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Shakespeares

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									Shakespeare’s
   Romeo and Juliet




      Mrs. Catherine Jones, 2011
William Shakespeare
   Born in April 1564
   Born in Stratford-upon-
    Avon
   His parents: John
    Shakespeare and Mary
    Arden
   At age 18, married Anne
    Hathaway
William Shakespeare
    Had 3 children: Susanna,
     Judith and Hamnet (twins)
    By the early 1590’s, he was
     established in London as
     both an actor and
     playwright
    Shakespeare died on or near
     April 23 in 1616.
    He was outlived by his wife
     and two daughters.
    Hamnet had died at age 11.
Shakespeare the Playwright
       Acting companies often commissioned
        writers and then could sell the play to a
        publisher without further compensating
        the author.
       Shakespeare did not take part in the
        process of publishing his own plays.

       An important patron who supported
                  Queen
        Shakespeare was
        Elizabeth I
Shakespeare the Playwright
   In his lifetime alone, twenty
    publishers bought different editions
    of his individual plays, but none
    took any special steps to ensure
    that the text was correct.
   His name was rarely printed on his
    work until the 1623 publication of
    the First Folio because its use had
    little commercial value at the time.
   Shakespeare’s First Folio was not
    published until 7 years after his
    death.
Shakespeare’s Language



 •So – Why didn’t
 Shakespeare write
 his plays in a type
 of English that we
 can understand
 today???
    Shakespeare’s Language
To the Reader.
This Figure, that thou here seest put,
 It was for gentle Shakespeare cut,
Wherein the Graver had a strife
with Nature, to out-doo the life :
O, could he but have drawne his wit
As well in brasse, as he hath hit
His face ; the Print would then surpassed
All, that was ever writ in brasse.
But, since he cannot, Reader, looke
Not on his Picture, but his Booke.

Ben Jonson's Commendation of the
Droeshout engraving. First published 1623.
                       Globe Theater
•Built of wood
• Three tiers of seats in a circular
shape, with a stage area on one
side of the circle.
•About 1,500 audience members
could pay extra money to sit in
the covered seating areas,
•While about 800 "groundlings"
paid less money to stand in this
open area before the stage.
Globe Theater
   Opened in 1599
   Burned down in 1613,
    it was immediately
    rebuilt.
   Closed by the Puritans
    in 1642
   In 1970, a trust was
    established to rebuild
    the theater.
   Reconstruction began
    in 1987.
•The stage itself was divided into     Globe Theater –
three levels:
                                           Stage
•a main stage area with doors at
the rear and a curtained area in the
back for "discovery scenes";
• an upper, canopied area called
"heaven" for balcony scenes;
•and an area under the stage
called "hell," accessed by a trap
door in the stage.
           Globe Theater – Stage
   Dressing rooms were
    located behind the
    stage, but no curtain in
    the front of the stage,
    which meant that
    scenes had to flow into
    each other, and "dead
    bodies" had to be
    dragged off.
Women in the Theater
   The public acting of women
    was prohibited in the England of
    Shakespeare’s time.
   Shakespeare was greatly
    responsible for roles in which
    female characters spent much of
    their time disguised as boys.
   This helped to deflect attention
    from the fact that the part was
    actually played by a young boy.
Setting --Romeo and Juliet

“Two households, both
alike in dignity,
In fair Verona, where we
lay our scene, …”
Characters in Romeo and Juliet

   House of Montague      House of Capulet
       Lord Montague          Lord Capulet
       Lady Montague          Lady Capulet
       Romeo                  Juliet
                               Tybalt
       Benvolio
                               Nurse
       Balthasar
                               Peter
       Abraham                Sampson
                               Gregory
Characters in Romeo and Juliet
   The Royalty of Verona
    Prince Escalus
    Mercutio
    County Paris
   The Catholic Church
    Friar Lawrence
    Friar John
   Other
    Apothecary-(means
    Pharmacist– Minor
    Character – Act V)
Theme areas in Romeo & Juliet
            Love
            Family Feud
            Hate
            Fate
            Power & Control
Theme area - Love


      Lustful love (sexual pleasure)
      Infatuation (crushes)
      “Arranged” Love
      100% Pure Love
Theme area – Family Feud

   The feud between the Montagues and Capulets
    ends up killing their only two children.
   It was just an ancient feud: no one remembered
    how it started or bothered ending it.
   If the two families had just stopped feuding
    earlier, the lives of the two lovers could have
    been saved.
Theme area - Hate

   The role of hatred also plays an important role in
    Romeo and Juliet.
   The hatred between the Montagues and Capulets
    ends up killing their only two children.
   Shakespeare tells us that it is senseless in fighting
    with someone just for the sake of fighting.
Theme area - Fate
   Romeo and Juliet were "star-crossed lovers," as the
    prologue at the start of the play indicated. They had
    fate against them.
   In that time, people were very wary of what the
    stars said. If two people’s stars were crossed in the
    sky, they would never remain together.
   Obviously, Romeo and Juliet didn’t live happily
    ever after, as their death in the end showed.
   Fate was not on their side.
Theme area – Power & Control
   People who act in a rash manner sometimes live to
    regret their actions.
   Children are often victims of their parents' inflexible
    decisions.
   Children do not understand that they sometimes need
    parental guidance.
   Positive and negative human emotions, love and hate,
    are so closely related that one often leads to the other.
   Suffering often causes alienation, but paradoxically it is
    often the only means that can bring people together.
Literary Techniques
   Puns
   Allusions
   Metaphor
   Personification
   Oxymorons
   Paradoxes
   Foreshadowing
Pun
   A pun is a play on words.
   Mercutio – “Nay, gentle Romeo, we must
    have you dance.”

   Romeo – “Not I, believe me. You have
    dancing shoes / With nimble soles; I have
    a soul of lead…” (Act I Sc. 4)
Allusion
   An allusion is a reference to a
    well known work of art,
    music, literature, or history.
   “At lovers’ perjuries, they say Jove
    laughs.” (Act II, Sc. 2)

   Jove is another name for Jupiter, the
    Roman King of the Gods.
Metaphor
   A metaphor is a direct
    comparison between two
    unlike things.

   Romeo – “But, soft! what light through
    yonder window breaks? / It is the east,
    and Juliet is the sun.” (Act II Sc. 2)
Personification
 when     an inanimate object
    or concept is given the
    qualities of a person or
    animal.
   Juliet— “For thou wilt lie upon the wings
    of night / Whiter than new snow on a
    raven’s back. / Come, gentle night, come,
    loving, black-brow’d night” (Act III Sc. 2)
Oxymoron
   An oxymoron describes when two
    juxtaposed words have opposing or very
    diverse meanings.

   Juliet – “Beautiful tyrant! fiend
    angelical!” (Act III Sc.2)
Paradox
   A paradox is statement or
    situation with seemingly
    contradictory or incompatible
    components.
   Juliet – “O serpent heart, hid
    with a flowering face!” (Act III
    Sc. 2)
Foreshadowing

   Basically, everyone can figure out what is going to
    happen to Romeo and Juliet.
   The prologue states that the "star-crossed lovers
    take their life." But as the play progresses, there are
    many subtle clues that confirm the fact that Romeo
    and Juliet will die.
   This is the literary device known as foreshadowing.
   Foreshadowing is the use of symbols to show what
    will happen in the future.
Foreshadowing
   Juliet – “Give me my Romeo; and, when
    he shall die,
    Take him and cut him out in little stars,
    And he will make the face of heaven so
    fine
    That all the world will be in love with
    night
    And pay no worship to the garish sun.”
    (Act III Sc. 2)
Motifs that foreshadow
 Look   for references to light
    and dark:
•   References to “light” words, such as
    “torches,” “the sun,” adjectives that
    describe light (“bright”)
•   References to “dark” words, such as
    “night” and “gloom”
Motifs that foreshadow
 Look      for references to time:
•   References to “time” words, such as
    “hours”
•   References to the passage of time,
    especially if it seems “rushed”

								
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