Sumerian Civilization Along the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers by tzsuPC4L

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									Sumerian Civilization Along the
 Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
       The  Tigris -Euphrates River
        valley was an area of conflict.
       The Tigris River carries
        more water. The Euphrates
        more silt than the Nile.
       The Northern part of the
        valley Mesopotamia, the
        southern Babylonia.
            Sumer and its people
                  Where   the Tigris-Euphrates
                   reach the Persian Gulf lies
                   ancient Sumer.
                  The Sumerian culture
                   developed at the same time
                   as the Nile River Valley.
                   3000 B.C.
Medical tablet
                  The Sumerians developed
                   city-states. The city-sates of
                   Ur, Kish and Erech.
        Sumerian Social Life
  The Sumerians had three social
  classes. Nobles, merchants/artisans,
  and peasants.
 Sumerian writing was on clay tablets.
  The writing with a stylus was wedged
  and called cuneiform. 600 signs.
 The Sumerians traded all over the
  Middle East. They used clay bricks to
  build. The arch was a Sumerian design.
  They built ziggurats.
        Sumerian Knowledge
  The Sumerians developed some of the
  principles of Algebra. Used sets of 60
  for large numbers. 360 degree circle.
 Anu, lord of heaven, Enlil- god of air
  and storms, EA - god of water.
 Education was important in Sumerian
  culture. Sumerians were polytheistic.
 No firm belief in the afterlife, but in
  ghosts.
    Empires in the Fertile Crescent
  The Akkadians under Sargon. 2400
  B.C. Lasted for 100 years.
 About 1792 B.C a strong Babylonian
  king Hammurabi. Developed the Code
  of Hammurabi.
 The Code of Hammurabi was harsh.
  282 laws governed everyday life. “An
  eye for an eye was the response in most
  cases.
The Hittites, Assyrians and Chaldeans
 The Hittites invaded Mesopotamia 1600
  B.C. They used iron weapons and had an
  easier code of law.
 The Assyrians invaded around 900 B.C.
  They used cavalry and were cruel
  warriors. They built roads, a postal
  service, and used mercenaries.
 The Chaldeans controlled much of the
  Assyrian empire under Nebuchadnezzar.
  Hanging Gardens , astronomy
                The Persians
 The Persians conquered Babylon in 539
  B.C. and spoke Indo-European language.
 The region became known as Persia.
 The rulers of Persia - Cyrus, led a revolt
  against the Medes and conquered Asia
  Minor.
 Darius the Great added areas as far as
  India to the Persian Empire.
 Xerxes invaded Greece in 400 B.C.
    Persian Government and Religion
 The Persians allowed conquered people to
  keep their religion. They paid close
  attention to local customs.
 The Persians copied the road system of
  the Assyrians, and the secret police.
 600 B.C. a prophet and religious
  reformer changed the religion to
  Zoroasterism
 Good versus evil and the belief in one
  God. 331 B.C. Persian Empire falls.
           The Phoenicians
 Land  along the Mediterranean. The
  northern part was Phoenicia and
  Lydia and the southern was Caanan,
  Israel, and Palestine.
 Phoenicia was a group of city states.
  They used the sea to make a living.
 They were great merchants and
  traders. The famous purple cloth.
 The Phoenician alphabet basis of
  Greek alphabet.
The Lydians
  The   Lydians were the
   first people to use
   coined money. Before
   the Lydians people had
   to barter.
  With coins the Lydians
   developed a money
   economy.
             The Hebrews
 The  basis of modern Judaism. They
  had the greatest impact on the area.
  The were from Sumeria and then to
  Goshen.
 Moses led the Israelites out of Egypt.
 The Ten Commandments - the moral
  laws of the God Yahweh.
 The commandments emphasize self-
  restraint, the importance of family, and
  formal worship of one God.

								
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