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					    Introduction

        Chemistry and your Brain is about…

       1.   Neurochemistry and its influence on our lifes in general
       2.   The brain, neurons and synapses
       3.   Psychotropics, Braindoping and Cognitive Enhancement
       4.   Endorphines and their functions
       5.   Love and chemistry



        The aims of this project are…

           to motivate students to learn more about science in general
           to improve the students knowledge about the brain and its parts
           to compare different information about love (psychology, science,…)
           to increase the students awareness about the dangers of Mind Doping
           to have a look at social and cultural differences when working with students
            from other regions and countries


        Prior knowledge and skills…

        All the information and material of this topic was designed by and for students
         aged 14 – 18.
        The students should have basic understanding of science including basic
         knowledge about the brain and the neural system.
        The students should have skills on self dependent search for information in
         books and on the internet. They schould be able to sum up results and give
         short presentations.



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    2. Exchange Form




    TO:

    Date


    Teacher’s name


    School


    Address



    Phone numbers          Telephone:

    (inc. dialling code)   Fax:


    E-mail address

    School website
    address



    We understand that your class is studying Neurochemistry. We would like to exchange information and the results
    of our own experiments and research.



    We look forward to hearing from your class. Please reply.

    FROM:

    Teacher’s name


    School


    Address


    Phone numbers          Telephone:

    (inc. dialling code)   Fax:


    E-mail address


    School website
    address

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       1) Neurochemistry and its influence on our lifes in general

           o What do you know about the connection of neurology and chemistry?




           o Have you ever thought about the influence of chemistry on your body and
             mind?




       2) The brain, neurons and synapses

           o What do you already know about your brain? Take your time for a short
             brainstorming:




            o Where does your knowledge about the human brain come from?
                  School
                  Internet
                  TV (documentation,…)
                  Books, magazines
                  __________________


           o Are you familiar with the structure of a neuron? Would you like to build a
             model of a neuron and exchange some pictures?




       3) Psychotropics, Braindoping and Cognitive Enhancement

           o Do you know what psychotropic drugs are and what they do to your brain?


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           o Have you ever taken one of the following substances before tests or exams for
             improving your performance at school? (more answers possible)
                    Energy drinks
                    Coffee
                    Dextrose
                    Homeopathic remedies
                    Medicine


           o Are there examples of commonly used supplements or drugs in your
             school/ country?




       4) Endorphines
          o What are the functions of endorphines?




           o Do some students in your class like extreme sports or very spicy and hot
             food?




       5) Love and chemistry

           o What do you know about the chemistry of love?




           o Do you think the feeling of love is more connected to the processes in your
             brain or to your „heart“?




           o Have you ever thought about the different types of love (passionate,
               pragmatic, romantic,…)
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           o Do you think that there are cultural differences when it comes to love and
             friendship?




           o What is your favourite love story (movie, literature,…)? Compare the
             results in class and send them to us so we can share our results with you.




                          Do you have own ideas about the topic
                            CHEMISTRY AND YOUR BRAIN
                             that have not been covered yet?




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    3. Information and activity sheets
    Neurochemistry and its influence on our lifes



    Neurochemistry:
        …is the branch of neuroscience concerned with the chemistry of the nervous
         system.

        …is the specific study of neurochemicals, which include neurotransmitters
         and other molecules such as neuro-active drugs that influence neuron
         function. This principle closely examines the manner in which these
         neurochemicals influence emotions, concentration, performance etc.

        A neurochemical is an organic molecule, such as serotonin, dopamine, or
         nerve growth factor, that participates in neural activity. The science of
         neurochemistry studies the functions of these neurochemicals.
         2 Examples:


    Dopamine is produced in several areas of the brain, including the substantia nigra
    and the ventral tegmental area. Dopamine is also a neurohormone released by the
    hypothalamus.




    Serotonin is primarily found in the gastrointestinal tract, platelets, and in the central
    nervous system. It is a well-known contributor to feelings of well-being; therefore it is
    also known as a "happiness hormone" despite not being a hormone.




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                PRIOR KNOWLEDGE QUESTIONNAIRE „YOUR BRAIN“

    1) How do you judge your knowledge to the topic ‚THE BRAIN AND HOW IT WORKS’ ?
       Very good
       Good
       Rather bad
       Bad

    2) Where did you your knowledge about the human brain? (more answers possible)
       School
       Internet
       TV (documentation,…)
       Books, magazines
       __________________

    3) Could you name the parts of the human brain or a neuron?
      Yes, all of them
      Some of them
      None at all


    4) What do you think about the following sentences?
      My brain produces painkillers.                                             True        False
      My brain decides who I fall in love with.                                  True        False
      If my brain gets damaged my personality could change.                      True        False
      Drugs help my brain to work better/faster.                                 True        False


    5) Have you ever taken medicine/pills/homeopathic remedies for being able ……
     …to sleep better?                                      Yes           No
     …to learn better or longer?                            Yes           No
     …to become quieter in stressful situation?             Yes           No
    …to improve your performance at school?                 Yes           No


    6) Do you know what psychotropic drugs are?
       Yes
       Yes, but not exactly
       No


    7) What could be part of a project about the relation of chemistry and the human brain?
      Write down some ideas! What would you like to learn about?



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                       Brainstorming: NEUROCHEMISTRY
                     (ideas, prior knowledge in general, pictures, movies,…)




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               Chemistry:                                               Brain:




                           Chemistry & your Brain:




    The brain, neurones and synapses


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                      NEURONS – Worksheet

                                                     Axon: The axon is the part of the neuron that sends
                                                    messages to surrounding neurons or body organs.

                                                     Synaptic cleft: Between the postsynaptic and the
                                                    presynaptic neurone is a narrow gap, 20 nm wide, called
                                                    the synaptic cleft.

                                                     Myelin sheath: Some axons are covered by a fatty
                                                    myelin sheath formed by Schwann cells.

                                                     Axon hillock: The axon hillock is a specialized part of
                                                    the cell body (or soma) of a neuron that connects to the
                                                    axon.

                                                     Synapse: A synapse is a small space between the
                                                    axon of one neuron and the dendrite of a nearby
                                                    neuron.

                                                     Dendrites: Dendrites are parts of the neuron that
                                                    receive messages from nearby neurons.

                                                     Nodes of Ranvier: The small gaps between adjacent
                                                    Schwann cells of a myelinated axon is called as nodes of
                                                    Ranvier.

                                                     Cell Body: The cell body contains the bulk of the
                                                    cell organelles




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             NEURONS – Worksheet / CORRECT ANSWERS:



                                                    D Axon: The axon is the part of the neuron that sends
                                                       Axon: surrounding neurons the neuron that
                                                    messages toThe axon is the part ofor body organs. sends
                                                      messages to surrounding neurons or body organs.
                                                    H Synaptic cleft: Between the postsynaptic and the
                                                       Synaptic cleft: is a narrow gap, 20 nm wide, the
                                                    presynaptic neuroneBetween the postsynaptic andcalled
                                                    the synaptic cleft.
                                                      presynaptic neurone is a narrow gap, 20 nm wide, called
                                                      the synaptic cleft.
                                                    E Myelin sheath: Some axons are covered by a fatty
                                                       Myelin sheath: by Schwann cells.
                                                    myelin sheath formedSome axons are covered by a fatty
                                                      myelin sheath formed by Schwann cells.
                                                    C Axon hillock: The axon hillock is a specialized part of
                                                       Axon hillock: The axon hillock is a connects to the
                                                    the cell body (or soma) of a neuron that specialized part of
                                                      the
                                                    axon. cell body (or soma) of a neuron that connects to the
                                                      axon.
                                                    G  Synapse: A synapseais a small space between the
                                                      Synapse: A synapse is small space between the
                                                      axon one neuron and the dendrite of a a nearby
                                                    axon of of one neuron and the dendrite ofnearby
                                                    neuron.
                                                      neuron.

                                                    B Dendrites: Dendrites are are partsthethe neuron that
                                                       Dendrites: Dendrites parts of of neuron that
                                                    receive messages from nearby neurons.
                                                      receive messages from nearby neurons.

                                                    F Nodes of Ranvier: TheThe small gaps between adjacent
                                                       Nodes of Ranvier: small gaps between adjacent
                                                      Schwann cells a a myelinated axon is called nodes of
                                                    Schwann cells of ofmyelinated axon is called as as nodes of
                                                      Ranvier.
                                                    Ranvier.

                                                    A  Cell Body: The cell body contains the bulk thethe
                                                      Cell Body: The cell body contains the bulk of of
                                                      cell organelles
                                                    cell organelles




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     • Create a model
     of a neuron by using clay, playdough, styrofoam, recyclables, ect.
     • Use pictures from books to give you an idea of where the components of a neuron
     should go and what shape they should be.
     • Use different colors to indicate different structures. Design a neural circuit with a
     few of the neurons.




           Choose the size of your model and your material.
           Decide how detailed your model will be.
           Buy Playdough, Styrofoam, bottle caps, cups, paper,…
           Print a picture or diagram of a neuron (look for pictures in books or search on
            the internet)




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     THE BRAIN: Synapses
     Try to find the correct answers!
     Look for help in books or on the internet.



     1) What are neurons?
                muscle cells
                Nerve cells
                Brain cells


     2) What’s the job of neurons?
                they transmit impulses
                they build up brain cells
                they break down brain cells


     3) How many main structures does a synapse have?
                2
                4
                3


     4) What are neurotransmitters?
                they transmit information between cells
                they are specialized cells
                they transmit vesicles to the brain


     5) Where is the building site of neurotransmitters?
                in the postsynapse
                in the synaptic cleft
                in the praesynapse


     6) In synapses information is transmitted...
                electrically
                chemically
                biologically


     7) What is the synaptic cleft?
                the space between two neurons
                the space between two cells
                the space between two vesicles



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     "The Brain Song"

     (tune of "Camptown Races")

     by Pinky and the Brain




     Pinky: And now...the parts of the Brain...presented by the Brain
     Brain: Yes!


     B:Neo-Cortex, Frontal Lobe
     P: Brainstem! Brainstem!
     B: Hippocampus, Neural Node Right Hemisphere; Pons and Cortex Visual
     P: Brainstem! Brainstem!
     B: Sylvian Fissure Pineal Left Hemisphere; Cer-e-bellum Left, Cer-e-bellum
     Right Synapse Hypothalamus, Striatum Dendrite
     [Brain dances with tambourine]
     B:Axon Fibers, Matter Grey
     P: Brainstem! Brainstem!
     B: Central Tegmental Pathway, Temporal Lobe; White Core Matter, Forebrain,
     Skull
     P: Brainstem! Brainstem!
     B: Central Fissure, Cord Spinal, Parietal; Pia Mater Meningeal Vein Medulla
     Oblongata and Lobe Limbic Micro-Electrodes
     PB: The Brain!


     B: That oughta keep the little squirts happy




           Found in: http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/neurok.html


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              YOUTUBE search for: pinky and the brain parts of the brain
               http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Li5nMsXg1Lk




        SYC OT                                PIC

     A psychoactive drug, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that crosses the blood-
     brain barrier and acts upon the central nervous system where it affects brain function.

     Psychoactive drugs operate by temporarily affecting a person's neurochemistry,
     which in turn causes changes in a person's mood, cognition, perception and
     behavior.

     There are many ways in which psychoactive drugs can affect the brain. Each drug
     has a specific action on one or more neurotransmitter or neuroreceptor in the brain.




     Illustration of the major elements of neurotransmission. Depending on its method of action, a psychoactive substance may block the receptors on
                 the post-synaptic neuron (dendrite), or block reuptake or affect neurotransmitter synthesis in the pre-synaptic neuron (axon).




     Drugs that increase activity in particular neurotransmitter systems are called
     agonists. They act by increasing the synthesis of one or more neurotransmitters or
     reducing its reuptake from the synapses.

     Drugs that reduce neurotransmitter activity are called antagonists, and operate by
     interfering with synthesis or blocking postsynaptic receptors so that neurotransmitters
     cannot bind to them.
     Examples:

     Neurotransmitter/receptor                 Classification                              Examples
                                               Adenosine receptor                          caffeine, theobromine, theophylline
                                               antagonists




                Adenosine
                                               Dopamine reuptake                           cocaine, methylphenidate,
                                               inhibitors (DRIs)                           amphetamine, bupropion
                                               Dopamine releasers                          amphetamine, agomelatine
                                               Dopamine agonists                           pramipexole, L-DOPA (prodrug)


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             Dopamine



     BRAINDOPING &
     COGNITIVE ENHANCEMENT



     A cognitive enhancer is a substance that enhances mental functions such as
     concentration and memory but also for mood stabilization and to cope with
     emotional distress.

     Cognitive enhancers may also be referred to as smart drugs, memory enhancers or
     nootropics.

     They are drugs, supplements and functional foods that are meant to improve mental
     functions such as cognition, memory, intelligence, motivation, attention, and
     concentration.

     At present, there are several drugs on the market that improve memory,
     concentration, planning, and reduce impulsive behavior. The original purpose of
     these drugs is to treat people with cognitive difficulties such as Alzheimer's disease,
     Parkinson's disease, and ADHD (Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder).

     But the misuse of these drugs by healthy people trying to improve their cognition or
     memory is very dangerous.


     Some dangers of Braindoping are:

           drug addiction
           unknown side effects
           long term effects
           emotional distress
           feelings of inferiority




     Some questions and ideas:
           What do you think about BRAINDOPING?
           Discuss the nagative aspects and risks of such pills and supplements?
           Have you ever tried to improve your mental functions?
           Find some cognitive enhancers that are used in your country and try to
            find out the ingredients and effects and side effects.


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          Read the information about the supplement Amorex below. Do you think
           such a supplement is helpfull?



     COGNITIVE ENHANCEMENT: Example from Austria: AMOREX

        http://www.amorex.eu/love.html




     Amorex is a supplement sold in Austrian pharmacies and since november 2010 also
     in Italy. According tot he official website its purpose is to cure lovesickness and all
     other kinds of grief:

     „There are many reasons why relationships dissolve or fracture. The husband leaves his
     wife, the girlfriend leaves her partner, the children leave home, a much-loved companion
     dies.
     AMOREX was developed to provide support in these exceptional life situations. It enhances
     the increased need for physiologically essential substances that are of particular importance
     during this phase. AMOREX is taken for lovesickness, during relationship crises, at times of
     separation and when having to bid farewell.

     AMOREX was developed from plant substances that beneficially support the biochemical
     processes and biological messengers in the body and complement the specific needs arising
     at this time without causing undesirable side effects.“

     (ADVERTISING ON THE OFFICIAL AMOREX WEBSITE)


     Ingredients:

            Vitamin B1
            Vitamin B6
            Griffonia simplicifolia Extract = 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), a naturally-
             occurring amino acid and chemical precursor as well as metabolic
             intermediate in the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitters serotonin and
             melatonin. 5-HTP is sold in Europe and the US as a dietary supplement for
             use as an antidepressant, appetite suppressant, and sleep aid.




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     Because 5-HTP has not been thoroughly studied in a clinical setting, possible side
     effects and interactions with other drugs are not well known!




     Endorphins




                                    Endorphins
     Endorphins ("endogenous morphine") are endogenous opioid peptides that
     function as neurotransmitters. They are produced by the pituitary gland and the
     hypothalamus in vertebrates during exercise, excitement, pain, consumption of spicy
     food or sweets, love, etc. In other words, they work as "natural pain killers".

     The term "endorphin" implies a pharmacological activity as opposed to a specific
     chemical formulation. It consists of two parts: endo- and -orphin; these are short
     forms of the words endogenous and morphine, intended to mean "a morphine-like
     substance originating from within the body."

     Endorphins regulate feelings of pain and hunger and are connected to the production
     of sex hormones. They are also generated in response to certain spices such as chili
     peppers. Chili peppers have thus been used as a treatment for certain types of
     chronic pain.
     According to some reports, laughter also releases endorphins in the brain. So
     besides widening the blood vessels, suppressing the production of stress hormones
     and raising antibody levels in the blood, laughing would thus also have an analgesic
     effect.

     Early speculations concerning the function of endorphins suggested that they were
     natural painkillers that the body produced to alleviate pain in circumstances requiring
     an individual to continue functioning in spite of injury or stress. Examples of such
     situations might include childbirth, exercise, and combat.

     In addition to affecting one's perception of pain, endorphins may be involved in other
     phenomena such as runner's high and acupuncture. Persons who exercise regularly
     have higher than usual amounts of β -endorphin in their bloodstream.

     Endorphins (or a lack thereof) may be responsible for certain forms of mental illness
     such as obsessive-compulsive disorder. When you are washing your hands, there's a
     point when you register that the task has been satisfactorily completed. If endorphins
     are at least partly responsible for saying "when," a person who doesn't have enough
     may never receive the mental cue to stop washing his or her hands and will continue
     until that signal is received.




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     Usefull websites:
        http://health.howstuffworks.com/mental-health/human-nature/happiness/endorphins.htm
        http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=10812




                  Endorphins: RUNNER´s HIGH
     The so-called "runner's high" is an effect of endorphin production which occurs
     when a very exausting exercise (like running, cycling,…) takes a person over a
     threshold that activates endorphin production.

     Endorphins are released during long, continuous workouts, when the level of
     intensity is between moderate and high, and breathing is difficult.

     During a release of endorphins the person may be exposed to bodily harm from
     strenuous bodily functions after going past his or her body's physical limit.

     This means that runners can keep running despite pain, continuously surpassing
     what they once considered to be their limit.

     It is also suggested by many that endorphins are some of the many chemicals that
     contribute to runner's high; other candidates include epinephrine, serotonin, and
     dopamine.




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     Love and Chemistry




      When you say you and a romantic partner 'have chemistry' you're right!
        There is a lot of chemistry involved in feeling the emotion of love!




        1. Read the following texts about love from two different points of view: social
           psychology and science! Compare the information. What do the two texts have
           in common?

        2. Try to find out more about the “chemistry of love”. What influences our feelings
           of love and friendship and how can love be related to biochemistry?

        3. Discover more about the social and cultural aspects of love. If you are
           connected to schools in other regions/countries do the questionnaire or create
           one yourself. Compare your results.

        4. Do you know what chemicals are involved in feeling love? Here are some
           examples for your further studies:

                   phenylethylamine or PEA
                   norepinephrine
                   dopamine
                   oxytocin
                   testosterone
                   endorphins




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                                                TEXT 1)




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     THE BRAIN ON LOVE
     Our emotions, and the emotions of many animals are controlled by how our brain
     makes chemicals and how those chemicals interact with the cells in your brains.
     A part of the emotion known as love is jump-started by neurotransmitters, or
     chemical messengers released by the nervous system. Their role is to communicate
     information from one neuron, or nerve cell, to another.
     The brain has more than a billion neurons. When a neuron is activated, a message
     travels as an electrical impulse down the neuron’s threadlike axon toward a synapse.
     (space between the neurons). This triggers the neuron to release neurotransmitters
     that cross the synapse and bind to receptors on another neuron. This neuron’s
     dendrites restart the signal, carrying the message toward its cell body and down its
     axon. The impulse continues traveling in this manner from neuron to neuron.
     Rules of Attraction
     The brain has many kinds of neurotransmitters. Each type initiates a different
     response in your brain.
     Some cause the rush of excitement a person feels when they bump into someone they
     like. Others help that crush progress into a long-lasting relationship.
     In humans, a neurotransmitter called oxytocin activates a female’s feelings of
     affection, trust and security toward another person. In males, oxytocin functions in a
     similar way.
     But another neurotransmitter, called vasopressin, strengthens the bonding
     experience.
     For humans and some animals, oxytocin plays a large role in what is known as par
     bonding. Pair bonding occurs when two animals develop a strong attachment to each
     other, which then leads to mating and breeding.


     The Stages of Love

     Desire
     Physical attraction draws to people together. Desire is driven by the sex hormone
     testosterone found in both men and women.

     Romance
     A couple becomes intensely focused on each other. The two main neurotransmitters
     dopamine and norepinephrine play an important role. These chemicals trigger a rush
     of happiness.

     Attachment
     A bond is forged that leads to a long-lasting relationship. The neurotransmitters
     oxytocin and vasopressin help make this connection happen by promoting and
     strengthening bonding between a couple.




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     LOVE AND THE BRAIN

     Of all desires and emotions the brain controls, few can be as strong as lust and love.
     Initial attraction, it seems, is driven primarily by the release of hormones such as
     testosterone and oestrogen.

     Passionate or romantic love, by contrast, can be linked to changing levels of various
     chemicals, including the “pleasure neurotransmitters” dopamine and serotonin.
     Curiously, while dopamine levels shoot up in the brain of a person in love, serotonin
     levels fall. The pattern of serotonin reduction is reminiscent of what happens in the
     brain of a person with obsessive compulsive disorder – a fact that might explain why
     someone who is deeply in love can find it very difficult to focus on anything other
     than the object of their infatuation.

     Passion and romance rarely last forever, and dopamine and serotonin levels
     eventually return to normal. Yet many couples stay together after this happens. This
     kind of calmer, longer-term bond seems to rely on the brain producing other
     chemicals, especially the hormones oxytocin and vasopressin. Studies have shown
     how animals that are usually monogamous can cease to be attached to their partner if
     the production of these hormones is suppressed.

     Of course, sex plays a role in all this. Aside from anything else, sexual activity, and
     especially orgasm, can kick-start the chemical changes associated with both love and
     long-term commitment. This suggests that partners may be more likely to fall in love
     or embark on a long-term relationship once they’ve slept together.

     So why did the brain evolve to handle romance and commitment this way? The
     evolutionary role of sexual attraction is clear, but what about love and long-term
     commitment? One answer could be that romantic love or infatuation increases the
     chances of a couple staying together long enough to make reproduction actually
     happen. As for long-term coupling, this would have helped increase the survival
     chances of the resulting offspring.




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                                                TEXT 2)

                       THE TRIANGULAR THEORY OF LOVE
                                       (Robert Sternberg, 1986)



     The theory characterizes love within the context of interpersonal relationships by
     three different components:

           INTIMACY – feelings of closeness, connectedness, and bondedness.

           PASSION - encompasses drives that lead to romance, physical attraction, and
            sexual consummation.

           COMMITMENT - the decision to remain with another, and in the long term, the
            shared achievements and plans made with that other.


     The “amount” of love one experiences depends on the absolute strength of these
     three components; the “type” of love one experiences depends on their strengths
     relative to each other. Different stages and types of love can be explained as
     different combinations of these three elements; for example, the relative emphasis of
     each component changes over time as an adult romantic relationship develops. A
     relationship based on a single element is less likely to survive than one based on two
     or three elements.



                         STERNBERG 8 TYPES OF LOVE:

        1. Nonlove is the absence of all three of Sternberg's components of love.

        2. Liking/friendship is not defined in a trivial sense. Rather, Sternberg says that
           this intimate liking characterizes true friendships in which a person feels a
           bond, a warmth, and a closeness with another but not passion or long-term
           commitment.

        3. Infatuated love is pure passion. Romantic relationships often start out as
           infatuated love and become romantic love as intimacy develops over time.
           Without developing intimacy or commitment, infatuated love may disappear
           suddenly.

        4. Empty love is characterized by commitment without intimacy or passion. A
           stronger love may deteriorate into empty love. In an arranged marriage the
           spouses' relationship may begin as empty love and develop into another form.

        5. Romantic love bonds individuals emotionally through intimacy and physically
           through passionate arousal, but neither is sustained without commitment.

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        6. Companionate love is an intimate, non-passionate type of love that is
           stronger than friendship because of the element of long-term commitment.
           This type of love is often found in marriages in which the passion has gone out
           of the relationship but a deep affection and commitment remain. The love
           ideally shared between family members is a form of companionate love, as is
           the love between close friends who have a platonic but strong friendship.

        7. Fatuous love can be exemplified by a whirlwind courtship and marriage in
           which a commitment is motivated largely by passion without the stabilizing
           influence of intimacy.

        8. Consummate love is the complete form of love, representing an ideal
           relationship toward which people strive. Of the seven varieties of love,
           consummate love is theorized to be that love associated with the “perfect
           couple”.




                  Combinations of intimacy, passion, commitment

                                             Intimacy       Passion       Commitment

             Nonlove

             Liking/Friendship                     x

             Infatuated love                                     x

             Empty love                                                            x

             Romantic love                         x             x

             Companionate love                     x                               x

             Fatuous love                                        x                 x

             Consummate love                       x             x                 x




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     Questionnaire CHEMISTRY & LOVE /                               Cultural aspects of love:



     1) What is your favourite love story (movie, literature,…)? Please write down the
        complete title:



     2) Your opinion: What ist the greatest love song of all time? Please write down title
        and artist:



     3) How easy is it in your country to talk about love and emotions? Do people show
        their emotions (love, happiness, anger) in front of others?

          Yes
          No
          More than in our project-partner´s country (Austria for Italians, Italy for
           Austrians)


     4) What would you do to show your girlfriend/boyfriend that you love her/him without
        words? (more than one answer is possible)

            Buy her/him a present
            bring her/him flowers
            give her/him sweets
            write her/him a love poem
            get a tatoo with his/her name
            give up something she/he doesn´t like about me (smoking, hobbies,..)
            _________________________


     5) What do you think about jealousy?

              Jealousy can become dangerous.
              A little bit of jealousy is good for a relationship.
              Jealousy means you don´t trust your partner.


     6) What is important for a long lasting and happy relationship/marriage?
        (more than one answer is possible)

            Similar interests and opinions
            Having children together
            Being faithful
            Having a passionate sex life
            To trust each other
            ________________________
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     Dopamine is produced in several areas of the brain, including the substantia nigra
     and the ventral tegmental area. Dopamine is also a neurohormone released by the
     hypothalamus.

     It was first synthesized in 1910 by George Barger and James Ewens. In 1958 Arvid
     Carlsson and Hillarp Nilsake discovered its function as a neurotrasmitter. Dopamine
     belongs to the family of catecholamines (benzene ring with two hydroxyl groups). The DA
     is the neurotrasmitter that causes happiness in a wide variety of animals.




     Serotonin is primarily found in the gastrointestinal tract, platelets, and in the central
     nervous system. It is a well-known contributor to feelings of well-being; therefore it is also
     known as a "happiness hormone" despite not being a hormone.

     Serotonin is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesized in serotonergic neurons in the
     central nervous system and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal system, mainly
     involved in regulating mood. One of the most important biogenic amines.




        1) Choose a molecular structure that you would like to build. Don´t choose a very
           complicated structure!
        2) Make sure to find a good model in 3D in books or online.
        3) Decide about the size of your molecule.
        4) Organise all the material you will need: glue, drinking straws, tubes, styrofoam
           balls, paint…




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            4. Teachers notes
          Short introduction for teachers:

         Neurochemistry is the part of neuroscience concerned with the chemistry of the
         nervous system. It contains the study of neurochemicals, which include
         neurotransmitters and other molecules such as neuro-active drugs that influence
         neuron function. In fact neurochemistry has a huge impact on our lifes.
         This document gives you information about the interesting topic of
         neurochemistry and some ideas for your lessons. It contains presentations,
         worksheets, questionnaires and texts to work with. The topic can easily be linked
         with other subjects like languages, psychology, philosophy, arts,…


         Requirements in general:
     o   Photocopies off the texts and pictures for all students/teams
     o   Enough rooms for the students to work on their own or in groups
     o   computers and if possible: Internet acces
     o   If you are interested in the social and cultural aspects oft he topic you should
         cooperate with schools from other regions/countries.



          Instructions and ideas for teachers:

         6) Neurochemistry and its influence on our lifes in general
            o Evaluate prior knowledge and motivation of your students to work
              about the topic neurochemistry.
            o Start with brainstormings or MindMaps or a questionnaire.

         7) The brain, neurons and synapses
            o Start with some fun for motivation. Example: The Brain Song
            o View and discuss the presentation „The Chemistry Of The Brain.“
            o Test your knowledge using the worksheet or short tests the students create
               on their own
            o Create a model of a neuron to complete your theoretical knowledge with
               some practical work.

         8) Psychotropics, Braindoping and Cognitive Enhancement
            o Are the students aware oft he dangers of drugs generally? Discuss the
              topic in class.
            o Are the students familiar with the terms of Mind Doping of Cognitive
              Enhancement? Try to find some current papers online.
            o Amorex: Are there examples of well know supplements or drugs in your
              country? (mood and concentration)

         9) Endorphines
            o What are the functions of endorphines?
            o Runner´s High etc.: Do some students have experience with the production
              of endorphines, because they like extreme sports or very spicy and hot
              food?

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        10) Love and chemistry
            o Compare the two texts about love from the view of psychology and
               biology/chemistry
            o Build some models of molecules that are important for the chemistry of
               love and happiness.
            o Social and cultural aspects of love: Create your own questionnaire or use
               the one we designed
            o Link the topics love and science to your countries history, visual arts,
               literature, stereotypes,…


     Look also to our public website:

     http://www.itaspg.it/cce/index.htm




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