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           Weather – Climate - Water

WMO Information System (WIS)
          Managing & Moving
Weather, Water and Climate Information
         in the 21st Century

                           José Arimatéa de Sousa Brito
                Information and Telecommunication Services Division
                  Observing and Information Systems Department

             World Meteorological Organization                    1
WMO Information System (WIS)

  •   Overview
       – Background information

  •   Project plan
       – Objectives and vision
       – Scope of the project
       – Organizational structure

  •   Project implementation
       – User requirements (RRR)
       – Technical specifications
       – Governance procedures
       – WIS guidelines (WIS Manual)

  •   ET-CTS critical issues
       – Engagement of ET-CTS

                World Meteorological Organization   2

• What is the WMO Information System (WIS)?
   – Why is it being developed?
   – What services will it provide?
• What will the NMHS gain from WIS?
• What is the overall WIS plan?
• How far has its implementation progressed?
• What are the major challenges still to be met?

              World Meteorological Organization    3

  Direction from WMO Congress (2003)
• Develop:
–   Over-arching approach for solving data management
    problems for all WMO and related international
–   A single, coordinated global infrastructure, the
    WMO Information System (WIS) for the
    collection and sharing of information

               World Meteorological Organization   4
• Various WMO Programmes developing
information systems independently
  – Incompatibilities, inefficiencies, duplication of
    effort and higher overall costs
• Continued systems development in an
uncoordinated manner would:
  – Exacerbate these problems
  – Increase difficulty in sharing information
    between programmes
  – Further isolate WMO Programmes from each
    other and from wider environmental community

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       Current situation: GTS
                  For WWW
GTS provides:
 • Information collection and distribution
    o Real-time push for WWW data & products
          (and some other programmes data)
 • Information management
    o Standard data formats
    o Implicit metadata & catalogs

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           Current situation:
GTS and Other WMO Programmes systems

• Information exchange
  o Multiplicity of procedures
  o Real-time and non-real-time
  o Very limited pull
• Information management
  o Multiplicity of data formats
  o Uncoordinated/lack of metadata & catalogs
  o No discovery
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         Current situation: GTS

                         WWW GTS

 Regional/Specialized                    Meteorological and R&D
Meteorological Centres                  Satellite Operator Centres
              National                  World
            Meteorological          Meteorological
               Centres                 Centres

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                        WIS Vision
Integrated approach for all WMO Programmes

• Routine collection and dissemination of time-critical
and operation-critical data and products:
   o Real-time “push” through dedicated telecommunication
• Data Discovery, Access and Retrieval service:
   o “Pull” through the Internet (HTTP, FTP,…)
• Timely delivery of data and products:
   o Delayed mode “push” through dedicated telecommunication
   means and public data networks, especially the Internet
• Unified procedures
   o More efficient data exchange
• Coordinated and standardized metadata
   o Interoperability between programmes
   o Improved data management
   o ISO 191xxx series for geographic information
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WIS brings new features and opportunities

  • Common information exchange standards,
    functions  and services for all WMO

  • Inter-disciplinary discovery, retrieval and
    exchange of information in real-time and
    non-real time

  • Inter-operability through on-line catalogues
    using metadata based on ISO 19100
    (geographic information standard)

  • Industry standards and off-the-shelf
    hardware and software systems to ensure
    cost-effectiveness and compatibility
               World Meteorological Organization   10

                           World Radiation Centre          International Organizations               GAW World Data Centres
                           Regional Instrument             (IAEA, CTBTO, UNEP, FAO.. )
                                                                                                     GCOS Data Centres
                                                                                                     Global Run-off Data Centre
                                                                                                     Global Precip. Climatology
IRI, Hadley Centre, and
                                                           DCPC                                      Centre
other climate research                                                  NC
                                               NC                                          NC/
centres; Universities;
                                                                                          DCPC                       Commercial
Regional Climate Centres
                                                                                                                  Service Providers
(CIIFEN, etc.)
                               NC/                                                                    NC

                                                              GISC                                          NC        WMO World
                                                                                                                      Data Centres
                                                    GISC                   GISC                                       International
                       NC                                                                                             Projects
                                                                                         DCPC                         (e.g. GMES
                                                       GISC          GISC                                             HALO)

                                   NC                                   (IGDDS, RETIM,               NC
                                                          Satellite           etc)
                                                      Two-Way Systems
                                          NC                                                                  Real-time “push”
                                           World Meteorological Organization                                 On-demand “pull”
      (for weather, water, climate and related data and products)

                                            Essentially through
                                            the Internet
                                            (HTTP, FTP, VPN…)                       Data pull

                        Essentially through
   WIS                  telecom. with                             Essentially through
                                                                  satellite based data IGDDS
                        guaranteed quality of
                    GTS service, e.g. leased                      distribution
                        circuits, dedicated data                  systems, e.g. DVB-S
                        com network services,
                        sat.-based systems, ..
                                                                                   Data push

WIS/GTS: for time and operation-critical data & products
WIS/IGDDS: for space-based data & products
WIS/DAR: data discovery, access and retrieval
Data push: routine distribution of data & products
Data pull: access to and retrieval of data & products
                                            World Meteorological Organization                   13
                                                                                                                                       Questionnaire Responses, Meeting Reports, interviews, etc
Process for Establishing, Maintaining and Implementing User Requirements                                          Assessment of Requirements                                                       Assessment Phase
                                                                                                               (WIS Project Office – interim measure)

                                                                                                                                       User Reqmts Doc, WIGOS Obs db + TBD db

                                                                                                                        Review of Requirements
                                                                                                               (New ET on User Requirements - to be formed)                                            RRR Phase

                                                                                                                                       Consolidated and Endorsed User Requirements

                                                                                                              Determine Optimal Way to Meet User Requirements
                                                                                                                        WG-PIW | ET-OI | ET-CTS

                                                                                                                           Consolidation of Views
                                                                                                                        (New ET on User Requirements)

                                                                           Ad Hoc Requests for WIS Services
                                                                                                                                                                                   WIS DCPC and GISC Nominations

                                                                                Implementation of Services                                              Designation of GISCs and DCPCs
                                                                               Addressing User Requirements
                                                                                                                                                           EC, TCs, RAs, Member States
                                                                                      Member States (CIO)

                                                                                  Decisions on Implementation of                                                Decisions on WIS Components
                                                                                   formal and Ad Hoc Requests

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WIS, a key issue: interoperability
 Interoperability enables the discovery,
the retrieval and the usage of the data
   It needs the development and the
   implementation of relevant Metadata
   Development of a WMO Metadata Profile of
   the ISO 191xx series for geographic
• Step 1: development of the WMO Metadata
Core Profile of ISO 19115 for data discovery
•Step 2: Use of the ISO 191xx series for the
access and use of the data
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European Virtual GISC Project

      World Meteorological Organization   16
Major Components and Services of WIS:
 Interoperability and WIS Networking


                                                    Data and Product Users
                     Global Information
                      System Centres

        Data Collection or
        Production Centres

       SOA - Focus is on the interfaces
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      World Meteorological Organization   18
Integration Definition for Function Modelling (IDEF0)

                                         defines how the
                                       Function carries out
                                        the transformation

                                                Control                  the result of the
                      source data
                       which is                                           transformation
                   transformed by                                       carried out by the
                     the Function                                            Function
                               Input           Function                Output

         Functions transform
       the Inputs into Outputs
       in accordance with the                 Mechanism
        Controls and making
       use of the Mechanisms
                                              identifies the
                                       resources/facilities that are
                                        used by the Function (e.g.
                                          humans, computers...)

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             World Meteorological Organization   20
                       Interface Technical Specification   Interface Technical Specification Name                                      Required for:
                                                                                                                                  NC   DCPC        GISC
                       WIS-TechSpec-1                      Uploading of Metadata for Data and Products                                                
                       WIS-TechSpec-2                      Uploading of Data and Products                                                             
                       WIS-TechSpec-3                      Centralization of Globally Distributed Data                                                  
Interface Tech Specs

                       WIS-TechSpec-4                      Maintenance of User Identification and Role Information                                    
                       WIS-TechSpec-5                      Consolidated View of Distributed Identification and Role Information                         

                       WIS-TechSpec-6                      Authentication of a User                                                                    

                       WIS-TechSpec-7                      Authorization of a User Role                                                                

                       WIS-TechSpec-8                      DAR Catalogue Search and Retrieval                                                          

                       WIS-TechSpec-9                      Consolidated View of Distributed DAR Metadata Catalogues                                     

                       WIS-TechSpec-10                     Downloading Files via Dedicated Networks                                                   
                       WIS-TechSpec-11                     Downloading Files via Non-dedicated Networks                                               
                       WIS-TechSpec-12                     Downloading Files via Other Methods                                                        
                       WIS-TechSpec-13                     Maintenance of Dissemination Metadata                                                      
                       WIS-TechSpec-14                     Consolidated View of Distributed Dissemination Metadata Catalogues                           

                       WIS-TechSpec-15                     Reporting of Quality of Service                                                            
                                                           World Meteorological Organization                                                       21
 WIS Tech Spec 8 – DAR
Catalogue search & retrieval
Applicable Standards   ISO 23950 Information Search and Retrieval Protocol [ISO-23950]
                        including GEO Profile and SRU (Search and Retrieve via URL) Profile
                       WMO Core Profile of the ISO Metadata Standard [IPET-MI(07)]

Communication          client-server; request-response

Service Level          non-dedicated shared network

Network Transports     public or private Internet using TCP/IP which may include encryption; typically
and Supporting         HTTP with GET or POST methods, and may include SOAP

Performance Metrics
Response Time          maximum: 2 seconds per request
Search Request Rate    minimum: 40 keyword and bounding box searches per second
Concurrency            minimum: 20 active sessions

WIS Data Flow          WIS Technical Specification Appendix A, Diagram 2, Process A3:
Diagram -Process,      Maintain and Expose Catalogue of Services and Information
Input, Output          Input: Information Search Request
                       Output: Information Search Result

Applicable Use Cases   WIS Technical Specification Appendix B, Use Case:
                       B.6, Discover Data or Products

                       World Meteorological Organization                                                 22
 WIS Tech Spec 8 – DAR
Catalogue search & retrieval
WIS Requirements   provide metadata catalogue across all GISCs of data, products, and services;
(in addition to    assure catalogue interoperability using ISO 23950 search and geospatial
requirements       services; catalogue WIS contributions in GEOSS Clearinghouse; use ISO
applicable to      19115 and the WMO core metadata profile; standardize practices for
all interfaces)    electronic archival of metadata; provide metadata with quality indications to
                   enable search, retrieval, and archiving; make WMO Resolution 40 data
                   available through GEOSS interoperable arrangements; use ISO standards for
                   references to specific places on the Earth; harmonize data formats,
                   transmission, archiving and distribution across disciplines; draw on existing
                   Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) components as institutional and technical
                   precedents; [each DCPC] supports access to data and products via Internet
                   request/reply; [each DCPC] implements backup and recovery of essential
                   services; [each GISC] provides coordination and mutual backup with other
                   GISCs; use public Internet for Data Discovery, Access and Retrieva; support
                   rapid access and integration of real-time and non real-time (archive) data
                   sets; identify and use a variety of data types across WMO programmes;
                   support WIS as a GEOSS component with a core role
                   WIS Technical Specification Appendix C Requirements:
                   C.2.01, C.1.08, C.5.08, C.5.09, C.5.11, C.5.19, C.1.24, C.3.06, C.5.21,
                   C.1.12, C.5.06, C.5.10, C.5.03, C.5.04, C.5.20, C.1.11, C.5.05, C.5.17,
                   C.5.07, C.3.05, C.3.07, C.2.05, C.1.15, C.1.19, C.1.20, C.1.21, C.1.18b,
                   C.1.09, C.1.10, C.1.18a, C.5.01, C.5.02

Notes              The procedures for designation of a GISC or DCPC require that both type of
                   WIS centre maintain data, product and service catalogues in the WMO-
                   agreed standard format and facilitate access to these catalogues. Therefore,
                   network services should be treated as a type of WIS product that can be
                   discovered through the DAR catalogue.

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              WIS-TechSpec-4, Maintenance of User Identification and Role Information

Applicable Standards           standards for content and communications are TBD by host of identification and role information
Communication Types            terminal-host; store-and-forward or file transfer (e.g., FTP, HTTP)
                               client-server; request-response (e.g., HTTP with CGI Web form)
Service Level Required         non-dedicated shared network may be used, provided there is privacy protection for identified individuals
                               as required by national laws
Network Transports and         public or private Internet using TCP/IP with encryption;
Supporting Services            typically HTTP with GET or POST methods, and may include SOAP
Performance Metrics            the timeliness of changes to user identification and role information is application-specific and subject to
identification and             NC or DCPC procedures
  role information
WIS Data Flow Diagrams         WIS Technical Specification Appendix A, Diagram 2, Process A2:
                               Assign User Role
                               Inputs: User Requests
                               Outputs: User Requests with Assigned Role
                               WIS Technical Specification Appendix A, Diagram 2, Process A4:
                               Authorise Access to Information by Users
                               Inputs: Requests for Information
                               Outputs: Information Access Authorizations
Use Cases                      WIS Technical Specification Appendix B Use Cases:
                               B.5, Maintain Identification and Role Information for WIS Users
WIS Requirements               use ISO standards for references to specific places on the Earth; harmonize data formats, transmission,
(in addition to requirements   archiving and distribution across disciplines; [each NC] authorizes its national users to access WIS;
applicable to                  [each DCPC] supports access to data and products via Internet request/reply; [each DCPC] implements
all interfaces)                backup and recovery of essential services; use dedicated telecommunications and public Internet for
                               timely delivery; identify and use a variety of data types across WMO programmes
                               WIS Technical Specification Appendix C Requirements:
                               C.5.20, C.1.11, C.5.05, C.5.17, C.4.05, C.3.05, C.3.07, C.1.14, C.1.19, C.1.20, C.1.21, C.1.10, C.1.18a

Notes                          For updating the identification and role information concerning candidate or current users of WIS, WIS
                               Centres should support two kinds of maintenance facilities: a file upload facility for "batch" updating
                               (add, replace, or delete identification and role records treated as separate files); and an online form for
                               changing individual identification and role entries (add, change, or delete of elements in a record as well
                               as whole records).
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              Use Case B.5, Maintain Identification and Role Information for WIS Users

Use Case Goal          Internal and external users of WIS are able to be identified as needed for their authentication, and
                             their role information is maintained as needed for their authorizations to perform specific
Actors                 Users of WIS (internal and external)
                       Administrators of authentication and authorization at WIS Centres
Pre-Conditions         (1) Administrators have agreed authentication policies delineating the credentials required to
                             establish identity of a WIS user
                       (2) Administrators have agreed authorization policies delineating which roles are authorized to
                             perform each WIS action
                       (3) Administrators have mechanisms to create and maintain identification information needed for
                             authentication of users of WIS
                       (4) Administrators have mechanisms to create and maintain role information needed for
                             authorization of authenticated users of WIS
Post-Conditions        WIS Centres collectively have the ability to authenticate each user of WIS and authorize him to
                            perform all of the functions appropriate to his role, and only those functions appropriate to
                            his role
Normal Flow            Identification and role information about candidate or current users of WIS are to be recorded
                              through facilities controlled by WIS Centres. Typically, two kinds of facilities should be
                              supported. One is a file upload facility for "batch" updating (add, replace, or delete the
                              identification and role records as separate files). The other is an online form for changing
                              identification and role records (add, change, or delete elements in a record as well as whole
                              records). Administrators of authentication and authorization at WIS Centres share the
                              updated identification and role information as a resource available as needed across WIS

Notes and Issues       At this point in WIS system design, mechanisms have not been decided for handling identification
                              and role information as needed across WIS centres.
Last Updated           30 Oct 2007
Last Updated By        Eliot Christian

                                World Meteorological Organization                                                             25
                    WIS SERVICES
WIS provide three types of services to meet the
different requirements:
 (1)     Routine collection and dissemination service
for time-critical and operation-critical data and
    Based on real-time “push” mechanism (incl. Multicast);
implemented essentially through dedicated telecommunication means
with guaranteed quality of service, e.g. leased circuits, dedicated
data communication network services and satellite-based data-
distribution systems;
(2) Data Discovery, Access and Retrieval service:
   Based on request/reply “pull” mechanism with relevant data
management functions; implemented essentially through the Internet
(HTTP, FTP,…);
(3) Timely delivery service for data and products:
   Based on delayed mode “push” mechanism; implemented through a
combination of dedicated telecommunication means and of public data
networks, especially the Internet.
                    World Meteorological Organization          26
            Key Future Milestones

• Consolidate plans on development, governance
  and implementation of WIS: 2007-2008
• Develop WIS regulatory documentation and
  guidance material for implementation, including
  specifications for the GISC interfaces and a
  unified user interface: 2007-2008
• Develop scheme and practices for security,
  authentication and authorization procedures for
  WIS services : 2007-2008
• Implementation of first operational GISC: 2008
• Implementation of other operational GISCs: 2009
  - 2011
• Implementation of DCPCs, i.e. WIS interfaces at
  WMO programmes’ centres: 2008-2011

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WIS Project Gantt Chart

     World Meteorological Organization   28

• Data exchange/synchronization between GISCs

• Metadata Exchange/synchronization

• GISC performance standards, monitoring, storage
    • Two (2) minutes for warning distribution
    • Ten (10) minutes for other info
    • Holding 24 hours of information

• Manual on WIS, equivalent of Manual on the GTS.

• Defining steps to be taken to evolve the GTS towards WIS

                  World Meteorological Organization          29

• WIS has to perform better than the current GTS in any stage

• Use of technology available now

• Take into account current changes in Regional Networks

• WIS to be cost-effective in the long run

                  World Meteorological Organization         30

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