (to receive) it ten minutes before the train arrived and
          could not meet me.
     17. At 3 o’clock yesterday he (to look) out of the window.
     18. Her husband (to bring) me a cake last week.
     19. Why you (to decide) to become a writer?
     20. You (to read) books every day?
     II. Переделайте предложения в активном залоге в предложения в
     страдательном залоге.
Образец:
     The stone broke the window. - The window was broken by the stone.
   1. She looked after her little sister when her mother was at work.
   2. Mary had helped John before Mother came.
   3. Richard threw a stone.
   4. They offered me a chair.
   5. I am sure they will offer you a very interesting job.
   6. They recommended me several articles on that problem.
   7. Someone taught him French and gave him a dictionary.
   8. A masked gunman shot him.
   9. I am watering my plants every day.
   10. Yablochkov invented the electric lamp.
   11. They have promised me some books on this problem.
   12. A passer-by showed us the way to Trafalgar square.
   13. They sent you the invitation last week.
   14. I am sure they will offer you a very interesting job.
   15. They recommended me several articles on that problem.
   III. Поставьте глагол в правильной форме, согласно правилам согласования
   времен
       1. Our Holy Books tell us that man ------------------ mortal. (to be)
       2. The teacher asked the boys whether they ------------------ the problems. (to solve)
       3. He spoke so fast that I ------------------- not follow him. (can)
       4. His health has improved since he -------------------- from the hills. (return)
       5. He kept quite that he --------------------- please me. (may)
       6. Who told you that goats ----------------- on grass? (to live)
       7. He said that he -------------------- not believe it even if he saw it with his own eyes.
       (would)
       8. She ------------------ since she graduated from college. (to teach)
       9. She went for a walk in the park when the weather ----------------- good.
       10. Yesterday the patient ---------------- better than he ------------------ today. (to feel/to
       feel)
       11. By the time he returned, I --------------- ten pages of the report. (to type)
       12. The surgeon who was going to perform the operation ---------------- ill yesterday. (to
       fall)
       13. While I ------------------- TV, the telephone rang. (to watch)
       14. She goes for a walk in the park when the weather --------------- good. (to be)
       15. John ------------- vegetables and later sold them. (to raise)
     IV. Переведите предложения на английский язык, определите тип условного
     предложения
Образец:
     Если бы я был Премьер Министром, я бы увеличил налог для богатых людей. – If I
were Prime Minister, I’d increase tax for rich people. ( II )
  1. Если бы я был президентом, я бы не стоял в пробках.
  2. Они могли бы застать его там, если бы зашли после восьми часов.
  3. Если бы я видела его вчера, я бы спросила его об этом.
  4. Если бы Элеонора знала адрес гражданина Чернова, она бы посетила его во время
      своего визита в Минск.
  5. Если Стив придет, покажите ему этот доклад.
  6. Если бы у моего брата было время сейчас, он бы помог им.
  7. Он мог бы это сделать, если бы попытался.
  8. Если бы вы работали усерднее в прошлом году, вы бы теперь хорошо знали
      английский язык.
  9. Мы будем подписывать контракт, если нам будут предоставлены выгодные скидки.
  10. Если бы я была принцессой, я бы жила во дворце.
  V. Переведите предложения на английский язык, обращая внимание на
   наклонение.
Образец:
  Управляющий вошел в офис, сел за письменный стол и начал просматривать утреннюю
  почту. – The manager entered the office, sat down at his desk, and began to look through the
  morning mail. (Indicative Mood)
   1. Я бы желал, чтобы они совсем не приходили. (Как жаль, что они пришли).
   2. Прошлой зимой я проводил много времени в библиотеке.
 3. Если бы мы так много знали о ней, мы бы знали и о Монике.
 4. Я сказал, что уже напишу письмо к пяти часам.
 5. Желательно, чтобы он был здесь в пять часов.
 6. Смотрите, не захлопните дверь при выходе.
 7. Было необходимо, чтобы они приняли меры немедленно.
 8. Мы переведем статью к пяти часам.
 9. Прекратите же драться, ребята!
 10. Всем расслабиться!
                                    Часть 4
Составьте резюме для устройства на работу.
Variant 8
                                              Часть 1
                                             A Rotor
     A rotor is mounted on top the distributor shaft, and is connected by wire to the secondary
winding of the coil. As the distributor shaft revolves, the rotor becomes similar to a rotary switch
and directs the current to contact points embedded in the distributor cap. Each contact point is
wired to a spark plug. As the rotor revolves it passes close to, but does not touch, the contact
points. Current flows to each spark plug as the rotor passes close to the contact point to which it
is connected. The current is interrupted by the breaker points as the rotor revolves past the
contact point. As in the single cylinder engine the breaker points are “timed” to separate when
each piston reaches the top of the compression stroke.
     The importance of the ignition system cannot be overestimated. It must provide a spark that
is “hot” enough to ignite the fuel-air mixture, and must be delivered to the combustion chamber
at exactly the right moment if the engine is to operate efficiently.
     An eight cylinder engine operating at 4,000 r.p.m. must produce and deliver to the right
plugs 16,000 sparks every minute. This engine will produce approximately 12,500 sparks of 15
to 25,000 volts every mile, amounting to more than 200 sparks per second, or 1 every 005 of a
second. For every thousand mile the breaker points open and close approximately 12,500,000
times.
    The brake rotor, sometimes called a brake disc, is a key part of the brake assembly sub
system of the car. The rotor is a disc that is usually made of metal though you can also find
composite carbon and ceramic brake rotors. There are several types of brake rotors that are
available. They are designed for different usage conditions. Two such special rotors are slotted
rotors and cross drilled rotors.

     I. Переведите выделенные слова на русский язык. Переведите следующие слова
на английский язык.
      ротор –
      валик распределителя зажигания –
      поворотный переключатель –
      крышка распределителя системы зажигания –
      точка контакта –
      система зажигания –
      двигатель –
      искра –
      тормозной диск –
      щелевые роторы –

     II. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту:
     1. What function does rotor perform?
     2. What types of rotors do exist?
     3. What is the role of ignition system?
     4. What is the difference between slotted and drilled rotors?
     5. How many times do the breaker points open for every thousand mile?
     6. What does the rotor disc is made of?

     III. Письменно переведите абзацы 2, 3 на русский язык.
                                              Часть 2
                                         Arc welding
      Arc welding is a type of welding that uses a welding power supply to create an electric arc
between an electrode and the base material to melt the metals at the welding point. They can use
either direct (DC) or alternating (AC) current, and consumable or non-consumable electrodes.
The welding region is sometimes protected by some type of inert or semi-inert gas, known as a
shielding gas, and/or an evaporating filler material. The process of arc welding is widely used
because of its low capital and running costs. Getting the arc started is called striking the arc. An
arc may be struck by either lightly tapping the electrode against the metal or scratching the
electrode against the metal at high speed.
      While examples of forge welding go back to the Bronze Age and the Iron Age, arc welding
did not come into practice until much later. In 1802, Vasily Petrov discovered the continuous
electric arc and subsequently proposed its possible practical applications, including welding. In
1881-82 a Russian inventor Nikolai Bernardos created the first electric arc welding method
known as carbon arc welding, using carbon electrodes. The advances in arc welding continued
with the invention of metal electrodes in the late 19th century by a Russian, Nikolai Slavyanov
(1888), and an American, C. L. Coffin.
      During World War I welding started to be used in shipbuilding in Great Britain in place of
riveted steel plates. The Americans also became more accepting of the new technology when the
process allowed them to repair their ships quickly after a German attack in the New York
Harbor at the beginning of the war. Arc welding was first applied to aircraft during the war as
well, and some German airplane fuselages were constructed using this process. In 1919, the
British shipbuilder Cammell Laird started construction of merchant ship, the Fullagar, with an
entirely welded hull; she was launched in 1921.
     Shielding gas became a subject receiving much attention as scientists attempted to protect
welds from the effects of oxygen and nitrogen in the atmosphere. Porosity and brittleness were
the primary problems and the solutions that developed included the use of hydrogen, argon, and
helium as welding atmospheres. In 1957, the flux-cored arc welding process debuted in which
the self-shielded wire electrode could be used with automatic equipment, resulting in greatly
increased welding speeds. In that same year, plasma arc welding was invented. Electroslag
welding was released in 1958 and was followed by its cousin, electro-gas welding, in 1961.

     I. Переведите выделенные слова на русский язык. Переведите следующие слова
на английский язык. Выпишите из текста по одному предложению, в котором
употреблено данное слово. Переведите эти предложения на русский язык.
     электродуговая сварка –
     расходуемый электрод –
     защитный газ –
     бронзовый век –
     угольный электрод –
     кораблестроение –
     азот –
     хрупкость –
     дуговая сварка трубчатым электродом –
     электрогазовый –

     II. Письменно выполните перифраз третьего абзаца.
     III. Поставьте к тексту пять вопросов разных типов.
                                             Часть 3
      I. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глагол в нужной форме.
     1. It (to be) cold in autumn. It often (to rain).
     2. Listen! Somebody (to sing) in the next room.
     3. I (to go) to Paris last year.
     4. At 7 o’clock yesterday he (to look) out of the window.
     5. His wish (to come) true, he (to become) a famous singer.
     6. When the train (to stop), I (to look) out of the window but (not to see) any of my
        friends there.
    7. We were greatly surprised not to find Ann at home. It turned out that her sister (to
        forget) to give her our message, and Ann (to leave) the house fifteen minutes before we
        (to come).
    8. I decided not to put on my raincoat as it (to stop) raining already and the sun (to shine)
        brightly.
    9. The performance already (to begin), and they (to have) to wait till the first act (to be)
        over.
    10. Lina never (to be) here before and she (to like) the theatre very much.
    11. I did not recognize Helen as I (not to see) her for a very long time and she greatly (to
        change).
    12. When the teacher told the boy to recite the poem? The boy (to burst) into tears: he (not
        to remember), though he (to try) to learn his lesson so hard.
    13. His wish (to be) to become a scientist.
    14. My father (to work) every day, but today he (not to work).
    15. At 5 o’clock last week she (to learn) to drive the car.
    16. What your sister (to do) tomorrow?
    17. I (not to go) to the shop yesterday. I (to go) to the shop tomorrow.
    18. He (to go) to the theatre tomorrow.
    19. Look! Kate (to go) to school.
    20. He (to play) the guitar at the concert tomorrow evening.
    II. Переделайте предложения в активном залоге в предложения в
    страдательном залоге.
Образец:
   Software Workshop hosts many fine sites. - Many fine sites are hosted by Software
Workshop.
    1. A passer-by showed us the way to Trafalgar square.
    2. They sent you the invitation last week.
    3. I am sure they will offer you a very interesting job.
    4. They recommended me several articles on that problem.
    5. Someone taught him French and gave him a dictionary.
    6. They have just shown me a new magazine.
    7. Mother promised the boy a new toy.
    8. Nobody has told me the news yet.
    9. They asked us to be there at eight o’clock.
    10. Mary caught the ball.
    11. She learned the poem.
    12. They recommended me several articles on that problem.
    13. Someone taught him French and gave him a dictionary.
    14. A masked gunman shot him.
    15. I am watering my plants every day.
    III. Поставьте глагол в правильной форме, согласно правилам согласования
    времен
    1. I am not satisfied with what I ---------------- (to do).
    2. We have never discovered who --------------- it. (to do)
      3.    He refused to go to the theatre as he ------------------ an examination in English in a few
           days. (to have)
       4. The teacher asked the boys whether they ------------------ the problems. (to solve)
       5. He spoke so fast that I ------------------- not follow him. (can)
       6. His health has improved since he -------------------- from the hills. (return)
       7. He ------------------- once stronger than he ------------------ now. (to be/ to be)
       8. He kept quite that he --------------------- please me. (may)
       9. Who told you that goats ----------------- on grass? (to live)
       10. He said that he -------------------- not believe it even if he saw it with his own eyes.
(would)
       11. She ------------------ since she graduated from college. (to teach)
       12. Yesterday the patient ---------------- better than he ------------------ today. (to feel/to feel)
       13. By the time he returned, I --------------- ten pages of the report. (to type)
       14. The surgeon who was going to perform the operation ---------------- ill yesterday. (to
fall)
       15. She went for a walk in the park when the weather ----------------- good.
       IV. Переведите предложения на английский язык, определите тип условного
       предложения
Образец:
       Если бы я был Премьер Министром, я бы увеличил налог для богатых людей. – If I
were Prime Minister, I’d increase tax for rich people. ( II )
     1. Если вы его увидите, попросите его позвонить мне по телефону.
     2. Если бы я увидел его завтра, я бы спросил у него об этом.
     3. Он не окончит работу вовремя, если не будет усердно работать.
     4. Если бы ваши указания были получены десять дней тому назад, товар был бы
     отгружен вчера пароходом «Свирь».
     5. Он бы не простудился, если бы надел теплое пальто.
     6. Мы были бы благодарны, если бы Вы были любезны прислать нам Ваш каталог
     дизелей.
     7. Если я выиграю 1000000$, я не стану их тратить сразу.
     8. Если бы ваши указания были получены десять дней тому назад, товар был бы
     отгружен вчера пароходом «Свирь».
     9. Если завтра будет хорошая погода, мы поедем за город.
     10. Я дам вам эту книгу при условии, что вы вернете ее на следующей неделе.
    V. Переведите предложения на английский язык, обращая внимание на
     наклонение.
Образец:
    Управляющий вошел в офис, сел за письменный стол и начал просматривать утреннюю
    почту. – The manager entered the office, sat down at his desk, and began to look through the
    morning mail. (Indicative Mood)
     1. Если бы мы так много знали о ней, мы бы знали и о Монике.
     2. Я сказал, что уже напишу письмо к пяти часам.
     3. Желательно, чтобы он был здесь в пять часов.
     4. Смотрите, не захлопните дверь при выходе.
     5. Было необходимо, чтобы они приняли меры немедленно.
     6. Мы переведем статью к пяти часам.
     7. Он сказал, что он уже сдаст экзамены к первому июля.
     8. Необходимо, чтобы вы сделали это задание в устной форме.
     9. Кто-нибудь, ответьте по телефону/возьмите трубку, пожалуйста!
     10. Он посмотрел на меня так, как будто бы не узнал меня.
                                                Часть 4
  Составьте резюме для устройства на работу.
Variant 9
                                              Часть 1
                                 The four stroke engine
      The four stroke engine was first demonstrated by Nikolaus Otto in 18761, hence it is also
known as the Otto cycle. The technically correct term is actually four stroke cycle. The four
stroke engine is probably the most common engine type nowadays. It powers almost all cars and
trucks. The four strokes of the cycle are intake, compression, power, and exhaust. Each
corresponds to one full stroke of the piston; therefore, the complete cycle requires two
revolutions of the crankshaft to complete.
      During the intake stroke, the piston moves downward, drawing a fresh charge of
vaporized fuel/air mixture. When the piston has traveled down as far as it can go, the crankshaft
has turned 180˚, one-half revolution. The combustion chamber is filled with a mixture of fuel
and air. The intake port is closed.
      As the piston rises, the poppet valve is forced shut by the increased cylinder pressure.
Flywheel momentum drives the piston upward, compressing the fuel/air mixture. At the top of
the compression stroke, the spark plug fires, igniting the compressed fuel. As the fuel burns it
expands, driving the piston downward. At the bottom of the power stroke, the exhaust valve is
opened by the cam/lifter mechanism. The upward stroke of the piston drives the exhausted fuel
out of the cylinder.
      There are four factors that are the bases of the engine: the cylinder, piston, connecting rod,
and crankshaft. A fuel-air mixture is ignited to product heat that is converted to another form of
power. Ignition of the fuel-air mixture takes places within the engine. The four-stroke cycle
principle is employed to provide power.

     I. Переведите выделенные слова на русский язык. Переведите следующие слова
на английский язык.
     четырехтактный двигатель –
     поэтому –
     четырехтактный цикл –
     впуск –
     коленчатый вал –
     оборот –
     давление –
     маховое колесо –
     топливо –
     сгорание –
     II. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту:
     1. Who was the first to demonstrate the four stroke engine?
     2. What is the most common engine type nowadays?
     3. What is the synonym phrase to “four stroke cycle”?
     4. What are the stages of the cycle?
     5. What does compression cycle presuppose?
     6. How many cycles are there?

     III. Письменно переведите абзацы 2, 3 на русский язык.
                                              Часть 2
                                      A Metering Valve
       A metering valve is a device found in the braking systems of vehicles with rear drum
brakes and front disc brakes. The valve controls the distribution of pressure to the brakes to
stabilize the car during braking, increase braking efficiency, and make braking safer. Metering
valves are located at various points in the braking system, depending on the make and model,
and may be part of a larger combination valve used to regulate pressure inside the hydraulic
braking system.
      When people apply the brakes in a car, they activate a hydraulic system that multiplies the
pressure of their feet. A light tap on the brake pedal can translate into substantial pressure inside
the braking system, allowing people to slow or stop the car. In a car with front disc brakes and
rear drum brakes, if the pressure from the brake pedal went straight to the brakes, the front
brakes would activate first, and this could make the car unstable.
      If the front brakes kick into operation first, there is a risk that the rear of the car could
fishtail or that other stability problems could develop. In a car with a metering valve, the valve
diverts the initial pressure to the rear brakes, and once they kick in, pressure can be released to
the front brakes and allowed to equalize. This happens within a very short period of time, and it
can feel like the brakes are activating simultaneously.
       Metering valves in cars compensate for the fact that disc brakes tend to activate more
quickly and be more sensitive. In cars with other types of brake systems, a metering valve may
not be necessary, or a different type of system will be used to control braking pressure so that the
driver can apply the brakes safely. The metering valve works with a series of interconnected
systems to keep the brakes working smoothly and properly when they are needed.
       When brakes are checked, the mechanic may inspect the metering valve to confirm it is in
good working order. If necessary, the valve can be cleaned or replaced. It is also important to
remember to fully drain and clean the valve when the brake system is being flushed, and to
properly reconnect all of the components of the braking system after work is finished. There may
be special considerations with systems in individual cars as a result of unusual design features,
including features intended to increase safety and efficiency.

     I. Переведите выделенные слова на русский язык. Переведите следующие слова
на английский язык. Выпишите из текста по одному предложению, в котором
употреблено данное слово. Переведите эти предложения на русский язык.
      дозирующий клапан –
      тормозная система –
      гидропневматический распределитель –
      тормозная педаль –
      барабанный тормоз –
      уравнивать –
      различный –
      внимательно осматривать –
      компоненты –
      безопасность –

     II. Письменно выполните перифраз второго абзаца.
     III. Поставьте к тексту пять вопросов разных типов.
                                             Часть 3
     I. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глагол в нужной форме
      1. I (to come) home at 5 o’clock tomorrow.
     2. He (to be) at school now.
     3. Ann (to be) at the museum tomorrow evening?
     4. I (to send) them the telegram and hoped that they (to meet) me.
     5. His wish (to come) true, he (to become) a famous singer.
     6. His wish (to be) to become a scientist.
     7. My father (to work) every day, but today he (not to work).
     8. At 5 o’clock last week she (to learn) to drive the car.
     9. When the train (to stop), I (to look) out of the window but (not to see) any of my
         friends there.
     10 I (to send) them the telegram and hoped that they (to meet) me.
     11. As I (to discover) later, they (to receive) it ten minutes before the train arrived and
         could not meet me.
     12. We were greatly surprised not to find Ann at home. It turned out that her sister (to
         forget) to give her our message, and Ann (to leave) the house fifteen minutes before we
         (to come).
     13. I decided not to put on my raincoat as it (to stop) raining already and the sun (to shine)
         brightly.
     14. The performance already (to begin), and they (to have) to wait till the first act (to be)
         over.
     15. Nina never (to be) here before and she (to like) the theatre very much.
     16. I did not recognize Helen as I (not to see) her for a very long time and she greatly (to
         change).
     17. When the teacher told the boy to recite the poem? The boy (to burst) into tears: he (not
         to remember), though he (to try) to learn his lesson so hard.
     18. When we (to come) to the station, our train already (to leave), and we (to have) to wait
         for two hours before another one (to come).
     19. Mary (to break) her mother’s favourite vase.
     20. Peter and Sasha (to watch) TV set at the moment.
     II. Переделайте предложения в активном залоге в предложения в
     страдательном залоге.
Образец:
    Software Workshop hosts many fine sites. - Many fine sites are hosted by Software
Workshop.
   1. They sent you the invitation last week.
   2. Richard threw a stone.
   3. I am sure they will offer you a very interesting job.
   4. Mother cooked the dinner.
   5. We bought this book yesterday
   6. Mary had helped John before Mother came.
   7. They offered me a chair.
   8. I am sure they will offer you a very interesting job.
   9. They recommended me several articles on that problem.
   10. Someone taught him French and gave him a dictionary.
   11. A masked gunman shot him.
   12. I am watering my plants every day.
   13. Yablochkov invented the electric lamp.
   14. They have promised me some books on this problem.
   15. A passer-by showed us the way to Trafalgar square.
   III. Поставьте глагол в правильной форме, согласно правилам согласования
   времен
    1. It is necessary that he ------------------- us the documents. (to send)
    2. He has said that he ------------------- a letter. (to receive)
    3. Renee ------------ had washed the car when George arrived. (to wash)
    4. The teacher told the children that water -------------- at 100 degrees centigrade. (to boil)
    5. He refused to go to the theatre as he ------------------ an examination in English in a few
        days. (to have)
    6. He ------------------- once stronger than he ------------------ now. (to be/ to be)
    7. It ------------------- not so cold yesterday as it --------------- today. (to be/ to be)
    8. I am not satisfied with what I ---------------- (to do).
    9. We have never discovered who --------------- it. (to do)
    10. He has said that he ------------------- a letter yesterday. (to receive)
    11. Mary knows that you ---------------- busy. (to be)
    12. I thought that she --------------- knew that he had taken the first place in the chess
        tournament. (to know)
    13. John sold vegetables that he --------------- . (to raise)
    14. If you want to show another person your feelings, never ------------------- a letter. (to
        write)
    15. Once you ----------------- something, you cannot take it back. (to say)
    IV. Переведите предложения на английский язык, определите тип условного
    предложения
Образец:
   Мы бы подписали контракт, если бы нам дали хорошую скидку. – We would have
   signed the contract if they had given us a good discount. (условное предложение III типа)
  1. Если бы Элеонора знала адрес гражданина Чернова, она бы посетила его во время
      своего визита в Минск.
  2. Что бы ты делал, если бы твой ребенок свалился в воду?
  3. Он бы не простудился, если бы надел теплое пальто.
  4. Если я не буду много гулять, я смогу больше поработать.
  5. Вечером, когда я приду домой, я приму ванну.
  6. Если бы Марина пришла, я был бы рад.
  7. Я дам вам эту книгу при условии, что вы вернете ее на следующей неделе.
  8. Если бы я была принцессой, моя мама была бы королевой.
  9. Если бы я видела его вчера, я бы спросила его об этом.
  10. Если бы я жил во дворце, у меня бы ли бы слуги, которые бы обслуживали меня.
  V. Переведите предложения на английский язык, обращая внимание на
   наклонение.
Образец:
  Управляющий вошел в офис, сел за письменный стол и начал просматривать утреннюю
  почту. – The manager entered the office, sat down at his desk, and began to look through the
  morning mail. (Indicative Mood)
   1. Он сказал, что он уже сдаст экзамены к первому июля.
   2. Смотрите, не захлопните дверь при выходе.
   3. Я хочу, чтобы он был здесь. (Как жаль, что его здесь нет.)
   4. Если бы она встретила нас, она бы поехала с нами в город.
   5. Необходимо, чтобы вы сделали это задание в устной форме.
   6. Кто-нибудь, ответьте по телефону/возьмите трубку, пожалуйста!
   7. Он посмотрел на меня так, как будто бы не узнал меня.
   8. Я сказал, что уже напишу письмо к пяти часам.
   9. Желательно, чтобы он был здесь в пять часов.
   10. Было необходимо, чтобы они приняли меры немедленно.
                                            Часть 4
  Составьте резюме для устройства на работу.
Variant 10

                                              Часть 1
                             Internal combustion engines
        Internal combustion engines operate on the inherent volume change accompanying
oxidation of gasoline (petrol), diesel fuel (or some other hydrocarbon) or ethanol, an expansion
which is greatly enhanced by the heat produced. They are not classical heat engines since they
expel the working substance, which is also the combustion product, into the surroundings.
       The reciprocating motion of the pistons is translated into crankshaft rotation via
connecting rods. As a piston moves back and forth, a connecting rod changes its angle; its distal
end has a rotating link to the crankshaft. In addition to cylinder-piston engines, there are also
rotary turbines. The Wankel engine is a rotary adaptation of the cylinder-piston concept which
has been used by Mazda and NSU in automobiles. Rotary engines are relatively quiet because
they lack the clatter of reciprocating motion.
        Air-cooled engines generally use individual cases for the cylinders to facilitate cooling.
Inline motorcycle engines are an exception, having two-, three-, four-, or even six-cylinder air-
cooled units in a common block. Water-cooled engines with only a few cylinders may also use
individual cylinder cases, though this makes the cooling system more complex. The Ducati
motorcycle company, which for years used air-cooled motors with individual cylinder cases,
retained the basic design of their V-twin engine while adapting it to water-cooling.
       A typical four-cylinder automobile engine has a single row of water-cooled cylinders. V
engines (V6 or V8) use two angled cylinder banks. The "V" is designed to minimize vibration
through destructive interference of harmonic overtones. During use, the cylinder is subject to
wear from the rubbing action of the piston rings and piston skirt. This is minimized by the thin
oil film which coats the cylinder walls, but eventually the cylinder becomes worn and slightly
oval in shape, usually necessitating a rebore to an oversize diameter and the fitting of new,
oversize pistons. The cylinder does not wear above the highest point reached by the top
compression ring of the piston, which can result in a detectable top compression. If an engine is
only operated at low rpm for its early life (e.g. in a gently driven automobile) then abruptly used
in the higher rpm range (e.g. by a new owner), the slight stretching of the connecting rods at high
speed can enable the top compression ring to contact the wear ridge, breaking the ring. For this
reason it is important that all engines, once initially run-in, are occasionally "exercised" through
their full speed range to develop a tapered wear profile rather than a sharp ridge.
       Cylinder Sleeving, Cylinder walls can become very worn or damaged from use. In such
cases the use of a sleeve can restore proper clearances to an engine. Sleeves are made out of iron
alloys and are very reliable. A sleeve is installed by a machinist at a machine shop. The engine
block is mounted on a precision boring machine where the cylinder is then bored to a size much
larger than normal and a new cast-iron sleeve can be inserted. The sleeves can be pressed into
place, or they can be held in by an interference fit.

     I. Переведите выделенные слова на русский язык. Переведите следующие слова
на английский язык.
     сгорание –
     тепловой двигатель –
     коленчатый вал –
     турбина –
     возвратно-поступательное движение –
     разрушительный –
     овальной формы –
     скорость –
      острый край –
      механик –

     II. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту:
       1. What peculiarities does internal combustion engine have?
       2. What is the principle of its work?
       3. What types of engines were mentioned in the text?
       4. Why internal combustion engines are so popular?
       5. Why "V" engines were designed?
       6. What is a sleeve used for?
     III. Письменно переведите абзацы 2, 3 на русский язык.
                                              Часть 2
                                          Carburation
        In an engine, carburetion combines the proper ratio of oxygen with a gaseous form of a
fossil fuel, like natural gas or gasoline, so it can combust. Internal combustion engines run by
igniting fuel that has been sprayed into a fine vapor and mixed with air. This mixture, called an
emulsion, will burn with the right amount of energy to fuel the engine. Carburetion usually
involves all these stages, from vaporizing the gasoline to letting in the air and finally moving the
mixture to where it can be combusted.
       Carburetion is responsible for allowing an engine to perform at an optimal level whether it
is starting, running at full throttle, or idling. Any combustion engine, such as on a lawnmower,
chainsaw, or automobile, must utilize some form of carburetion. If there is too much fuel or too
little oxygen, the engine runs "rich" and wastes fuel, produces smoke, creates too much heat, or
ruins parts of the engine. If there is too little fuel or too much air, the engine runs "lean" and
might sputter, stop, or cause engine damage.
       The process of carburetion usually takes place inside a carburetor, but it can even be
demonstrated with a home chemistry set. In a carburetor, there must be a central mixing
chamber where the air will meet the fuel. One opening, a needle valve, pushes fuel through such
a tiny hole that it sprays into that chamber in fine droplets. The other opening, a vacuum or
suction valve, uses air pressure to control how much air enters the chamber, called metering. The
atomized gasoline, suspended in the full volume of air, exits through a wide tube to another
chamber where a spark will ignite it.
       The exact amounts of air and fuel depend upon surrounding air pressure, the type of fuel,
the fineness of the gaseous particles, and if the engine has settings for faster, slower, or idle. On
older models of cars that use a traditional carburetor, that ratio is around 15 parts air to one part
fuel. Other engines, such as those for a gas-powered leaf blower, don't have varying speeds;
therefore they require simpler carburetion that doesn't account for slightly more or less fuel.

     I. Переведите выделенные слова на русский язык. Переведите следующие слова
на английский язык. Выпишите из текста по одному предложению, в котором
употреблено данное слово. Переведите эти предложения на русский язык.
      двигатель –
      газообразный –
      сгорать –
      топливо –
      уровень –
      бензопила –
      дым –
      повреждение –
      камера смешения –
     искра –
      II. Письменно выполните перифраз второго абзаца.
      III. Поставьте к тексту пять вопросов разных типов.
                                               Часть 3
     I. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глагол в нужной форме.
     1. I (to look) out of the window.
     2. The doctor usually (to tell) me to keep quiet.
     3. We always (to start) working at 9 o’clock, but tomorrow we (to start) at 8.
     4. He (to do) his homework now.
     5. Why you (to look) at me like that?
     6. Now I (to understand) what she (to want) me to do.
     7. Scientists (to believe) this theory is true.
     8. Look at the sky! The weather (to change).
     9. I (to wonder) why he (to stare) at the door all the time.
     10. Why you (to smile) all the time?
     11. Kate and Peter (not to buy) the bread, because they (to forget) to do it.
     12. I (to fly) to Moscow tomorrow evening.
     13. You (to like) the movie we (to watch) yesterday at 5 o’clock?
     14. The dog (to try) to open the door.
     15. The performance already (to begin), and they (to have) to wait till the first act (to be)
         over.
     16. When the train (to stop), I (to look) out of the window but (not to see) any of my
         friends there.
     17. I (think) that he is a scientist when he grows up.
     18. Why you (to make) the report?
     19. Why you (to decide) to become a writer?
     20. My wish (to be) to become an artist, that is why I (to study) at the Arts Academy.
     II. Переделайте предложения в активном залоге в предложения в
     страдательном залоге.
Образец:
    Software Workshop hosts many fine sites. - Many fine sites are hosted by Software
Workshop.
   1. Kathy chose James to be her assistant.
   2. Software Workshop hosted many fine sites.
   3. They asked us to be there at eight o’clock.
   4. Mary caught the ball.
   5. The children of Sparta got a military education.
   6. They will complete the experiments by the end of this week.
   7. She looked after her little sister when her mother was at work.
   8. Nobody has told me the news yet.
   9. They asked us to be there at eight o’clock.
   10. Mary caught the ball.
   11. She learned the poem.
   12. Margaret sang a song.
   13. The teacher taught the class.
   14. The boys kicked the ball.
   15. The woman ate all the cake he brought.
   III. Поставьте глагол в правильной форме, согласно правилам согласования
   времен
    1. Yesterday the patient ---------------- better than he ------------------ today. (to feel/to feel)
    2. By the time he returned, I --------------- ten pages of the report. (to type)
    3. While I ------------------- TV, the telephone rang. (to watch)
    4. Our Holy Books tell us that man ------------------ mortal. (to be)
    5. He spoke so fast that I ------------------- not follow him. (can)
    6. I thought that she --------------- knew that he had taken the first place in the chess
     tournament. (to know)
     7. John sold vegetables that he --------------- . (to raise)
     8. His health has improved since he -------------------- from the hills. (return)
     9. Who told you that goats ----------------- on grass? (to live)
     10. He said that he -------------------- not believe it even if he saw it with his own eyes.
      (would)
     11. The teacher told the children that water -------------- at 100 degrees centigrade. (to boil)
     12. Peter ------------ had washed the car when George arrived. (to wash)
     13. The surgeon who was going to perform the operation ---------------- ill yesterday. (to
      fall)
      14. She goes for a walk in the park when the weather --------------- good. (to be)
      15. Johnson ------------- vegetables and later sold them. (to raise)
      IV. Переведите предложения на английский язык, определите тип условного
      предложения
Образец:
  Если бы я был Премьер Министром, я бы увеличил налог для богатых людей. – If I
  were Prime Minister, I’d increase tax for rich people. ( II )
   1. Если бы я была принцессой, моя мама была бы королевой.
   2. Он бы не простудился, если бы надел теплое пальто.
   3. Мы были бы благодарны, если бы Вы были любезны прислать нам Ваш каталог
   дизелей.
   4. Если бы я увидел его завтра, я бы спросил у него об этом.
   5. Он не окончит работу вовремя, если не будет усердно работать.
   6. Если бы ваши указания были получены десять дней тому назад, товар был бы
   отгружен вчера пароходом «Свирь».
   7. Если завтра будет хорошая погода, мы поедем за город.
   8. Я дам вам эту книгу при условии, что вы вернете ее на следующей неделе.
   9. Он мог бы это сделать, если бы попытался.
  10. Вы могли бы застать его там, если бы зашли в шесть часов.
  V. Переведите предложения на английский язык, обращая внимание на
  наклонение.
Образец:
   Он вышел из дому, взял такси и поехал на вокзал. - He left the house, took a taxi and
   drove to the station. (Indicative Mood)
  1. Я хочу, чтобы он был здесь. (Как жаль, что его здесь нет.)
  2. Я хочу, чтобы он был здесь. (Как жаль, что его здесь нет.)
  3. Если бы она встретила нас, она бы поехала с нами в город.
  4. Необходимо, чтобы вы сделали это задание в устной форме.
  5. Кто-нибудь, ответьте по телефону/возьмите трубку, пожалуйста!
  6. Он посмотрел на меня так, как будто бы не узнал меня.
  7. Я бы желал, чтобы они совсем не приходили. (Как жаль, что они пришли).
  8. Я писал письмо уже, час когда он пришел.
  9. Пусть вам сопутствует удача!
  10. Ей не хотелось, чтобы мы шли за ней.

                                              Часть 4
  Составьте резюме для устройства на работу.

				
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