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Ch04.ppt - Jefferson School District

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					   Chapter 4 – The Spread of Islam
Section Notes              Video
Early Expansion            Islamic Traditions and the
Muslim Empires                World Today
Cultural Achievements
                           Maps
History Close-up           Early Muslim Conquests
The Blue Mosque            Trade in the Muslim World
                           The City of Córdoba
                           The Ottoman Empire
Quick Facts                The Safavid Empire
                           The Mughal Empire
Chapter 4 Visual Summary


                           Images
                           The City of Córdoba
                           Islamic Achievements
                           Islamic Achievements
                              (continued)
                    Early Expansion                      7.2.4
                                                         7.2.5


                       The Big Idea
Conquest and trade led to the spread of Islam, the blending
            of cultures, and the growth of cities.

                        Main Ideas
• Muslim armies conquered many lands into which Islam
  slowly spread.
• Trade helped Islam spread into new areas.
• A mix of cultures was one result of Islam’s spread.
• Islamic influence encouraged the growth of cities.
                Main Idea 1:
   Muslim armies conquered many lands into
         which Islam slowly spread.

• After Muhammad’s death, Abu Bakr became the first
  caliph, the title that Muslims use for the highest leader of
  Islam.
• Caliphs were not religious leaders, but political and
  military leaders.
• Abu Bakr directed a series of battles against Arab tribes
  who did not follow Muhammad’s teachings.
                   Growth of the Empire

• Muslim armies battled        • After years of fighting
  tribes that did not follow     Muslim armies, many
  Muhammad’s teachings.          Berbers, a native people of
                                 North Africa, converted to
• The Muslim armies united
                                 Islam and joined forces
  Arabia, then defeated the
                                 with the Arabs.
  Persian and Byzantine
  empires.                     • A combined Berber and
                                 Arab army invaded Spain
                                 and conquered it in AD
                                 711.
                    Main Idea 2:
                 Trade helped Islam
               spread into new areas.

• Along with their trade goods, Arab merchants took Islamic
  beliefs to new lands.
• Islam spread to India, Africa, Malaysia, and Indonesia.
• Trade also brought new products to Muslim lands and
  made many people rich.
   – Travelers learned how to make paper from the Chinese.
   – Merchants brought crops of cotton, rice, and oranges
     from India, China, and Southeast Asia.
   – Muslim merchants set up trade businesses in Africa.
                    Main Idea 3:
          A mix of cultures was one result
                 of Islam’s spread.

• As Islam spread through     • Muslims generally
  trade, warfare, and           practiced tolerance, or
  treaties, Arabs came into     acceptance, with regard to
  contact with people who       these people.
  had different beliefs and
                              • Jews and Christians in
  lifestyles.
                                particular could keep their
• Language and religion         beliefs.
  helped unify many groups
  that became part of the
  Islamic world.
                 Main Idea 4:
  Islamic influence encouraged the growth of
                     cities.

• Baghdad                        • Cordoba
• Capital of Islamic Empire      • Capital of what is now
• Located near land and            Spain
  water trade routes             • Strong economy based on
• Walled city                      agriculture and trade

• Built hospitals,               • By the AD 900s, was the
  observatories, and a library     largest and most advanced
  that was used as a               city in Europe
  university                     • Great center of learning
                                 • Also a center of Jewish
                                   culture
                    Muslim Empires                         7.2.4



                       The Big Idea
 After the early spread of Islam, three large Islamic empires
          formed—the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal.
                        Main Ideas
• The Ottoman Empire covered a large area in eastern
  Europe.
• The Safavid Empire blended Persian cultural traditions with
  Shia Islam.
• The Mughal Empire in India left an impressive cultural
  heritage.
                Main Idea 1:
  Muslims ruled the Ottoman Empire, which
      was a political and cultural force.

• The Ottomans were aided     • During Suleyman’s rule,
  by slave soldiers called      the Ottoman Empire
  Janissaries.                  reached its cultural peak.
• They had new gunpowder         – Poets wrote beautiful
  weapons, such as the             works.
  cannon.
                                 – Architects turned
• Mehmed II and Suleyman I         Istanbul into a Muslim
  led conquests that turned        city.
  the Ottomans into a world
                              • Women had limited
  power.
                                freedom.
       Ottoman Government and Society

• The sultan, or Ottoman ruler, issued laws and made all
  major decisions in the empire.
• Ottoman society was divided into two classes.
   – Judges and people who advised the sultan were part of
     the ruling class.
   – Those who didn’t fit into the ruling class made up the
     other class. Many of these were Christians or Jews from
     lands the Ottomans had conquered.
                 Main Idea 2:
 The Safavid Empire blended Persian cultural
         traditions with Shia Islam.

• A conflict arose over who should be caliph.
• Islam split into two groups.
   – The Shia thought that only members of Muhammad’s
     family could become caliphs.
   – The Sunni thought it did not matter as long as they
     were good Muslims and strong leaders.
                 The Safavid Empire

• The Safavid Empire began when the Safavid leader Esma’il
  conquered Persia and made himself shah, or king.
• He made Shiism the official religion of the empire.
• The Safavids blended Persian and Muslim traditions.
• The manufacturing of traditional products, such as
  handwoven carpets, silk, and velvet, was encouraged.
               Main Idea 3:
The Mughal Empire in India left an impressive
             cultural heritage.

• Babur established the Mughal Empire, but it grew mostly
  under an emperor named Akbar.
• Akbar’s tolerant policies helped unify the empire.
• A conflict of cultures led to the end of this empire, but
  resulted in a culture unique to the Mughal Empire.
• Cultures that blended in the empire included
   – Muslims
   – Hindus
   – Persians
   – Indians
                Cultural Achievements                     7.2.6



                        The Big Idea
 Muslim scholars and artists made contributions to science,
                     art, and literature.

                         Main Ideas
• Muslim scholars made advances in various fields of science
  and philosophy.
• Islam influenced styles of literature and the arts.
                 Main Idea 1:
  Muslim scholars made advances in various
      fields of science and philosophy.

• Muslim scholars made advances in astronomy, geography,
  math, and science.
• Many ancient writings were translated into Arabic.
              Cultural Achievements

• Geography
  – Geographers made more accurate maps than before,
    mostly due to the contributions of al-Idrisi.
• Math
  – The Muslim mathematician al-Khwarizmi laid the
    foundations for modern algebra.
• Astronomy
  – They made improvements to the astrolabe, which the
    Greeks had invented to chart the positions of the stars.
             More Scholarly Advances

• Medicine
  – The Muslims’ greatest scientific achievements may have
    come in medicine.
  – A doctor named Ar-Razi discovered how to diagnose
    and treat the deadly disease smallpox.
• Philosophy
  – The Muslim philosophy focused on spiritual issues,
    which led to a movement called Sufism.
  – Sufism teaches that people can find God’s love by
    having a personal relationship with God.
                  Main Idea 2:
      Islam influenced styles of literature
                  and the arts.

• Literature
   – Two forms of literature were popular in the Muslim
     world—poetry and short stories.
• Architecture
   – The greatest architectural achievements were mosques.
     They often had a dome and minarets—narrow towers
     from which Muslims are called to prayer.
   – Patrons, or sponsors, used their wealth to pay for
     elaborately decorated mosques.
             More Islamic Influences

• Art
  – Because they could not represent people or animals in
    paintings due to their religion, Muslim artists turned
    calligraphy, or decorative writing, into an art form.
  – They used this technique to decorate buildings and
    mosques.
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