AIR, NOISE, AND LIGHT POLLUTION http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KsVa4BwA4Pg (General video on air pollution and its effect on human health) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TwM9_3thvss video on air pollution (good) Air pollution can cause serious health problems. People who are very young or very old and people who have heart or lung problem can be most affected by air pollution. SHORT –TERM EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION ON HEALTH Many of the effects of air pollution on people’s health are short term and are irreversible if their exposure to air pollution decreases. The short-term effects of air pollution on people’s health include headache; nausea; irritation to the eyes, nose , and throat; tightness in the chest; coughing; and upper respiratory infections, such as bronchitis and pneumonia. Pollution can also make the conditions of individuals who suffer from asthma and emphysema worse. Eye, Nose and Throat Irritation Smog, particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide can all contribute to ear, nose and/or throat irritation. Smog is a combination of smoke and fog. Smoke contains particulate matter which can severely irritate the eyes, nose and throat. Even short term exposure to significant particulate matter can cause intense coughing spells, sneezing, eye watering and burning. Similarly ozone can cause coughing, wheezing and a dry throat. Nitrogen dioxide irritates the lungs and throat while sulfur dioxide narrows the airways, causing wheezing, shortness of breath and tightening in the chest. High concentrations of sulfur dioxide in air pollution can cause burning in the nose. Bronchitis and Pneumonia Short term exposure to air pollution can cause or aggravate lower respiratory conditions such as bronchitis and pneumonia. Children are especially affected by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, or PAHs, which can cause acute bronchitis. PAHs are released when fuel such as wood and coal are burned, as well as from grilling food and vehicle emissions. In addition, indoor air pollution from cooking fuels is detrimental to women and children across the world. According to the World Health Organization, exposure to indoor pollution more than doubles the risk of pneumonia. Asthma and Emphysemia People with chronic conditions like asthma and emphysema are especially vulnerable to short term exposure to air pollution. Nitrogen dioxide affects asthmatic people more intensely than others. It causes those with asthma to be more susceptible to lung infections and asthma triggers like exercise and pollen. Sulfur dioxide affects people with chronic conditions as well. Since it tightens the airways it can cause people with asthma or emphysema to have stronger symptoms than normal and an increased lack of breath. Air pollution from industrial plants, factories and automobiles all contribute significantly to an increase in asthma attacks Allergic Reactions One of the short term effects of air pollution is an increase in the likelihood of allergic reactions. Not only do people with chronic conditions like asthma and emphysema need to pay attention to pollution indexes but now people with allergies are advised to do so as well. Pollution acts as a trigger to inflame already existing allergic reactions. Ozone is one of the main culprits. People who have strong allergies may want to stay clear of high traffic areas like freeways and highways; ozone is particularly acute in these areas. Air Pollution and Mortality Air pollution can lead to death in many cases. The World Health Organization estimates that indoor air pollution from solid fuel leads to approximately 1.6 million deaths per year. During London's "Smog Disaster" in 1952 about four thousand people died in just a few days because of a high concentration of air pollution. Carbon monoxide is also a quick and silent killer. It bonds to the blood's hemoglobin, slowly suffocating people as they breath. Carbon monoxide is especially dangerous indoors during the winter because it originates from unburnt fuel and settles close to the ground in cold seasons. http://www.ehow.com/about_5325756_short-term-effects-air-pollution.html Source LONG-TERM HEALTH EFFCTS OF AIR POLLUTION Long-term effects on health that have been linked to air pollution include emphysema, lung cancer, and heart disease. Long term exposure to air pollution may worsen medical conditions suffered by older people and may damage the lungs of children. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Aus9V_UNbiI Emphysema video INDOOR AIR POLLUTION The quality of air inside a home or a building is sometimes worse than the quality of the air outside. Plastic and other industrial chemicals are major sources of pollution. These compounds can be found in carpets, building materials, paints and furniture, particularly when these items are new. Refer to page 311 in your text book to see some examples of indoor air pollutants Buildings that have very poor air quality have a condition called sick-building syndrome. Sick-building syndrome is more common in hot places where buildings are tightly sealed to keep out the heat. In Florida, for example, a new, tightly sealed country courthouse had to be abandoned. Half of the people who worked there developed allergic reactions to fungi that were growing in the air- conditioning ducts, ceiling tiles, carpets, and furniture. Identifying and removing the sources of indoor air pollution is the most effective way to maintain good indoor air quality. Ventilation, or mixing outdoor air with indoor air, is also necessary for good air quality. When activities such as renovation and painting, which cause indoor air pollution, are undertaken, ventilation should be increased. Sick building syndrome RADON GAS Radon gas is colorless, tasteless, and odorless. It is also radioactive. Radon is one of the elements produced by the decay of uranium, a radioactive element that occurs naturally in the Earth’s crust. Radon can seep through cracks and holes in foundations into homes, offices, and schools, where it adheres to dust particles. When people inhale the dust, radon enters their lungs. In the lungs, radon can destroy the genetic material in cells that line air passages. Such damage can lead to cancer, especially among people who smoke. Radon is the second-leading cause of lung cancer in the United States. ASBESTOS Asbestos is primarily used as an insulator and as a fire retardant, and it was extensively used in building materials. The U.S. government banned the use of most asbestos products in the early 1970’s. exposure to asbestos in air is dangerous. Asbestos fibres that are inhaled can cut and scar the lungs, which cause the disease asbestosis. Victims of the disease have more and more difficulty breathing and may eventually die of heart failure. Billions of dollars have been spent to remove asbestos from school buildings. Asbestos in buildings Asbestos fibres NOISE POLLUTION A sound of any kind is called a noise. However, some noises are unnecessary and can cause noise pollution. Noise is a pollutant that affects human health and quality of human life. Airplanes, construction equipment, city traffic, factories, home appliances, and lawnmowers are some of the examples of things that make unnecessary sounds that commonly travel through the air. Health problems that can be caused by noise pollution include loss of hearing, high blood pressure, and stress. Noise can also cause loss of sleep, which may lead to decreased productivity at work and in the classroom. The intensity of sound in measured in units called decibels (dB). The quietest sound that a human ear can hear is represented by 0 dB. For each increase in decibel intensity, the decibel level is 10 times higher than the previous level. A sound of 120 dB is at the threshold of pain. Permanent deafness may come as a result of continuous exposure to sounds over 120 dB. List possible sources of noise pollution in your community. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WfPTrv3BdT0 Bursting of crackers LIGHT POLLUTION Light pollution does not present a direct hazard to human health. However, light pollution negatively affect our environment. The use of inefficient lighting in urban areas is diminishing our view of the night sky. In urban areas, the sky is often much brighter than the natural sky. A more important environmental concern of inefficient lighting is energy waste. For example, energy is wasted when light is directed upward into the night sky and lost into space. Examples of inefficient lighting are billboards and other signs that are lit from below, the lighting of building exteriors, and poor- quality street lights. One solution to energy waste includes shielding light so it is directed downward. Using time controls so that light is used only when needed and using low pressure sodium sources-the most energy-efficient source of light- wherever possible are two other solutions. Billboard lit from below Lighting of building exterior Sodium lamps HIGH SCHOOL: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AIR, NOISE, AND LIGHT POLLUTION NAME: _______________ DATE: _________ 1. Describe the long-term effects and the short-term effects of air pollution on health. 2. What do you mean by sick-building syndrome? Describe two ways in which indoor air pollution can be prevented. 3. List some harmful effects of radon gas and asbestos on human health. 4. Describe some of the human health problems caused by noise pollution. 5. Describe several solutions to the energy waste associated with light pollution. 6. After reading the case study in page number 310 describe some of the harmful effects of ozone on human health. 7. Identify five indoor pollutants and examples of sources of each pollutant. 8. PORTFOLIO PROJECT MAKE A POSTER: create a poster similar to the diagram that appears in Figure 9. This diagram may be of your home, your garage, a portion of your school, or a particular classroom in your school. Use the diagram to identify and label potential sources of indoor air pollutants.
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