INFANT ATTACHMENT

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					ATTACHMENT

  From Alan Sroufe
University of Minnesota
    Minnesota Longitudinal Study
 180 Children born in poverty
 Assessment starting before birth
 Age-by-Age measures from birth to adult
 Focus on early relationships
    The Attachment Relationship
 Between Infant and Caregiver
 All Infants become attached
 Differences in attachment quality
 Patterning of care
 Organization of Attachment Behavior
        Models
Focus
         Models
LIMITS
          Models
Utility
          Two Hypotheses
 Quality of attachment depends on earlier
  quality of care
 Infant attachment is the foundation for
  personality development
         Attachment and Bonding
 Bonding refers to a mother’s initial reaction
  to her baby
 Attachment refers to what happens over
  the long haul (first few years of life)
       A relationship
             Early Development
   Newborns are not born blind
       Recognition of general facial features
 Some color vision & fairly good motion
  perception
 Sense of smell and taste well developed
 Perception more developed than cognition
          Bowlby Definition
                  (1950s)

 Enduring emotional bond
 Effect on development
      Representational Model
 Unconscious structure create mental
  representations
 Sets the stage for future interactions
    MEASURING EARLY CARE
 Sensitivity to early Care
 Cooperative vs. Intrusive Care
 Inconsistent care, rejection or emotional
  unavailability leads to anxious attachment
       SECURE ATTACHMENT
   Effective use of caregiver as secure base
   Clear preference for caregiver when distressed
   Active initiation of contact following brief
    separations
   Ease of being comforted
   65% are securely attached
   Advantages in early development
   Do not perform better in cognitive tasks but they
    persist
RESISTANT (Anxious/Ambivalent)
       ATTACHMENT
 Poverty of exploration
 Wariness of separating
 Difficulty separating
 Difficulty being settled by caregiver
       Visible Anger
RESISTANT (Anxious/Ambivalent)
       ATTACHMENT
    Infant irritability
    Low level of social support for
     mother
    Instability in the family
    Boys are at greater risk
    2 or more increases likelihood
    AVOIDANT ATTACHMENT
 Little obvious preference for caregiver
  when stressed
 Little emotional sharing
 Active avoidance following brief separation
 35% in most samples
 Does not request support – doubts it will
  be provided
 DISORGANIZED ATTACHMENT
 Caregiver as source of threat
 Irresolvable paradox
 Disorientation and incoherence
 Apprehension or confusion
          SPECIAL AREAS
 Babies develop clear, stable hierarchies of
  attachment figures
 Mothers employed have securely attached
  babies
 Part time working mother’s babies at no
  risk
 Avoidant attachment increases if child
  under 6 mo. and in day care >20hrs a wk
 No info about attachment to caretakers
      DETERMINANTS OF
    ATTACHMENT PATTERNS
 Quality of care of primary caregiver
 Babies personality influence outcomes to
  a degree
 Primary caregiver has long term influence
 No gender difference in attachment
  patterns
 ATTACHEMENT IMPLICATIONS
IN ADOLESCENTS AND ADULTS
 Secure adolescent – love experiences are
  positive
 Anxious/avoidant adolescents and adults
  have difficulty building, enjoying &
  maintaining relationships
 Anxious/ambivalent adolescents and
  adults have obsessional love relationships,
  extreme sexual attraction and are jealous
    How does attachment support
          development?

 As Motivational base
 As Attitudinal base
 Instrumental base
 Emotional base
 Relational base
      MOTIVATIONAL BASE
 Positive expectations concerning
  relationships
 Basic sense of connectedness
 Belief that relationships will be rewarding
       ATTITUDINAL BASE
 Belief that one may elicit responses from
  others
 Expectation of Mastery in the social world
     INSTRUMENTAL BASE
 Object mastery through support for
  exploration
 Capacity to enjoy play and discovery
        EMOTIONAL BASE
 Modulated arousal
 Self-regulation of emotion
       RELATIONAL BASE
 Empathic responsiveness derived from
  empathic care
 Expectations concerning reciprocity
     MAJOR OUTCOMES
 SELF-RELIANCE
 CURIOSITY
 SELF-REGULATION
 COMPETENCE with PEERS
 MENTAL HEALTH or PATHOLOGY
        Resistant Attachment
                and
       Later Psychopathology
 Anxiety Problems
 Depression
 Interaction with infant temperament
        Avoidant Attachment
                and
       Later Psychopathology
 Conduct Problems
 Depression
      Disorganized Attachment
                and
       Later Psychopathology
 General Pathology
 Dissociation
 Conduct Problems
         DISORGANIZATION
              TRAUMA
                 &
           DISSOCIATION

 Disorganized attachment + Trauma =
     Predicts Dissociation
 Dissociation predicts = Frightening Parent
     Behavior
 Frightening Parent Behavior = predicts
     Disorganized Attachment

				
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posted:3/2/2012
language:English
pages:31