Sumerian Civilization Along the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers The Tigris -Euphrates River valley was an area of conflict. The Tigris River carries more water. The Euphrates more silt than the Nile. The Northern part of the valley Mesopotamia, the southern Babylonia. Sumer and its people Where the Tigris-Euphrates reach the Persian Gulf lies ancient Sumer. The Sumerian culture developed at the same time as the Nile River Valley. 3000 B.C. Medical tablet The Sumerians developed city-states. The city-sates of Ur, Kish and Erech. Sumerian Social Life The Sumerians had three social classes. Nobles, merchants/artisans, and peasants. Sumerian writing was on clay tablets. The writing with a stylus was wedged and called cuneiform. 600 signs. The Sumerians traded all over the Middle East. They used clay bricks to build. The arch was a Sumerian design. They built ziggurats. Sumerian Knowledge The Sumerians developed some of the principles of Algebra. Used sets of 60 for large numbers. 360 degree circle. Anu, lord of heaven, Enlil- god of air and storms, EA - god of water. Education was important in Sumerian culture. Sumerians were polytheistic. No firm belief in the afterlife, but in ghosts. Empires in the Fertile Crescent The Akkadians under Sargon. 2400 B.C. Lasted for 100 years. About 1792 B.C a strong Babylonian king Hammurabi. Developed the Code of Hammurabi. The Code of Hammurabi was harsh. 282 laws governed everyday life. “An eye for an eye was the response in most cases. The Hittites, Assyrians and Chaldeans The Hittites invaded Mesopotamia 1600 B.C. They used iron weapons and had an easier code of law. The Assyrians invaded around 900 B.C. They used cavalry and were cruel warriors. They built roads, a postal service, and used mercenaries. The Chaldeans controlled much of the Assyrian empire under Nebuchadnezzar. Hanging Gardens , astronomy The Persians The Persians conquered Babylon in 539 B.C. and spoke Indo-European language. The region became known as Persia. The rulers of Persia - Cyrus, led a revolt against the Medes and conquered Asia Minor. Darius the Great added areas as far as India to the Persian Empire. Xerxes invaded Greece in 400 B.C. Persian Government and Religion The Persians allowed conquered people to keep their religion. They paid close attention to local customs. The Persians copied the road system of the Assyrians, and the secret police. 600 B.C. a prophet and religious reformer changed the religion to Zoroasterism Good versus evil and the belief in one God. 331 B.C. Persian Empire falls. The Phoenicians Land along the Mediterranean. The northern part was Phoenicia and Lydia and the southern was Caanan, Israel, and Palestine. Phoenicia was a group of city states. They used the sea to make a living. They were great merchants and traders. The famous purple cloth. The Phoenician alphabet basis of Greek alphabet. The Lydians The Lydians were the first people to use coined money. Before the Lydians people had to barter. With coins the Lydians developed a money economy. The Hebrews The basis of modern Judaism. They had the greatest impact on the area. The were from Sumeria and then to Goshen. Moses led the Israelites out of Egypt. The Ten Commandments - the moral laws of the God Yahweh. The commandments emphasize self- restraint, the importance of family, and formal worship of one God.
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