Hofstadter says our country s educational system is in

Document Sample
Hofstadter says our country s educational system is in Powered By Docstoc
					                   走进文都信达,踏上成功之路                                     咨询电话 010-66215567
走




                                   第一章 历年考研真题
2004 年考研试题
Section III Reading Comprehension
Part A
Directions:
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D.
Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

                                                Text 1
      Hunting for a job late last year, lawyer Gant Redmon stumbled across CareerBuilder, a job
database on the Internet. He searched it with no success but was attracted by the site’s “personal
search agent”. It’s an interactive feature that lets visitors key in job criteria such as location, title,
and salary, then E-mails them when a matching position is posted in the database. Redmon chose
the keywords legal, intellectual property, and Washington, D. C. Three weeks later, he got his
first notification of an opening. “I struck gold,” says Redmon, who E-mailed his resume to the
employer and won a position as in-house counsel for a company.
      With thousands of career-related sites on the Internet, finding promising openings can be
time-consuming and inefficient. Search agents reduce the need for repeated visits to the
databases. But although a search agent worked for Redmon, career experts see drawbacks.
Narrowing your criteria, for example, may work against you: “Every time you answer a question
you eliminate a possibility,” says one expert.
      For any job search, you should start with a narrow concept — what you think you want to do
— then broaden it. “None of these programs do that,” says another expert. “There’s no career
counseling implicit in all of this.” Instead, the best strategy is to use the agent as a kind of tip
service to keep abreast of jobs in a particular database; when you get E-mail, consider it a
reminder to check the database again. “I would not rely on agents for finding everything that is
added to a database that might interest me,” says the author of a job-searching guide.
      Some sites design their agents to tempt job hunters to return. When CareerSite’s agent sends
out messages to those who have signed up for its service, for example, it includes only three
potential jobs — those it considers the best matches. There may be more matches in the database;
job hunters will have to visit the site again to find them — and they do. “On the day after we
send our messages, we see a sharp increase in our traffic,” says Seth Peets, vice president of
marketing for CareerSite.
      Even those who aren’t hunting for jobs may find search agents worthwhile. Some use them
to keep a close watch on the demand for their line of work or gather information on
compensation to arm themselves when negotiating for a raise. Although happily employed,
Redmon maintains his agent at CareerBuilder. “You always keep your eyes open,” he says.
Working with a personal search agent means having another set of eyes looking out for you.

41. How did Redmon find his job?
    [A] By searching openings in a job database.
    [B] By posting a matching position in a database.
    [C] By using a special service of a database.

文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌                                  1
                 走进文都信达,踏上成功之路                                   咨询电话 010-66215567
走




    [D] By E-mailing his resume to a database.
42. Which of the following can be a disadvantage of search agents?
    [A] Lack of counseling.          [B] Limited number of visits.
    [C] Lower efficiency.            [D] Fewer successful matches.
43. The expression “tip service” (Line 4, Paragraph 3) most probably means
    [A] advisory.                   [B] compensation.
    [C] interaction.                [D] reminder.
44. Why does CareerSite’s agent offer each job hunter only three job options?
    [A] To focus on better job matches.          [B] To attract more returning visits.
    [C] To reserve space for more messages. [D] To increase the rate of success.
45. Which of the following is true according to the text?
    [A] Personal search agents are indispensable to job-hunters.
    [B] Some sites keep E-mailing job seekers to trace their demands.
    [C] Personal search agents are also helpful to those already employed.
    [D] Some agents stop sending information to people once they are employed.

                                                 Text 2
      Over the past century, all kinds of unfairness and discrimination have been condemned or
made illegal. But one insidious form continues to thrive: alphabetism. This, for those as yet
unaware of such a disadvantage, refers to discrimination against those whose surnames begin with
a letter in the lower half of the alphabet.
      It has long been known that a taxi firm called AAAA cars has a big advantage over Zodiac
cars when customers thumb through their phone directories. Less well known is the advantage that
Adam Abbott has in life over Zoe Zysman. English names are fairly evenly spread between the
halves of the alphabet. Yet a suspiciously large number of top people have surnames beginning
with letters between A and K.
      Thus the American president and vice-president have surnames starting with B and C
respectively; and 26 of George Bush’s predecessors (including his father) had surnames in the first
half of the alphabet against just 16 in the second half. Even more striking, six of the seven heads of
government of the G7 rich countries are alphabetically advantaged (Berlusconi, Blair, Bush, Chirac,
Chretien and Koizumi). The world’s three top central bankers (Greenspan, Duisenberg and Hayami)
are all close to the top of the alphabet, even if one of them really uses Japanese characters. As are
the world’s five richest men (Gates, Buffett, Allen, Ellison and Albrecht).
      Can this merely be coincidence? One theory, dreamt up in all the spare time enjoyed by the
alphabetically disadvantaged, is that the rot sets in early. At the start of the first year in infant
school, teachers seat pupils alphabetically from the front, to make it easier to remember their names.
So short-sighted Zysman junior gets stuck in the back row, and is rarely asked the improving
questions posed by those insensitive teachers. At the time the alphabetically disadvantaged may
think they have had a lucky escape. Yet the result may be worse qualifications, because they get
less individual attention, as well as less confidence in speaking publicly.
      The humiliation continues. At university graduation ceremonies, the ABCs proudly get their
awards first; by the time they reach the Zysmans most people are literally having a ZZZ. Shortlists


文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌                               2
                 走进文都信达,踏上成功之路                                   咨询电话 010-66215567
走




for job interviews election ballot papers, lists of conference speakers and attendees: all tend to be
drawn up alphabetically, and their recipients lose interest as they plough through them.
46. What does the author intend to illustrate with AAAA cars and Zodiac cars?
     [A] A kind of overlooked inequality.            [B] A type of conspicuous bias.
     [C] A type of personal prejudice.               [D] A kind of brand discrimination.
47. What can we infer from the first three paragraphs?
     [A] In both East and West, names are essential to success.
     [B] The alphabet is to blame for the failure of Zoe Zysman.
     [C] Customers often pay a lot of attention to companies’ names.
     [D] Some form of discrimination is too subtle to recognize.
48. The 4th paragraph suggests that
     [A] questions are often put to the more intelligent students.
     [B] alphabetically disadvantaged students often escape from class.
     [C] teachers should pay attention to all of their students.
     [D] students should be seated according to their eyesight.
49. What does the author mean by “most people are literally having a ZZZ” (Lines 2 — 3,
     Paragraph 5)?
     [A] They are getting impatient.             [B] They are noisily dozing off.
     [C] They are feeling humiliated.            [D] They are busy with word puzzles.
50. Which of the following is true according to the text?
     [A] People with surnames beginning with N to Z are often ill-treated.
     [B] VIPs in the Western world gain a great deal from alphabetism.
     [C] The campaign to eliminate alphabetism still has a long way to go.
     [D] Putting things alphabetically may lead to unintentional bias.

                                                Text 3
     When it comes to the slowing economy, Ellen Spero isn’t biting her nails just yet. But the 47-
year-old manicurist isn’t cutting, filing or polishing as many nails as she’d like to, either. Most of
her clients spend $ 12 to $50 weekly, but last month two longtime customers suddenly stopped
showing up. Spero blames the softening economy. “I’m a good economic indicator,” she says. “I
provide a service that people can do without when they’re concerned about saving some dollars.”
So Spero is downscaling, shopping at middle-brow Dillard’s department store near her suburban
Cleveland home, instead of Neiman Marcus. “I don’t know if other clients are going to abandon me,
too,” she says.
     Even before Alan Greenspan’s admission that America’s red-hot economy is cooling, lots of
working folks had already seen signs of the slowdown themselves. From car dealerships to Gap
outlets, sales have been lagging for months as shoppers temper their spending. For retailers, who
last year took in 24 percent of their revenue between Thanksgiving and Christmas, the cautious
approach is coming at a crucial time. Already, experts say, holiday sales are off 7 percent from last
year’s pace. But don’t sound any alarms just yet. Consumers seem only mildly concerned, not
panicked, and many say they remain optimistic about the economy’s long-term prospects even as
they do some modest belt-tightening.


文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌                              3
                 走进文都信达,踏上成功之路                                   咨询电话 010-66215567
走




      Consumers say they’re not in despair because, despite the dreadful headlines, their own
fortunes still feel pretty good. Home prices are holding steady in most regions. In Manhattan,
“there’s a new gold rush happening in the $4 million to $10 million range, predominantly fed by
Wall Street bonuses,” says broker Barbara Corcoran. In San Francisco, prices are still rising even
as frenzied overbidding quiets. “Instead of 20 to 30 offers, now maybe you only get two or three,”
says John Tealdi, a Bay Area real-estate broker. And most folks still feel pretty comfortable about
their ability to find and keep a job.
      Many folks see silver linings to this slowdown. Potential home buyers would cheer for lower
interest rates. Employers wouldn’t mind a little fewer bubbles in the job market. Many consumers
seem to have been influenced by stock-market swings, which investors now view as a necessary
ingredient to a sustained boom. Diners might see an upside, too. Getting a table at Manhattan’s hot
new Alain Ducasse restaurant used to be impossible. Not anymore. For that, Greenspan & Co. may
still be worth toasting.

51. By “Ellen Spero isn’t biting her nails just yet” (Line 1, Paragraph 1), the author means
    [A] Spero can hardly maintain her business. [B] Spero is too much engaged in her work.
    [C] Spero has grown out of her bad habit.         [D] Spero is not in a desperate situation.
52. How do the pubic feel about the current economic situation?
    [A] Optimistic.                                  [B] Confused.
    [C] Carefree.                                    [D] Panicked.
53. When mentioning “the $4 million to $10 million range” (Lines 3 — 4, Paragraph 3), the
    author is talking about
    [A] gold market.                                [B] real estate.
    [C] stock exchange.                            [D] venture investment.
54. Why can many people see “silver linings” to the economic slowdown?
    [A] They would benefit in certain ways.            [B] The stock market shows signs of recovery.
    [C] Such a slowdown usually precedes a boom. [D] The purchasing power would be enhanced.
55. To which of the following is the author likely to agree?
    [A] A new boom, on the horizon.             [B] Tighten the belt, the single remedy.
    [C] Caution all right, panic not.           [D] The more ventures, the more chances.

                                                Text 4
     Americans today don’t place a very high value on intellect. Our heroes are athletes,
entertainers, and entrepreneurs, not scholars. Even our schools are where we send our children to
get a practical education — not to pursue knowledge for the sake of knowledge. Symptoms of
pervasive anti-intellectualism in our schools aren’t difficult to find.
     “Schools have always been in a society where practical is more important than intellectual,”
says education writer Diane Ravitch. “Schools could be a counterbalance.” Ravitch’s latest book,
Left Back: A Century of Failed School Reforms, traces the roots of anti-intellectualism in our
schools, concluding they are anything but a counterbalance to the American distaste for intellectual
pursuits.
     But they could and should be. Encouraging kids to reject the life of the mind leaves them
vulnerable to exploitation and control. Without the ability to think critically, to defend their ideas

文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌                              4
                  走进文都信达,踏上成功之路                                   咨询电话 010-66215567
走




and understand the ideas of others, they cannot fully participate in our democracy. Continuing
along this path, says writer Earl Shorris, “We will become a second-rate country. We will have a
less civil society.”
      “Intellect is resented as a form of power or privilege,” writes historian and professor Richard
Hofstadter in Anti-Intellectualism in American Life, a Pulitzer-Prize winning book on the roots of
anti-intellectualism in US politics, religion, and education. From the beginning of our history, says
Hofstadter, our democratic and populist urges have driven us to reject anything that smells of
elitism. Practicality, common sense, and native intelligence have been considered more noble
qualities than anything you could learn from a book.
      Ralph Waldo Emerson and other Transcendentalist philosophers thought schooling and
rigorous book learning put unnatural restraints on children: “We are shut up in schools and college
recitation rooms for 10 or 15 years and come out at last with a bellyful of words and do not know a
thing.” Mark Twain’s Huckleberry Finn exemplified American anti-intellectualism. Its hero avoids
being civilized — going to school and learning to read — so he can preserve his innate goodness.
      Intellect, according to Hosfstadter, is different from native intelligence, a quality we
reluctantly admire. Intellect is the critical, creative, and contemplative side of the mind.
Intelligence seeks to grasp, manipulate, re-order, and adjust, while intellect examines, ponders,
wonders, theorizes, criticizes, and imagines.
      School remains a place where intellect is mistrusted. Hofstadter says our country’s educational
system is in the grips of people who “joyfully and militantly proclaim their hostility to intellect and
their eagerness to identify with children who show the least intellectual promise.”

56. What do American parents expect their children to acquire in school?
    [A] The habit of thinking independently.      [B] Profound knowledge of the world.
    [C] Practical abilities for future career.    [D] The confidence in intellectual pursuits.
57. We can learn from the text that Americans have a history of
    [A] undervaluing intellect.                  [B] favoring intellectualism.
    [C] supporting school reform.                 [D] suppressing native intelligence.
58. The views of Ravitch and Emerson on schooling are
    [A] identical.                               [B] similar.
    [C] complementary                            [D] opposite.
59. Emerson, according to the text, is probably
    [A] a pioneer of education reform.           [B] an opponent of intellectualism.
    [C] a scholar in favor of intellect.         [D] an advocate of regular schooling.
60. What does the author think of intellect?
    [A] It is second to intelligence.            [B] It evolves from common sense.
    [C] It is to be pursued.                      [D] It underlies power.

2003 年考研试题
Section Ⅲ Reading Comprehension
Part A
Directions:


文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌                               5
                 走进文都信达,踏上成功之路                                   咨询电话 010-66215567
走




Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D.
Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

                                               Text 1
      Wild Bill Donovan would have loved the Internet. The American spymaster who built the
Office of Strategic Services in World War Ⅱ and later laid the roots for the CIA was
fascinated with information. Donovan believed in using whatever tools came to hand in the
“great game” of espionage — spying as a “profession.” These days the Net, which has already
re-made such everyday pastimes as buying books and sending mail, is reshaping Donovan’s
vocation as well.
     The latest revolution isn’t simply a matter of gentlemen reading other gentlemen’s e-mail.
That kind of electronic spying has been going on for decades. In the past three or four years,
the World Wide Web has given birth to a whole industry of point-and-click spying. The
spooks call it “open-source intelligence”, and as the Net grows, it is becoming increasingly
influential. In 1995 the CIA held a contest to see who could compile the most data about
Burundi. The winner, by a large margin, was a tiny Virginia company called Open Source
Solutions, whose clear advantage was its mastery of the electronic world.
      Among the firms making the biggest splash in this new world is Straitford, Inc., a private
intelligence-analysis firm based in Austin, Texas. Straitford makes money by selling the
results of spying (covering nations from Chile to Russia) to corporations like energy-services
firm McDermott International. Many of its predictions are available online at
www.straitford.com.
      Straitford president George Friedman says he sees the online world as a kind of mutually
reinforcing tool for both information collection and distribution, a spymaster’s dream. Last
week his firm was busy vacuuming up data bits from the far corners of the world and
predicting a crisis in Ukraine. “As soon as that report runs, we’ll suddenly get 500 new
Internet sign-ups from Ukraine,” says Friedman, a former political science professor. “And
we’ll hear back from some of them.” Open-source spying does have its risks, of course, since
it can be difficult to tell good information from bad. That’s where Straitford earns its keep.
      Friedman relies on a lean staff of 20 in Austin. Several of his staff members have
military-intelligence backgrounds. He sees the firm’s outsider status as the key to its success.
Straitford’s briefs don’t sound like the usual Washington back-and-forthing, whereby agencies
avoid dramatic declarations on the chance they might be wrong. Straitford, says Friedman,
takes pride in its independent voice.

11. The emergence of the Net has
    [A] received support from fans like Donovan. [B] remolded the intelligence services.
    [C] restored many common pastimes.               [D] revived spying as a profession.
12. Donovan’s story is mentioned in the text to
    [A] introduce the topic of online spying.      [B] show how he fought for the U.S.
    [C] give an episode of the information war.     [D] honor his unique services to the CIA.
13. The phrase “making the biggest splash” (line1, paragraph 3) most probably means
    [A] causing the biggest trouble.               [B] exerting the greatest effort.

文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌                              6
                  走进文都信达,踏上成功之路                                    咨询电话 010-66215567
走




     [C] achieving the greatest success.               [D] enjoying the widest popularity.
14. It can be learned from paragraph 4 that
     [A] Straitford’s prediction about Ukraine has proved true.
     [B] Straiford guarantees the truthfulness of its information.
     [C] Straitford’s business is characterized by unpredictability.
     [D] Straitford is able to provide fairly reliable information.
15. Straitford is most proud of its
     [A] official status.                            [B] nonconformist image.
     [C] efficient staff.                             [D] military background.

                                             Text 2
      To paraphrase 18th-century statesman Edmund Burke, “all that is needed for the triumph
of a misguided cause is that good people do nothing.” One such cause now seeks to end
biomedical research because of the theory that animals have rights ruling out their use in
research. Scientists need to respond forcefully to animal rights advocates, whose arguments
are confusing the public and thereby threatening advances in health knowledge and care.
Leaders of the animal right movement target biomedical research because it depends on public
funding, and few people understand the process of health care research. Hearing allegations of
cruelty to animals in research settings, many are perplexed that anyone would deliberately
harm an animal.
      For example, a grandmotherly woman staffing an animal rights booth at a recent street
fair was distributing a brochure that encouraged readers not to use anything that comes from
or is animals — no meat, no fur, no medicines. Asked if she opposed immunizations, she
wanted to know if vaccines come from animal research. When assured that they do, she
replied, “Then I would have to say yes.” Asked what will happen when epidemics return, she
said, “Don’t worry, scientists will find some way of using computers.” Such well-meaning
people just don’t understand.
      Scientists must communicate their message to the public in a compassionate,
understandable way — in human terms, not in the language of molecular biology. We need to
make clear the connection between animal research and a grandmother’s hip replacement, a
father’s bypass operation, a baby’s vaccinations, and even a pet’s shots. To those who are
unaware that animal research was needed to produce these treatments, as well as new
treatments and vaccines, animal research seems wasteful at best and cruel at worst.
      Much can be done. Scientists could “adopt” middle school classes and present their own
research. They should be quick to respond to letters to the editor, lest animal right
misinformation go unchallenged and acquire a deceptive appearance of truth. Research
institutions could be opened to tours, to show that laboratory animals receive humane care.
Finally, because the ultimate stakeholders are patients, the health research community should
actively recruit to its cause not only well-known personalities such as Stephen Cooper, who
has made courageous statements about the value of animal research, but all who receive
medical treatment. If good people do nothing, there is a real possibility that an uninformed
citizenry will extinguish the precious embers of medical progress.


文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌                               7
                  走进文都信达,踏上成功之路                                   咨询电话 010-66215567
走




16. The author begins his article with Edmund Burke’s words to
     [A] call on scientists to take some actions.
     [B] criticize the misguided cause of animal rights.
     [C] warn of the doom of biomedical research.
     [D] show the triumph of the animal rights movement.
17. Misled people tend to think that using an animal in research is
     [A] cruel but natural.                 [B] inhuman and unacceptable.
     [C] inevitable but vicious.            [D] pointless and wasteful.
18. The example of the grandmotherly woman is used to show the public’s
     [A] discontent with animal research. [B] ignorance about medical science.
     [C] indifference to epidemics.          [D] anxiety about animal rights.
19. The author believes that, in face of the challenge from animal rights advocates, scientists
    should
     [A] communicate more with the public. [B] employ hi-tech means in research.
     [C] feel no shame for their cause.         [D] strive to develop new cures.
20. From the text we learn that Stephen Cooper is
     [A] a well-known humanist.                 [B] a medical practitioner.
     [C] an enthusiast in animal rights.        [D] a supporter of animal research.

                                             Text 3
     In recent years, railroads have been combining with each other, merging into
supersystems, causing heightened concerns about monopoly. As recently as 1995, the top four
railroads accounted for under 70 percent of the total ton-miles moved by rails. Next year, after
a series of mergers is completed, just four railroads will control well over 90 percent of all the
freight moved by major rail carriers.
     Supporters of the new supersystems argue that these mergers will allow for substantial
cost reductions and better coordinated service. Any threat of monopoly, they argue, is
removed by fierce competition from trucks. But many shippers complain that for heavy bulk
commodities traveling long distances, such as coal, chemicals, and grain, trucking is too
costly and the railroads therefore have them by the throat.
     The vast consolidation within the rail industry means that most shippers are served by
only one rail company. Railroads typically charge such “captive” shippers 20 to 30 percent
more than they do when another railroad is competing for the business. Shippers who feel
they are being overcharged have the right to appeal to the federal government’s Surface
Transportation Board for rate relief, but the process is expensive, time consuming, and will
work only in truly extreme cases.
     Railroads justify rate discrimination against captive shippers on the grounds that in the
long run it reduces everyone’s cost. If railroads charged all customers the same average rate,
they argue, shippers who have the option of switching to trucks or other forms of
transportation would do so, leaving remaining customers to shoulder the cost of keeping up
the line. It’s a theory to which many economists subscribe, but in practice it often leaves
railroads in the position of determining which companies will flourish and which will fail.
“Do we really want railroads to be the arbiters of who wins and who loses in the

文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌                               8
                  走进文都信达,踏上成功之路                                   咨询电话 010-66215567
走




marketplace?” asks Martin Bercovici, a Washington lawyer who frequently represents
shippers.
    Many captive shippers also worry they will soon be hit with a round of huge rate increases.
The railroad industry as a whole, despite its brightening fortunes, still does not earn enough to
borrow billions to acquire one another, which Wall Street cheering them on. Consider the
$10.2 billion bid by Norfolk Southern and CSX to acquire Conrail this year. Conrail’s net
railway operating income in 1996 was just $427 million, less than half of the carrying costs of
the transaction. Who’s going to pay for the rest of the bill? Many captive shippers fear that
they will, as Norfolk Southern and CSX increase their grip on the market.

21. According to those who support mergers, railway monopoly is unlikely because
     [A] cost reduction is based on competition.
     [B] services call for cross-trade coordination.
     [C] outside competitors will continue to exist.
     [D] shippers will have the railway by the throat.
22. What is many captive shippers’ attitude towards the consolidation in the rail industry?
     [A] Indifferent.                              [B] Supportive.
     [C] Indignant.                               [D] Apprehensive.
23. It can be inferred from paragraph 3 that
     [A] shippers will be charged less without a rival railroad.
     [B] there will soon be only one railroad company nationwide.
     [C] overcharged shippers are unlikely to appeal for rate relief.
     [D] a government board ensures fair play in railway business.
24. The word “arbiters” (line 8, paragraph 4) most probably refers to those
     [A] who work as coordinators.              [B] who function as judges.
     [C] who supervise transactions.           [D] who determine the price.
25. According to the text, the cost increase in the rail industry is mainly caused by
     [A] the continuing acquisition.           [B] the growing traffic.
     [C] the cheering Wall Street.             [D] the shrinking market.

                                               Text 4
    It is said that in England death is pressing, in Canada inevitable and in California optional.
Small wonder. Americans’ life expectancy has nearly doubled over the past century. Failing
hips can be replaced, clinical depression controlled, cataracts removed in a 30-minute surgical
procedure. Such advances offer the aging population a quality of life that was unimaginable
when I entered medicine 50 years ago. But not even a great health-care system can cure death
— and our failure to confront that reality now threatens this greatness of ours.
     Death is normal; we are genetically programmed to disintegrate and perish, even under
ideal conditions. We all understand that at some level, yet as medical consumers we treat
death as a problem to be solved. Shielded by third-party payers from the cost of our care, we
demand everything that can possibly be done for us, even if it’s useless. The most obvious
example is late-stage cancer care. Physicians — frustrated by their inability to cure the disease


文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌                               9
                 走进文都信达,踏上成功之路                                   咨询电话 010-66215567
走




and fearing loss of hope in the patient — too often offer aggressive treatment far beyond what
is scientifically justified.
     In 1950, the U.S. spent $12.7 billion on health care. In 2002, the cost will be $1,540
billion. Anyone can see this trend is unsustainable. Yet few seem willing to try to reverse it.
Some scholars conclude that a government with finite resources should simply stop paying for
medical care that sustains life beyond a certain age — say 83 or so. Former Colorado
governor Richard Lamm has been quoted as saying that the old and infirm “have a duty to die
and get out of the way” so that younger, healthier people can realize their potential.
     I would not go that far. Energetic people now routinely work through their 60s and
beyond, and remain dazzlingly productive. At 78, Viacom chairman Sumner Redstone
jokingly claims to be 53. Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O’Connor is in her 70s, and
former surgeon general C. Everett Koop chairs an Internet start-up in his 80s. These leaders
are living proof that prevention works and that we can manage the health problems that come
naturally with age. As a mere 68-year-old, I wish to age as productively as they have.
     Yet there are limits to what a society can spend in this pursuit. As a physician, I know the
most costly and dramatic measures may be ineffective and painful. I also know that people in
Japan and Sweden, countries that spend far less on medical care, have achieved longer,
healthier lives than we have. As a nation, we may be overfunding the quest for unlikely cures
while underfunding research on humbler therapies that could improve people’s lives.

26. What is implied in the first sentence?
     [A] Americans are better prepared for death than other people.
     [B] Americans enjoy a higher life quality than ever before.
     [C] Americans are over-confident of their medical technology.
     [D] Americans take a vain pride in their long life expectancy.
27. The author uses the example of cancer patients to show that
     [A] medical resources are often wasted. [B] doctors are helpless against fatal diseases.
     [C] some treatments are too aggressive. [D] medical costs are becoming unaffordable.
28. The author’s attitude toward Richard Lamm’s remark is one of
     [A] strong disapproval.                    [B] reserved consent.
     [C] slight contempt.                      [D] enthusiastic support.
29. In contrast to the U.S., Japan and Sweden are funding their medical care
     [A] more flexibly.                       [B] more extravagantly.
     [C] more cautiously.                     [D] more reasonably.
30. The text intends to express the idea that
     [A] medicine will further prolong people’s lives.
     [B] life beyond a certain limit is not worth living.
     [C] death should be accepted as a fact of life.
     [D] excessive demands increase the cost of health care.

2002 年考研试题
Section Ⅲ Reading Comprehension
Part A

文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌                              10
                 走进文都信达,踏上成功之路                                   咨询电话 010-66215567
走




Directions:
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D.
Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

                                                Text 1
     If you intend using humor in your talk to make people smile, you must know how to identify
shared experiences and problems. Your humor must be relevant to the audience and should help to
show them that you are one of them or that you understand their situation and are in sympathy with
their point of view. Depending on whom you are addressing, the problems will be different. If you
are talking to a group of managers, you may refer to the disorganized methods of their secretaries;
alternatively if you are addressing secretaries, you may want to comment on their disorganized
bosses.
     Here is an example, which I heard at a nurses’ convention, of a story which works well
because the audience all shared the same view of doctors. A man arrives in heaven and is being
shown around by St. Peter. He sees wonderful accommodations, beautiful gardens, sunny weather,
and so on. Everyone is very peaceful, polite and friendly until, waiting in a line for lunch, the new
arrival is suddenly pushed aside by a man in a white coat, who rushes to the head of the line, grabs
his food and stomps over to a table by himself. “Who is that?” the new arrival asked St. Peter. “Oh,
that’s God,” came the reply, “but sometimes he thinks he’s a doctor.”
     If you are part of the group which you are addressing, you will be in a position to know the
experiences and problems which are common to all of you and it’ll be appropriate for you to make
a passing remark about the inedible canteen food or the chairman’s notorious bad taste in ties. With
other audiences you mustn’t attempt to cut in with humor as they will resent an outsider making
disparaging remarks about their canteen or their chairman. You will be on safer ground if you stick
to scapegoats like the Post Office or the telephone system.
     If you feel awkward being humorous, you must practice so that it becomes more natural,
include a few casual and apparently off-the-cuff remarks which you can deliver in a relaxed and
unforced manner. Often it’s the delivery which causes the audience to smile, so speak slowly and
remember that a raised eyebrow or an unbelieving look may help to show that you are making a
light-hearted remark.
     Look for the humor. It often comes from the unexpected. A twist on a familiar quote “If at first
you don’t succeed, give up” or a play on words or on a situation. Search for exaggeration and
understatements. Look at your talk and pick out a few words or sentences which you can turn about
and inject with humor.

11. To make your humor work, you should
    [A] take advantage of different kinds of audience.
    [B] make fun of the disorganized people.
    [C] address different problems to different people.
    [D] show sympathy for your listeners.
12. The joke about doctors implies that, in the eyes of nurses, they are
    [A] impolite to new arrivals.        [B] very conscious of their godlike role.
    [C] entitled to some privileges.    [D] very busy even during lunch hours.

文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌                              11
                  走进文都信达,踏上成功之路                                    咨询电话 010-66215567
走




13. It can be inferred from the text that public services
    [A] have benefited many people.                 [B] are the focus of public attention.
    [C] are an inappropriate subject for humor .[D] have often been the laughing stock.
14. To achieve the desired result, humorous stories should be delivered
    [A] in well-worded language.                  [B] as awkwardly as possible.
    [C] in exaggerated statements.                 [D] as casually as possible.
15. The best title for the text may be
    [A] Use Humor Effectively.                    [B] Various Kinds of Humor.
    [C] Add Humor to Speech.                      [D] Different Humor Strategies.

                                                   Text 2
      Since the dawn of human ingenuity, people have devised ever more cunning tools to cope with
work that is dangerous, boring, burdensome, or just plain nasty. That compulsion has resulted in
robotics — the science of conferring various human capabilities on machines. And if scientists
have yet to create the mechanical version of science fiction, they have begun to come close.
      As a result, the modern world is increasingly populated by intelligent gizmos whose presence
we barely notice but whose universal existence has removed much human labor. Our factories hum
to the rhythm of robot assembly arms. Our banking is done at automated teller terminals that thank
us with mechanical politeness for the transaction. Our subway trains are controlled by tireless
robot-drivers. And thanks to the continual miniaturization of electronics and micro-mechanics,
there are already robot systems that can perform some kinds of brain and bone surgery with
submillimeter accuracy — far greater precision than highly skilled physicians can achieve with
their hands alone.
      But if robots are to reach the next stage of laborsaving utility, they will have to operate with
less human supervision and be able to make at least a few decisions for themselves — goals that
pose a real challenge. “While we know how to tell a robot to handle a specific error,” says Dave
Lavery, manager of a robotics program at NASA, “we can’t yet give a robot enough ‘common
sense’ to reliably interact with a dynamic world.”
      Indeed the quest for true artificial intelligence has produced very mixed results. Despite a spell
of initial optimism in the 1960s and 1970s when it appeared that transistor circuits and
microprocessors might be able to copy the action of the human brain by the year 2010, researchers
lately have begun to extend that forecast by decades if not centuries.
      What they found, in attempting to model thought, is that the human brain’s roughly one
hundred billion nerve cells are much more talented — and human perception far more complicated
— than previously imagined. They have built robots that can recognize the error of a machine
panel by a fraction of a millimeter in a controlled factory environment. But the human mind can
glimpse a rapidly changing scene and immediately disregard the 98 percent that is irrelevant,
instantaneously focusing on the monkey at the side of a winding forest road or the single suspicious
face in a big crowd. The most advanced computer systems on Earth can’t approach that kind of
ability, and neuroscientists still don’t know quite how we do it.

16. Human ingenuity was initially demonstrated in
    [A] the use of machines to produce science fiction.

文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌                               12
                  走进文都信达,踏上成功之路                                   咨询电话 010-66215567
走




      [B] the wide use of machines in manufacturing industry.
      [C] the invention of tools for difficult and dangerous work.
      [D] the elite’s cunning tackling of dangerous and boring work.
17.   The word “gizmos” (line 1, paragraph 2) most probably means
      [A] programs.                              [B] experts.
      [C] devices.                                [D] creatures.
18.   According to the text, what is beyond man’s ability now is to design a robot that can
      [A] fulfill delicate tasks like performing brain surgery.
      [B] interact with human beings verbally.
      [C] have a little common sense.
      [D] respond independently to a changing world.
19.   Besides reducing human labor, robots can also
      [A] make a few decisions for themselves .
      [B] deal with some errors with human intervention.
      [C] improve factory environments.
      [D] cultivate human creativity.
20.   The author uses the example of a monkey to argue that robots are
      [A] expected to copy human brain in internal structure.
      [B] able to perceive abnormalities immediately.
      [C] far less able than human brain in focusing on relevant information.
      [D] best used in a controlled environment.

                                                 Text 3
      Could the bad old days of economic decline be about to return? Since OPEC agreed to supply-
cuts in March, the price of crude oil has jumped to almost $ 26 a barrel, up from less than $ 10 last
December. This near-tripling of oil prices calls up scary memories of the 1973 oil shock, when
prices quadrupled, and 1979-80, when they also almost tripled. Both previous shocks resulted in
double-digit inflation and global economic decline. So where are the headlines warning of gloom
and doom this time?
      The oil price was given another push up this week when Iraq suspended oil exports.
Strengthening economic growth, at the same time as winter grips the northern hemisphere, could
push the price higher still in the short term.
      Yet there are good reasons to expect the economic consequences now to be less severe than in
the 1970s. In most countries the cost of crude oil now accounts for a smaller share of the price of
petrol than it did in the 1970s. In Europe, taxes account for up to four-fifths of the retail price, so
even quite big changes in the price of crude have a more muted effect on pump prices than in the
past.
      Rich economies are also less dependent on oil than they were, and so less sensitive to swings
in the oil price. Energy conservation, a shift to other fuels and a decline in the importance of heavy,
energy-intensive industries have reduced oil consumption. Software, consultancy and mobile
telephones use far less oil than steel or car production. For each dollar of GDP (inconstant prices)
rich economies now use nearly 50% less oil than in 1973. The OECD estimates in its latest
Economic Outlook that, if oil prices averaged $ 22 a barrel for a full year, compared with $ 13 in

文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌                               13
                  走进文都信达,踏上成功之路                                     咨询电话 010-66215567
走




1998, this would increase the oil import bill in rich economies by only 0.25%-0.5% of GDP. That
is less than one-quarter of the income loss in 1974 or 1980. On the other hand, oil-importing
emerging economies — to which heavy industry has shifted — have become more energy-
intensive, and so could be more seriously squeezed.
     One more reason not to lose sleep over the rise in oil prices is that, unlike the rises in the 1970s,
it has not occurred against the background of general commodity-price inflation and global excess
demand. A sizable portion of the world is only just emerging from economic decline. The
Economist’s commodity price index is broadly unchanging from a year ago. In 1973 commodity
prices jumped by 70%, and in 1979 by almost 30%.

21. The main reason for the latest rise of oil price is
    [A] global inflation.                     [B] reduction in supply.
    [C] fast growth in economy.              [D] Iraq’s suspension of exports.
22. It can be inferred from the text that the retail price of petrol will go up dramatically if
    [A] price of crude rises.               [B] commodity prices rise.
    [C] consumption rises.                 [D] oil taxes rise.
23. The estimates in Economic Outlook show that in rich countries
    [A] heavy industry becomes more energy-intensive.
    [B] income loss mainly results from fluctuating crude oil prices.
    [C] manufacturing industry has been seriously squeezed.
    [D] oil price changes have no significant impact on GDP.
24. We can draw a conclusion from the text that
    [A] oil-price shocks are less shocking now.
    [B] inflation seems irrelevant to oil-price shocks.
    [C] energy conservation can keep down the oil prices.
    [D] the price rise of crude leads to the shrinking of heavy industry.
25. From the text we can see that the writer seems
    [A] optimistic.                       [B] sensitive.
    [C] gloomy.                           [D] scared.

                                                 Text 4
     The Supreme Court’s decisions on physician-assisted suicide carry important implications for
how medicine seeks to relieve dying patients of pain and suffering.
     Although it ruled that there is no constitutional right to physician-assisted suicide, the Court in
effect supported the medical principle of “double effect,” a centuries-old moral principle holding
that an action having two effects — a good one that is intended and a harmful one that is foreseen
— is permissible if the actor intends only the good effect.
     Doctors have used that principle in recent years to justify using high doses of morphine to
control terminally ill patients’ pain, even though increasing dosages will eventually kill the patient.
     Nancy Dubler, director of Montefiore Medical Center, contends that the principle will shield
doctors who “until now have very, very strongly insisted that they could not give patients sufficient
mediation to control their pain if that might hasten death.”


文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌                                14
                 走进文都信达,踏上成功之路                                   咨询电话 010-66215567
走




      George Annas, chair of the health law department at Boston University, maintains that, as long
as a doctor prescribes a drug for a legitimate medical purpose, the doctor has done nothing illegal
even if the patient uses the drug to hasten death. “It’s like surgery,” he says. “We don’t call those
deaths homicides because the doctors didn’t intend to kill their patients, although they risked their
death. If you’re a physician, you can risk your patient’s suicide as long as you don’t intend their
suicide.”
      On another level, many in the medical community acknowledge that the assisted-suicide
debate has been fueled in part by the despair of patients for whom modern medicine has prolonged
the physical agony of dying.
      Just three weeks before the Court’s ruling on physician-assisted suicide, the National
Academy of Science (NAS) released a two-volume report, Approaching Death: Improving Care at
the End of Life. It identifies the undertreatment of pain and the aggressive use of “ineffectual and
forced medical procedures that may prolong and even dishonor the period of dying” as the twin
problems of end-of-life care.
      The profession is taking steps to require young doctors to train in hospices, to test knowledge
of aggressive pain management therapies, to develop a Medicare billing code for hospital-based
care, and to develop new standards for assessing and treating pain at the end of life.
      Annas says lawyers can play a key role in insisting that these well-meaning medical initiatives
translate into better care. “Large numbers of physicians seem unconcerned with the pain their
patients are needlessly and predictably suffering,” to the extent that it constitutes “systematic
patient abuse.” He says medical licensing boards “must make it clear … that painful deaths are
presumptively ones that are incompetently ones that are incompetently managed and should result
in license suspension.”

26. From the first three paragraphs, we learn that
    [A] doctors used to increase drug dosages to control their patients’ pain.
    [B] it is still illegal for doctors to help the dying end their lives.
    [C] the Supreme Court strongly opposes physician-assisted suicide.
    [D] patients have no constitutional right to commit suicide.
27. Which of the following statements is true according to the text?
    [A] Doctors will be held guilty if they risk their patients’ death.
    [B] Modern medicine has assisted terminally ill patients in painless recovery.
    [C] The Court ruled that high-dosage pain-relieving medication can be prescribed.
    [D] A doctor’s medication is no longer justified by his intentions.
28. According to the NAS’s report, one of the problems in end-of-life care is
    [A] prolonged medical procedures.                   [B] inadequate treatment of pain.
    [C] systematic drug abuse.                          [D] insufficient hospital care.
29. Which of the following best defines the word “aggressive” (line 4, paragraph 7)?
    [A] Bold                                          .[B] Harmful.
    [C] Careless.                                      [D] Desperate.
30. George Annas would probably agree that doctors should be punished if they
    [A] manage their patients incompetently. [B] give patients more medicine than needed.
    [C] reduce drug dosages for their patients. [D] prolong the needless suffering of the patients.

文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌                              15
                 走进文都信达,踏上成功之路                                   咨询电话 010-66215567
走




2001 年考研试题
Section III Reading Comprehension
Directions:
Each of the passages below is followed by some questions. For each question there are four
answers marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. Read the passage carefully and choose the best answer to
each of the questions. Then mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the
corresponding letter in the brackets with a pencil. (40 points)

                                                 Text 1
   Specialization can be seen as a response to the problem of an increasing accumulation of
scientific knowledge. By splitting up the subject matter into smaller units, one man could continue
to handle the information and use it as the basis for further research. But specialization was only
one of a series of related developments in science affecting the process of communication. Another
was the growing professionalization of scientific activity.
   No clear-cut distinction can be drawn between professionals and amateurs in science:
exceptions can be found to any rule. Nevertheless, the word ‘amateur’ does carry a connotation that
the person concerned is not fully integrated into the scientific community and, in particular, may
not fully share its values. The growth of specialization in the nineteenth century, with its
consequent requirement of a longer, more complex training, implied greater problems for amateur
participation in science. The trend was naturally most obvious in those areas of science based
especially on a mathematical or laboratory training, and can be illustrated in terms of the
development of geology in the United Kingdom.
   A comparison of British geological publications over the last century and a half reveals not
simply an increasing emphasis on the primacy of research, but also a changing definition of what
constitutes an acceptable research paper. Thus, in the nineteenth century, local geological studies
represented worthwhile research in their own right; but, in the twentieth century, local studies have
increasingly become acceptable to professionals only if they incorporate, and reflect on, the wider
geological picture. Amateurs, on the other hand, have continued to pursue local studies in the old
way. The overall result has been to make entrance to professional geological journals harder for
amateurs, a result that has been reinforced by the widespread introduction of refereeing, first by
national journals in the nineteenth century and then by several local geological journals in the
twentieth century. As a logical consequence of this development, separate journals have now
appeared aimed mainly towards either professional or amateur readership. A rather similar process
of differentiation has led to professional geologists coming together nationally within one or two
specific societies, whereas the amateurs have tended either to remain in local societies or to come
together nationally in a different way.
   Although the process of professionalization and specialization was already well under way in
British geology during the nineteenth century, its full consequences were thus delayed until the
twentieth century. In science generally, however, the nineteenth century must be reckoned as the
crucial period for this change in the structure of science.

51. The growth of specialization in the 19th century might be more clearly seen in sciences such
    as ____.

文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌                              16
                 走进文都信达,踏上成功之路                                    咨询电话 010-66215567
走




    [A] sociology and chemistry                      [B]physics and psychology
    [C]sociology and psychology                      [D]physics and chemistry
52. We can infer from the passage that ____.
    [A] there is little distinction between specialization and professionalization
    [B] amateurs can compete with professionals in some areas of science
    [C] professionals tend to welcome amateurs into the scientific community
    [D] amateurs have national academic societies but no local ones
53. The author writes of the development of geology to demonstrate ____.
    [A] the process of specialization and professionalization
    [B] the hardship of amateurs in scientific study
    [C] the change of policies in scientific publications
    [D] the discrimination of professionals against amateurs
54. The direct reason for specialization is ____.
    [A] the development in communication          [B]the growth of professionalization
    [C]the expansion of scientific knowledge [D]the splitting up of academic societies

                                                 Text 2
   A great deal of attention is being paid today to the so-called digital divide — the division of the
world into the info (information) rich and the info poor. And that divide does exist today. My wife
and I lectured about this looming danger twenty years ago. What was less visible then, however,
were the new, positive forces that work against the digital divide. There are reasons to be optimistic.
   There are technological reasons to hope the digital divide will narrow. As the Internet becomes
more and more commercialized, it is in the interest of business to universalize access — after all,
the more people online, the more potential customers there are. More and more governments, afraid
their countries will be left behind, want to spread Internet access. Within the next decade or two,
one to two billion people on the planet will be netted together. As a result, I now believe the digital
divide will narrow rather than widen in the years ahead. And that is very good news because the
Internet may well be the most powerful tool for combating world poverty that we’ve ever had.
   Of course, the use of the Internet isn’t the only way to defeat poverty. And the Internet is not the
only tool we have. But it has enormous potential.
   To take advantage of this tool, some impoverished countries will have to get over their outdated
anti-colonial prejudices with respect to foreign investment. Countries that still think foreign
investment is an invasion of their sovereignty might well study the history of infrastructure (the
basic structural foundations of a society) in the United States. When the United States built its
industrial infrastructure, it didn’t have the capital to do so. And that is why America’s Second
Wave infrastructure — including roads, harbors, highways, ports and so on — were built with
foreign investment. The English, the Germans, the Dutch and the French were investing in
Britain’s former colony. They financed them. Immigrant Americans built them. Guess who owns
them now? The Americans. I believe the same thing would be true in places like Brazil or
anywhere else for that matter. The more foreign capital you have helping you build your Third
Wave infrastructure, which today is an electronic infrastructure, the better off you’re going to be.
That doesn’t mean lying down and becoming fooled, or letting foreign corporations run


文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌                              17
                 走进文都信达,踏上成功之路                                   咨询电话 010-66215567
走




uncontrolled. But it does mean recognizing how important they can be in building the energy and
telecom infrastructures needed to take full advantage of the Internet.

55. Digital divide is something ____.
    [A] getting worse because of the Internet [B]the rich countries are responsible for
    [C]the world must guard against             [D]considered positive today
56. Governments attach importance to the Internet because it ____.
    [A] offers economic potentials             [B]can bring foreign funds
    [C]can soon wipe out world povertyc       [D]onnects people all over the world
57. The writer mentioned the case of the United States to justify the policy of ____.
    [A] providing financial support overseas [B]preventing foreign capital’s control
    [C]building industrial infrastructure     [D]accepting foreign investment
58. It seems that now a country’s economy depends much on ____.
    [A] how well-developed it is electronically
    [B] whether it is prejudiced against immigrants
    [C] whether it adopts America’s industrial pattern
    [D] how much control it has over foreign corporations

                                                 Text 3
    Why do so many Americans distrust what they read in their newspapers? The American Society
of Newspaper Editors is trying to answer this painful question. The organization is deep into a long
self-analysis known as the journalism credibility project.
    Sad to say, this project has turned out to be mostly low-level findings about factual errors and
spelling and grammar mistakes, combined with lots of head-scratching puzzlement about what in
the world those readers really want.
    But the sources of distrust go way deeper. Most journalists learn to see the world through a set
of standard templates (patterns) into which they plug each day’s events. In other words, there is a
conventional story line in the newsroom culture that provides a backbone and a ready-made
narrative structure for otherwise confusing news.
    There exists a social and cultural disconnect between journalists and their readers, which helps
explain why the “standard templates” of the newsroom seem alien to many readers. In a recent
survey, questionnaires were sent to reporters in five middle-size cities around the country, plus one
large metropolitan area. Then residents in these communities were phoned at random and asked the
same questions.
    Replies show that compared with other Americans, journalists are more likely to live in upscale
neighborhoods, have maids, own Mercedeses, and trade stocks, and they’re less likely to go to
church, do volunteer work, or put down roots in a community.
    Reporters tend to be part of a broadly defined social and cultural elite, so their work tends to
reflect the conventional values of this elite. The astonishing distrust of the news media isn’t rooted
in inaccuracy or poor reportorial skills but in the daily clash of world views between reporters and
their readers.
    This is an explosive situation for any industry, particularly a declining one. Here is a troubled
business that keeps hiring employees whose attitudes vastly annoy the customers. Then it sponsors

文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌                              18
                  走进文都信达,踏上成功之路                                   咨询电话 010-66215567
走




lots of symposiums and a credibility project dedicated to wondering why customers are annoyed
and fleeing in large numbers. But it never seems to get around to noticing the cultural and class
biases that so many former buyers are complaining about. If it did, it would open up its diversity
program, now focused narrowly on race and gender, and look for reporters who differ broadly by
outlook, values, education, and class.

59. What is the passage mainly about?
    [A] needs of the readers all over the world
    [B] causes of the public disappointment about newspapers
    [C] origins of the declining newspaper industry
    [D] aims of a journalism credibility project
60. The results of the journalism credibility project turned out to be ____.
    [A] quite trustworthy                    [B]somewhat contradictory
    [C]very illuminating                     [D]rather superficial
61. The basic problem of journalists as pointed out by the writer lies in their ____.
    [A] working attitude                     [B]conventional lifestyle
    [C]world outlook                         [D]educational background
62. Despite its efforts, the newspaper industry still cannot satisfy the readers owing to its ____.
    [A] failure to realize its real problem   [B]tendency to hire annoying reporters
    [C]likeliness to do inaccurate reporting [D]prejudice in matters of race and gender

                                                Text 4
   The world is going through the biggest wave of mergers and acquisitions ever witnessed. The
process sweeps from hyperactive America to Europe and reaches the emerging countries with
unsurpassed might. Many in these countries are looking at this process and worrying: “Won’t the
wave of business concentration turn into an uncontrollable anti-competitive force?”
   There’s no question that the big are getting bigger and more powerful. Multinational
corporations accounted for less than 20% of international trade in 1982. Today the figure is more
than 25% and growing rapidly. International affiliates account for a fast-growing segment of
production in economies that open up and welcome foreign investment. In Argentina, for instance,
after the reforms of the early 1990s, multinationals went from 43% to almost 70% of the industrial
production of the 200 largest firms. This phenomenon has created serious concerns over the role of
smaller economic firms, of national businessmen and over the ultimate stability of the world
economy.
   I believe that the most important forces behind the massive M&A wave are the same that
underlie the globalization process: falling transportation and communication costs, lower trade and
investment barriers and enlarged markets that require enlarged operations capable of meeting
customers’ demands. All these are beneficial, not detrimental, to consumers. As productivity grows,
the world’s wealth increases.
   Examples of benefits or costs of the current concentration wave are scanty. Yet it is hard to
imagine that the merger of a few oil firms today could re-create the same threats to competition that
were feared nearly a century ago in the U.S., when the Standard Oil trust was broken up. The
mergers of telecom companies, such as WorldCom, hardly seem to bring higher prices for

文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌                              19
                  走进文都信达,踏上成功之路                                   咨询电话 010-66215567
走




consumers or a reduction in the pace of technical progress. On the contrary, the price of
communications is coming down fast. In cars, too, concentration is increasing — witness Daimler
and Chrysler, Renault and Nissan — but it does not appear that consumers are being hurt.
   Yet the fact remains that the merger movement must be watched. A few weeks ago, Alan
Greenspan warned against the megamergers in the banking industry. Who is going to supervise,
regulate and operate as lender of last resort with the gigantic banks that are being created? Won’t
multinationals shift production from one place to another when a nation gets too strict about
infringements to fair competition? And should one country take upon itself the role of “defending
competition” on issues that affect many other nations, as in the U.S. vs. Microsoft case?

63. What is the typical trend of businesses today?
    [A] to take in more foreign funds         [B]to invest more abroad
    [C]to combine and become bigger          [D]to trade with more countries
64. According to the author, one of the driving forces behind M&A wave is ____.
    [A] the greater customer demands        [B]a surplus supply for the market
    [C]a growing productivity              [D]the increase of the world’s wealth
65. From paragraph 4 we can infer that ____.
    [A] the increasing concentration is certain to hurt consumers
    [B] WorldCom serves as a good example of both benefits and costs
    [C] the costs of the globalization process are enormous
    [D] the Standard Oil trust might have threatened competition
66. Toward the new business wave, the writer’s attitude can be said to be ____.
    [A] Optimistic              [B]objective
    [C]pessimistic               [D]biased

                                                 Text 5
   When I decided to quit my full time employment it never occurred to me that I might become a
part of a new international trend. A lateral move that hurt my pride and blocked my professional
progress prompted me to abandon my relatively high profile career although, in the manner of a
disgraced government minister, I covered my exit by claiming “I wanted to spend more time with
my family”.
   Curiously, some two-and-a-half years and two novels later, my experiment in what the
Americans term “downshifting” has turned my tired excuse into an absolute reality. I have been
transformed from a passionate advocate of the philosophy of “having it all”, preached by Linda
Kelsey for the past seven years in the pages of She magazine, into a woman who is happy to settle
for a bit for everything.
   I have discovered, as perhaps Kelsey will after her much-publicized resignation from the
editorship of She after a build-up of stress, that abandoning the doctrine of “juggling your life”, and
making the alternative move into “downshifting” brings with it far greater rewards than financial
success and social status. Nothing could persuade me to return to the kind of life Kelsey used to
advocate and I once enjoyed: 12-hour working days, pressured deadlines, the fearful strain of office
politics and the limitations of being a parent on “quality time”.


文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌                               20
                 走进文都信达,踏上成功之路                                   咨询电话 010-66215567
走




    In America, the move away from juggling to a simpler, less materialistic lifestyle is a well-
established trend. Downshifting — also known in America as “voluntary simplicity” — has,
ironically, even bred a new area of what might be termed anti-consumerism. There are a number of
bestselling downshifting self-help books for people who want to simplify their lives; there are
newsletters, such as The Tightwad Gazette, that give hundreds of thousands of Americans useful
tips on anything from recycling their cling-film to making their own soap; there are even support
groups for those who want to achieve the mid- ’90s equivalent of dropping out.
    While in America the trend started as a reaction to the economic decline — after the mass
redundancies caused by downsizing in the late ’80s — and is still linked to the politics of thrift, in
Britain, at least among the middle-class downshifters of my acquaintance, we have different
reasons for seeking to simplify our lives.
    For the women of my generation who were urged to keep juggling through the ’80s, down-
shifting in the mid- ’90s is not so much a search for the mythical good life — growing your own
organic vegetables, and risking turning into one — as a personal recognition of your limitations.

67. Which of the following is true according to paragraph 1?
    [A] Full-time employment is a new international trend.
    [B] The writer was compelled by circumstances to leave her job.
    [C] “A lateral move” means stepping out of full-time employment.
    [D] The writer was only too eager to spend more time with her family
68. The writer’s experiment shows that downshifting ____.
    [A] enables her to realize her dream
    [B] helps her hold a new philosophy of life
    [C] prompts her to abandon her high social status
    [D] leads her to accept the doctrine of She magazine
69. “Juggling one’s life” probably means living a life characterized by ____.
    [A] non-materialistic lifestyle     [B]a bit of everything
    [C]extreme stress                   [D]anti-consumerism
70. According to the passage, downshifting emerged in the U.S. as a result of ____.
    [A] the quick pace of modern life             [B]man’s adventurous spirit
    [C]man’s search for mythical experiences [D]the economic situation

2000 年考研试题
Section III Reading Comprehension
Directions:
Each of the passages below is followed by some questions. For each question there are four
answers marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. Read the passage carefully and choose the best answer to
each of the questions. Then mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the
corresponding letter in the brackets with a pencil. (40 points)

                                              Text 1
  A history of long and effortless success can be a dreadful handicap, but, if properly handled, it
may become a driving force. When the United States entered just such a glowing period after the

文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌                              21
                 走进文都信达,踏上成功之路                                   咨询电话 010-66215567
走




end of the Second World War, it had a market eight times larger than any competitor, giving its
industries unparalleled economies of scale. Its scientists were the world’s best, its workers the most
skilled. America and Americans were prosperous beyond the dreams of the Europeans and As ians
whose economies the war had destroyed.
   It was inevitable that this primacy should have narrowed as other countries grew richer. Just as
inevitably, the retreat from predominance proved painful. By the mid-1980s Americans had found
themselves at a loss over their fading industrial competitiveness. Some huge American industries,
such as consumer electronics, had shrunk or vanished in the face of foreign competition. By 1987
there was only one American television maker left, Zenith. (Now there is none: Zenith was bought
by South Korea’s LG Electronics in July.) Foreign-made cars and textiles were sweeping into the
domestic market. America’s machine-tool industry was on the ropes. For a while it looked as
though the making of semiconductors, which America had invented and which sat at the heart of
the new computer age, was going to be the next casualty.
   All of this caused a crisis of confidence. Americans stopped taking prosperity for granted. They
began to believe that their way of doing business was failing, and that their incomes would
therefore shortly begin to fall as well. The mid-1980s brought one inquiry after another into the
causes of America’s industrial decline. Their sometimes sensational findings were filled with
warnings about the growing competition from overseas.
   How things have changed! In 1995 the United States can look back on five years of solid growth
while Japan has been struggling. Few Americans attribute this solely to such obvious causes as a
devalued dollar or the turning of the business cycle. Self-doubt has yielded to blind pride.
“American industry has changed its structure, has gone on a diet, has learnt to be more quick-
witted,” according to Richard Cavanagh, executive dean of Harvard’s Kennedy School of
Government. “It makes me proud to be an American just to see how our businesses are improving
their productivity,” says Stephen Moore of the Cato Institute, a thing-tank in Washington, DC. And
William Sahlman of the Harvard Business School believes that people will look back on this period
as “a golden age of business management in the United States.”

41. The U.S. achieved its predominance after World War II because ____.
    [A] it had made painstaking efforts towards this goal
    [B] its domestic market was eight times larger than before
    [C] the war had destroyed the economies of most potential competitors
    [D] the unparalleled size of its workforce had given an impetus to its economy
42. The loss of U.S. predominance in the world economy in the 1980s is manifested in the fact
    that the American ____.
    [A] TV industry had withdrawn to its domestic market
    [B] semiconductor industry had been taken over by foreign enterprises
    [C] machine-tool industry had collapsed after suicidal actions
    [D] auto industry had lost part of its domestic market
43. What can be inferred from the passage?
    [A] It is human nature to shift between self-doubt and blind pride.
    [B] Intense competition may contribute to economic progress.
    [C] The revival of the economy depends on international cooperation.

文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌                              22
                  走进文都信达,踏上成功之路                                   咨询电话 010-66215567
走




    [D] A long history of success may pave the way for further development.
44. The author seems to believe the revival of the U.S. economy in the 1990s can be attributed to
    the ____.
    [A] turning of the business cycle        [B]restructuring of industry
    [C]improved business management          [D]success in education

                                                  Text 2
    Being a man has always been dangerous. There are about 105 males born for every 100 females,
but this ratio drops to near balance at the age of maturity, and among 70-year-olds there are twice
as many women as men. But the great universal of male mortality is being changed. Now, boy
babies survive almost as well as girls do. This means that, for the first time, there will be an excess
of boys in those crucial years when they are searching for a mate. More important, another chance
for natural selection has been removed. Fifty years ago, the chance of a baby (particularly a boy
baby) surviving depended on its weight. A kilogram too light or too heavy meant almost certain
death. Today it makes almost no difference. Since much of the variation is due to genes, one more
agent of evolution has gone.
    There is another way to commit evolutionary suicide: stay alive, but have fewer children. Few
people are as fertile as in the past. Except in some religious communities, very few women have 15
children. Nowadays the number of births, like the age of death, has become average. Most of us
have roughly the same number of offspring. Again, differences between people and the opportunity
for natural selection to take advantage of it have diminished. India shows what is happening. The
country offers wealth for a few in the great cities and poverty for the remaining tribal peoples. The
grand mediocrity of today — everyone being the same in survival and number of offspring —
means that natural selection has lost 80% of its power in upper-middle-class India compared to the
tribes.
    For us, this means that evolution is over; the biological Utopia has arrived. Strangely, it has
involved little physical change. No other species fills so many places in nature. But in the past
100,000 years — even the past 100 years — our lives have been transformed but our bodies have
not. We did not evolve, because machines and society did it for us. Darwin had a phrase to describe
those ignorant of evolution: they “look at an organic being as a savage looks at a ship, as at
something wholly beyond his comprehension.” No doubt we will remember a 20th century way of
life beyond comprehension for its ugliness. But however amazed our descendants may be at how
far from Utopia we were, they will look just like us.

45. What used to be the danger in being a man according to the first paragraph?
    [A] A lack of mates.            [B]A fierce competition.
    [C]A lower survival rate.       [D]A defective gene.
46. What does the example of India illustrate?
    [A] Wealthy people tend to have fewer children than poor people.
    [B] Natural selection hardly works among the rich and the poor.
    [C] The middle class population is 80% smaller than that of the tribes.
    [D] India is one of the countries with a very high birth rate.
47. The author argues that our bodies have stopped evolving because ____.

文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌                               23
                  走进文都信达,踏上成功之路                                   咨询电话 010-66215567
走




    [A] life has been improved by technological advance
    [B] the number of female babies has been declining
    [C] our species has reached the highest stage of evolution
    [D] the difference between wealth and poverty is disappearing
48. Which of the following would be the best title for the passage?
    [A] Sex Ratio Changes in Human Evolution [B]Ways of Continuing Man’s Evolution
    [C]The Evolutionary Future of Nature         [D]Human Evolution Going Nowhere

                                                  Text 3
    When a new movement in art attains a certain fashion, it is advisable to find out what its
advocates are aiming at, for, however farfetched and unreasonable their principles may seem today,
it is possible that in years to come they may be regarded as normal. With regard to Futurist poetry,
however, the case is rather difficult, for whatever Futurist poetry may be — even admitting that the
theory on which it is based may be right — it can hardly be classed as Literature.
    This, in brief, is what the Futurist says: for a century, past conditions of life have been
conditionally speeding up, till now we live in a world of noise and violence and speed.
Consequently, our feelings, thoughts and emotions have undergone a corresponding change. This
speeding up of life, says the Futurist, requires a new form of expression. We must speed up our
literature too, if we want to interpret modern stress. We must pour out a large stream of essential
words, unhampered by stops, or qualifying adjectives, or finite verbs. Instead of describing sounds
we must make up words that imitate them; we must use many sizes of type and different colored
inks on the same page, and shorten or lengthen words at will.
    Certainly their descriptions of battles are confused. But it is a little upsetting to read in the
explanatory notes that a certain line describes a fight between a Turkish and a Bulgarian officer on
a bridge off which they both fall into the river — and then to find that the line consists of the noise
of their falling and the weights of the officers: ‘Pluff! Pluff! A hundred and eighty-five kilograms.’
    This, though it fulfills the laws and requirements of Futurist poetry, can hardly be classed as
Literature. All the same, no thinking man can refuse to accept their first proposition: that a great
change in our emotional life calls for a change of expression. The whole question is really this:
have we essentially changed?

49. This passage is mainly ____.
    [A] a survey of new approaches to art         [B]a review of Futurist poetry
    [C]about merits of the Futurist movement [D]about laws and requirements of literature
50. When a novel literary idea appears, people should try to ____.
    [A] determine its purposes                    [B]ignore its flaws
    [C]follow the new fashions                   [D]accept the principles
51. Futurists claim that we must ____.
    [A] increase the production of literature [B]use poetry to relieve modern stress
    [C]develop new modes of expression         [D]avoid using adjectives and verbs
52. The author believes that Futurist poetry is ____.
    [A] based on reasonable principles
    [B] new and acceptable to ordinary people

文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌                               24
                 走进文都信达,踏上成功之路                                   咨询电话 010-66215567
走




     [C] indicative of a basic change in human nature
     [D] more of a transient phenomenon than literature

                                               Text 4
    Aimlessness has hardly been typical of the postwar Japan whose productivity and social
harmony are the envy of the United States and Europe. But increasingly the Japanese are seeing a
decline of the traditional work-moral values. Ten years ago young people were hardworking and
saw their jobs as their primary reason for being, but now Japan has largely fulfilled its economic
needs, and young people don’t know where they should go next.
    The coming of age of the postwar baby boom and an entry of women into the male-dominated
job market have limited the opportunities of teen-agers who are already questioning the heavy
personal sacrifices involved in climbing Japan’s rigid social ladder to good schools and jobs. In a
recent survey, it was found that only 24.5 percent of Japanese students were fully satisfied with
school life, compared with 67.2 percent of students in the United States. In addition, far more
Japanese workers expressed dissatisfaction with their jobs than did their counterparts in the 10
other countries surveyed.
    While often praised by foreigners for its emphasis on the basics, Japanese education tends to
stress test taking and mechanical learning over creativity and self-expression. “Those things that do
not show up in the test scores — personality, ability, courage or humanity — are completely
ignored, ” says Toshiki Kaifu, chairman of the ruling Liberal Democratic Party’s education
committee. “Frustration against this kind of thing leads kids to drop out and run wild.” Last year
Japan experienced 2, 125 incidents of school violence, including 929 assaults on teachers. Amid
the outcry, many conservative leaders are seeking a return to the prewar emphasis on moral
education. Last year Mitsuo Setoyama, who was then education minister, raised eyebrows when he
argued that liberal reforms introduced by the American occupation authorities after World War II
had weakened the “Japanese morality of respect for parents.”
    But that may have more to do with Japanese life-styles. “In Japan, ” says educator Yoko Muro,
“it’s never a question of whether you enjoy your job and your life, but only how much you can
endure.” With economic growth has come centralization; fully 76 percent of Japan’s 119 million
citizens live in cities where community and the extended family have been abandoned in favor of
isolated, two-generation households. Urban Japanese have long endured lengthy commutes (travels
to and from work) and crowded living conditions, but as the old group and family values weaken,
the discomfort is beginning to tell. In the past decade, the Japanese divorce rate, while still well
below that of the United States, has increased by more than 50 percent, and suicides have increased
by nearly one-quarter.

53. In the Westerners’ eyes, the postwar Japan was ____.
    [A] under aimless development        [B]a positive example
    [C]a rival to the West               [D]on the decline
54. According to the author, what may chiefly be responsible for the moral decline of Japanese
    society?
    [A] Women’s participation in social activities is limited.
    [B] More workers are dissatisfied with their jobs.

文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌                              25
                  走进文都信达,踏上成功之路                                   咨询电话 010-66215567
走




    [C] Excessive emphasis has been placed on the basics.
    [D] The life-style has been influenced by Western values.
55. Which of the following is true according to the author?
    [A] Japanese education is praised for helping the young climb the social ladder.
    [B] Japanese education is characterized by mechanical learning as well as creativity.
    [C] More stress should be placed on the cultivation of creativity.
    [D] Dropping out leads to frustration against test taking.
56. The change in Japanese life-style is revealed in the fact that ____.
    [A] the young are less tolerant of discomforts in life
    [B] the divorce rate in Japan exceeds that in the U. S.
    [C] the Japanese endure more than ever before
    [D] the Japanese appreciate their present life

                                                Text 5
   If ambition is to be well regarded, the rewards of ambition — wealth, distinction, control over
one’s destiny — must be deemed worthy of the sacrifices made on ambition’s behalf. If the
tradition of ambition is to have vitality, it must be widely shared; and it especially must be highly
regarded by people who are themselves admired, the educated not least among them. In an odd way,
however, it is the educated who have claimed to have given up on ambition as an ideal. What is
odd is that they have perhaps most benefited from ambition — if not always their own then that of
their parents and grandparents. There is a heavy note of hypocrisy in this, a case of closing the barn
door after the horses have escaped — with the educated themselves riding on them.
   Certainly people do not seem less interested in success and its signs now than formerly. Summer
homes, European travel, BMWs — the locations, place names and name brands may change, but
such items do not seem less in demand today than a decade or two years ago. What has happened is
that people cannot confess fully to their dreams, as easily and openly as once they could, lest they
be thought pushing, acquisitive and vulgar. Instead, we are treated to fine hypocritical spectacles,
which now more than ever seem in ample supply: the critic of American materialism with a
Southampton summer home; the publisher of radical books who takes his meals in three-star
restaurants; the journalist advocating participatory democracy in all phases of life, whose own
children are enrolled in private schools. For such people and many more perhaps not so exceptional,
the proper formulation is, “Succeed at all costs but avoid appearing ambitious.”
   The attacks on ambition are many and come from various angles; its public defenders are few
and unimpressive, where they are not extremely unattractive. As a result, the support for ambition
as a healthy impulse, a quality to be admired and fixed in the mind of the young, is probably lower
than it has ever been in the United States. This does not mean that ambition is at an end, that people
no longer feel its stirrings and promptings, but only that, no longer openly honored, it is less openly
professed. Consequences follow from this, of course, some of which are that ambition is driven
underground, or made sly. Such, then, is the way things stand: on the left angry critics, on the right
stupid supporters, and in the middle, as usual, the majority of earnest people trying to get on in life.

57. It is generally believed that ambition may be well regarded if ____.
    [A] its returns well compensate for the sacrifices

文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌                               26
                 走进文都信达,踏上成功之路                                   咨询电话 010-66215567
走




    [B] it is rewarded with money, fame and power
    [C] its goals are spiritual rather than material
    [D] it is shared by the rich and the famous
58. The last sentence of the first paragraph most probably implies that it is ____.
    [A] customary of the educated to discard ambition in words
    [B] too late to check ambition once it has been let out
    [C] dishonest to deny ambition after the fulfillment of the goal
    [D] impractical for the educated to enjoy benefits from ambition
59. Some people do not openly admit they have ambition because ____.
    [A] they think of it as immoral
    [B] their pursuits are not fame or wealth
    [C] ambition is not closely related to material benefits
    [D] they do not want to appear greedy and contemptible
60. From the last paragraph the conclusion can be drawn that ambition should be maintained ____.
    [A] secretly and vigorously        [B]openly and enthusiastically
    [C]easily and momentarily          [D]verbally and spiritually

1999 年考研试题
Section III Reading Comprehension
Directions:
Each of the passages below is followed by some questions. For each question there are four
answers marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. Read the passage carefully and choose the best answer to
each of the questions. Then mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the
corresponding letter in the brackets with a pencil. (40 points)

                                                Text 1
   It’s a rough world out there. Step outside and you could break a leg slipping on your doormat.
Light up stove and you could burn down the house. Luckily, if the doormat or stove failed to warn
of coming disaster, a successful lawsuit might compensate you for your troubles. Or so the thinking
has gone since the early 1980s, when juries began holding more companies liable for their
customers’ misfortunes.
   Feeling threatened, companies responded by writing ever-longer warning labels, trying to
anticipate every possible accident. Today, stepladders carry labels several inches long that warn,
among other things, that you might —surprise! — fall off. The label on a child’s Batman cape
cautions that the toy “does not enable user to fly.”
   While warnings are often appropriate and necessary — the dangers of drug interactions, for
example — and many are required by state or federal regulations, it isn’t clear that they actually
protect the manufacturers and sellers from liability if a customer is injured. About 50 percent of the
companies lose when injured customers take them to court.
    Now the tide appears to be turning. As personal injury claims continue as before, some courts
are beginning to side with defendants, especially in cases where a warning label probably wouldn’t
have changed anything. In May, Julie Nimmons, president of Schutt Sports in Illinois, successfully
fought a lawsuit involving a football player who was paralyzed in a game while wearing a Schutt

文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌                              27
                  走进文都信达,踏上成功之路                                   咨询电话 010-66215567
走




helmet. “We’re really sorry he has become paralyzed, but helmets aren’t designed to prevent those
kinds of injuries,” says Nimmon. The jury agreed that the nature of the game, not the helmet, was
the reason for the athlete’s injury.
    At the same time, the American Law Institute — a group of judges, lawyers, and academics
whose recommendations carry substantial weight — issued new guidelines for tort law stating that
companies need not warn customers of obvious dangers or bombard them with a lengthy list of
possible ones. “Important information can get buried in a sea of trivialities,” says a law professor at
Cornell Law School who helped draft the new guidelines. If the moderate end of the legal
community has its way, the information on products might actually be provided for the benefit of
customers and not as protection against legal liability.

41. What were things like in the 1980s when accidents happened?
    [A] Customers might be relieved of their disasters through lawsuits.
    [B] Injured customers could expect protection from the legal system.
    [C] Companies would avoid being sued by providing new warnings.
    [D] Juries tended to find fault with the compensations companies promised.
42. Manufacturers as mentioned in the passage tend to ____.
    [A] satisfy customers by writing long warnings on products
    [B] become honest in describing the inadequacies of their products
    [C] make the best use of labels to avoid legal liability
    [D] feel obliged to view customers’ safety as their first concern
43. The case of Schutt helmet demonstrated that ____.
    [A] some injury claims were no longer supported by law
    [B] helmets were not designed to prevent injuries
    [C] product labels would eventually be discarded
    [D] some sports games might lose popularity with athletes
44. The author’s attitude towards the issue seems to be ____.
    [A] Biased             [B]indifferent
    [C]puzzling           [D]objective

                                               Text 2
   In the first year or so of Web business, most of the action has revolved around efforts to tap the
consumer market. More recently, as the Web proved to be more than a fashion, companies have
started to buy and sell products and services with one another. Such business-to-business sales
make sense because businesspeople typically know what product they’re looking for.
   Nonetheless, many companies still hesitate to use the Web because of doubts about its reliability.
“Businesses need to feel they can trust the pathway between them and the supplier.” says senior
analyst Blane Erwin of Forrester Research. Some companies are limiting the risk by conducting
online transactions only with established business partners who are given access to the company’s
private intranet.
   Another major shift in the model for Internet commerce concerns the technology available for
marketing. Until recently, Internet marketing activities have focused on strategies to “pull”
customers into sites. In the past year, however, software companies have developed tools that allow

文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌                               28
                 走进文都信达,踏上成功之路                                   咨询电话 010-66215567
走




companies to “push” information directly out to consumers, transmitting marketing messages
directly to targeted customers. Most notably, the Pointcast Network uses a screen saver to deliver a
continually updated stream of news and advertisements to subscribers’ computer monitors.
Subscribers can customize the information they want to receive and proceed directly to a
company’s Web site. Companies such as Virtual Vineyards are already starting to use similar
technologies to push messages to customers about special sales, product offerings, or other events.
But push technology has earned the contempt of many Web users. Online culture thinks highly of
the notion that the information flowing onto the screen comes there by specific request. Once
commercial promotion begins to fill the screen uninvited, the distinction between the Web and
television fades. That’s a prospect that horrifies Net purists.
    But it is hardly inevitable that companies on the Web will need to resort to push strategies to
make money. The examples of Virtual Vineyards, Amazon. com, and other pioneers show that a
Web site selling the right kind of products with the right mix of interactivity, hospitality, and
security will attract online customers. And the cost of computing power continues to free fall,
which is a good sign for any enterprise setting up shop in silicon. People looking back 5 or 10 years
from now may well wonder why so few companies took the online plunge.

45. We learn from the beginning of the passage that Web business ____.
    [A] has been striving to expand its market [B]intended to follow a fanciful fashion
    [C]tried but in vain to control the market [D]has been booming for one year or so
46. Speaking of the online technology available for marketing, the author implies that ____.
    [A] the technology is popular with many Web users
    [B] businesses have faith in the reliability of online transactions
    [C] there is a radical change in strategy
    [D] it is accessible limitedly to established partners
47. In the view of Net purists, ____.
    [A] there should be no marketing messages in online culture
    [B] money making should be given priority to on the Web
    [C] the Web should be able to function as the television set
    [D] there should be no online commercial information without requests
48. We learn from the last paragraph that ____.
    [A] pushing information on the Web is essential to Internet commerce
    [B] interactivity, hospitality and security are important to online customers
    [C] leading companies began to take the online plunge decades ago
    [D] setting up shops in silicon is independent of the cost of computing power

                                              Text 3
   An invisible border divides those arguing for computers in the classroom on the behalf of
students’ career prospects and those arguing for computers in the classroom for broader reasons of
radical educational reform. Very few writers on the subject have explored this distinction — indeed,
contradiction — which goes to the heart of what is wrong with the campaign to put computers in
the classroom.


文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌                              29
                 走进文都信达,踏上成功之路                                   咨询电话 010-66215567
走




    An education that aims at getting a student a certain kind of job is a technical education,
justified for reasons radically different from why education is universally required by law. It is not
simply to raise everyone’s job prospects that all children are legally required to attend school into
their teens. Rather, we have a certain conception of the American citizen, a character who is
incomplete if he cannot competently assess how his livelihood and happiness are affected by things
outside of himself. But this was not always the case; before it was legally required for all children
to attend school until a certain age, it was widely accepted that some were just not equipped by
nature to pursue this kind of education. With optimism characteristic of all industrialized countries,
we came to accept that everyone is fit to be educated. Computer-education advocates forsake this
optimistic notion for a pessimism that betrays their otherwise cheery outlook. Banking on the
confusion between educational and vocational reasons for bringing computers into schools,
computer-ed advocates often emphasize the job prospects of graduates over their educational
achievement.
    There are some good arguments for a technical education given the right kind of student. Many
European schools introduce the concept of professional training early on in order to make sure
children are properly equipped for the professions they want to join. It is, however, presumptuous
to insist that there will only be so many jobs for so many scientists, so many businessmen, so many
accountants. Besides, this is unlikely to produce the needed number of every kind of professional in
a country as large as ours and where the economy is spread over so many states and involves so
many international corporations.
    But, for a small group of students, professional training might be the way to go since well-
developed skills, all other factors being equal, can be the difference between having a job and not.
Of course, the basics of using any computer these days are very simple. It does not take a lifelong
acquaintance to pick up various software programs. If one wanted to become a computer engineer,
that is, of course, an entirely different story. Basic computer skills take — at the very longest — a
couple of months to learn. In any case, basic computer skills are only complementary to the host of
real skills that are necessary to becoming any kind of professional. It should be observed, of course,
that no school, vocational or not, is helped by a confusion over its purpose.

49. The author thinks the present rush to put computers in the classroom is ____.
    [A] far-reaching                  [B]dubiously oriented
    [C]self-contradictory            [D]radically reformatory
50. The belief that education is indispensable to all children ____.
    [A] is indicative of a pessimism in disguise
    [B] came into being along with the arrival of computers
    [C] is deeply rooted in the minds of computer-ed advocates
    [D] originated from the optimistic attitude of industrialized countries
51. It could be inferred from the passage that in the author’s country the European model of
    professional training is ____.
    [A] dependent upon the starting age of candidates
    [B] worth trying in various social sections
    [C] of little practical value
    [D] attractive to every kind of professional

文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌                              30
                 走进文都信达,踏上成功之路                                咨询电话 010-66215567
走




52. According to the author, basic computer skills should be ____.
    [A] included as an auxiliary course in school
    [B] highlighted in acquisition of professional qualifications
    [C] mastered through a life-long course
    [D] equally emphasized by any school, vocational or otherwise

                                               Text 4
   When a Scottish research team startled the world by revealing 3 months ago that it had cloned
an adult sheep, President Clinton moved swiftly. Declaring that he was opposed to using this
unusual animal husbandry technique to clone humans, he ordered that federal funds not be used for
such an experiment — although no one had proposed to do so — and asked an independent panel
of experts chaired by Princeton President Harold Shapiro to report back to the White House in 90
days with recommendations for a national policy on human cloning. That group — the National
Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC) — has been working feverishly to put its wisdom on
paper, and at a meeting on 17 May, members agreed on a near-final draft of their recommendations.
   NBAC will ask that Clinton’s 90-day ban on federal funds for human cloning be extended
indefinitely, and possibly that it be made law. But NBAC members are planning to word the
recommendation narrowly to avoid new restrictions on research that involves the cloning of human
DNA or cells — routine in molecular biology. The panel has not yet reached agreement on a
crucial question, however, whether to recommend legislation that would make it a crime for private
funding to be used for human cloning.
   In a draft preface to the recommendations, discussed at the 17 May meeting, Shapiro suggested
that the panel had found a broad consensus that it would be “morally unacceptable to attempt to
create a human child by adult nuclear cloning.” Shapiro explained during the meeting that the
moral doubt stems mainly from fears about the risk to the health of the child. The panel then
informally accepted several general conclusions, although some details have not been settled.
   NBAC plans to call for a continued ban on federal government funding for any attempt to clone
body cell nuclei to create a child. Because current federal law already forbids the use of federal
funds to create embryos (the earliest stage of human offspring before birth) for research or to
knowingly endanger an embryo’s life, NBAC will remain silent on embryo research.
   NBAC members also indicated that they will appeal to privately funded researchers and clinics
not to try to clone humans by body cell nuclear transfer. But they were divided on whether to go
further by calling for a federal law that would impose a complete ban on human cloning. Shapiro
and most members favored an appeal for such legislation, but in a phone interview, he said this
issue was still “up in the air.”

53. We can learn from the first paragraph that ____.
    [A] federal funds have been used in a project to clone humans
    [B] the White House responded strongly to the news of cloning
    [C] NBAC was authorized to control the misuse of cloning technique
    [D] the White House has got the panel’s recommendations on cloning
54. The panel agreed on all of the following except that ____.
    [A] the ban on federal funds for human cloning should be made a law

文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌                            31
                  走进文都信达,踏上成功之路                                    咨询电话 010-66215567
走




    [B] the cloning of human DNA is not to be put under more control
    [C] it is criminal to use private funding for human cloning
    [D] it would be against ethical values to clone a human being
55. NBAC will leave the issue of embryo research undiscussed because ____.
    [A] embryo research is just a current development of cloning
    [B] the health of the child is not the main concern of embryo research
    [C] an embryo’s life will not be endangered in embryo research
    [D] the issue is explicitly stated and settled in the law
56. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that ____.
    [A] some NBAC members hesitate to ban human cloning completely
    [B] a law banning human cloning is to be passed in no time
    [C] privately funded researchers will respond positively to NBAC’s appeal
    [D] the issue of human cloning will soon be settled

                                                 Text 5
    Science, in practice, depends far less on the experiments it prepares than on the preparedness of
the minds of the men who watch the experiments. Sir Isaac Newton supposedly discovered gravity
through the fall of an apple. Apples had been falling in many places for centuries and thousands of
people had seen them fall. But Newton for years had been curious about the cause of the orbital
motion of the moon and planets. What kept them in place? Why didn’t they fall out of the sky? The
fact that the apple fell down toward the earth and not up into the tree answered the question he had
been asking himself about those larger fruits of the heavens, the moon and the planets.
    How many men would have considered the possibility of an apple falling up into the tree?
Newton did because he was not trying to predict anything. He was just wondering. His mind was
ready for the unpredictable. Unpredictability is part of the essential nature of research. If you don’t
have unpredictable things, you don’t have research. Scientists tend to forget this when writing their
cut and dried reports for the technical journals, but history is filled with examples of it.
    In talking to some scientists, particularly younger ones, you might gather the impression that
they find the “scientific method” a substitute for imaginative thought. I’ve attended research
conferences where a scientist has been asked what he thinks about the advisability of continuing a
certain experiment. The scientist has frowned, looked at the graphs, and said “the data are still
inconclusive.” “We know that,” the men from the budget office have said. “But what do you think?
Is it worthwhile going on? What do you think we might expect?” The scientist has been shocked at
having even been asked to speculate.
   What this amounts to, of course, is that the scientist has become the victim of his own writings.
He has put forward unquestioned claims so consistently that he not only believes them himself, but
has convinced industrial and business management that they are true. If experiments are planned
and carried out according to plan as faithfully as the reports in the science journals indicate, then it
is perfectly logical for management to expect research to produce results measurable in dollars and
cents. It is entirely reasonable for auditors to believe that scientists who know exactly where they
are going and how they will get there should not be distracted by the necessity of keeping one eye
on the cash register while the other eye is on the microscope. Nor, if regularity and conformity to a
standard pattern are as desirable to the scientist as the writing of his papers would appear to reflect,

文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌                               32
                  走进文都信达,踏上成功之路                                    咨询电话 010-66215567
走




is management to be blamed for discriminating against the “odd balls” among researchers in favor
of more conventional thinkers who “work well with the team.”

57. The author wants to prove with the example of Isaac Newton that ____.
    [A] inquiring minds are more important than scientific experiments
    [B] science advances when fruitful researches are conducted
    [C] scientists seldom forget the essential nature of research
    [D] unpredictability weighs less than prediction in scientific research
58. The author asserts that scientists ____.
    [A] shouldn’t replace “scientific method” with imaginative thought
    [B] shouldn’t neglect to speculate on unpredictable things
    [C] should write more concise reports for technical journals
    [D] should be confident about their research findings
59. It seems that some young scientists ____.
    [A] have a keen interest in prediction [B]often speculate on the future
    [C]think highly of creative thinking [D]stick to “scientific method”
60. The author implies that the results of scientific research ____.
    [A] may not be as profitable as they are expected [B]can be measured in dollars and cents
    [C]rely on conformity to a standard pattern       [D]are mostly underestimated by management

1998 年考研试题
Section Ⅲ Reading Comprehension
Directions:
Each of the passages below is followed by some questions. For each question there are four
answers marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. Read the passage carefully and choose the best answer to
each of the questions. Then mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the
corresponding letter in the brackets with a pencil. (40 points)

                                                  Text 1
   Few creations of big technology capture the imagination like giant dams. Perhaps it is
humankind’s long suffering at the mercy of flood and drought that makes the idea of forcing the
waters to do our bidding so fascinating. But to be fascinated is also, sometimes, to be blind. Several
giant dam projects threaten to do more harm than good.
   The lesson from dams is that big is not always beautiful. It doesn’t help that building a big,
powerful dam has become a symbol of achievement for nations and people striving to assert
themselves. Egypt’s leadership in the Arab world was cemented by the Aswan High Dam. Turkey’s
bid for First World status includes the giant Ataturk Dam.
   But big dams tend not to work as intended. The Aswan Dam, for example, stopped the Nile
flooding but deprived Egypt of the fertile silt that floods left — all in return for a giant reservoir of
disease which is now so full of silt that it barely generates electricity.
   And yet, the myth of controlling the waters persists. This week, in the heart of civilized Europe,
Slovaks and Hungarians stopped just short of sending in the troops in their contention over a dam


文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌                                33
                 走进文都信达,踏上成功之路                                   咨询电话 010-66215567
走




on the Danube. The huge complex will probably have all the usual problems of big dams. But
Slovakia is bidding for independence from the Czechs, and now needs a dam to prove itself.
    Meanwhile, in India, the World Bank has given the go-ahead to the even more wrong-headed
Narmada Dam. And the bank has done this even though its advisors say the dam will cause
hardship for the powerless and environmental destruction. The benefits are for the powerful, but
they are far from guaranteed.
    Proper, scientific study of the impacts of dams and of the costs and benefits of controlling water
can help to resolve these conflicts. Hydroelectric power and flood control and irrigation are
possible without building monster dams. But when you are dealing with myths, it is hard to be
either proper, or scientific. It is time that the world learned the lessons of Aswan. You don’t need a
dam to be saved.

41. The third sentence of paragraph 1 implies that ____.
    [A] people would be happy if they shut their eyes to reality
    [B] the blind could be happier than the sighted
    [C] over-excited people tend to neglect vital things
    [D] fascination makes people lose their eyesight
42. In paragraph 5, “the powerless” probably refers to ____.
    [A] areas short of electricity        [B]dams without power stations
    [C]poor countries around India        [D]common people in the Narmada Dam area
43. What is the myth concerning giant dams?
    [A] They bring in more fertile soil.    [B]They help defend the country.
    [C]They strengthen international ties. [D]They have universal control of the waters.
44. What the author tries to suggest may best be interpreted as ____.
    [A] “It’s no use crying over spilt milk” [B]“More haste, less speed”
    [C] “Look before you leap”                [D]“He who laughs last laughs best”

                                                Text 2
   Well, no gain without pain, they say. But what about pain without gain? Everywhere you go in
America, you hear tales of corporate revival. What is harder to establish is whether the productivity
revolution that businessmen assume they are presiding over is for real.
   The official statistics are mildly discouraging. They show that, if you lump manufacturing and
services together, productivity has grown on average by 1.2% since 1987. That is somewhat faster
than the average during the previous decade. And since 1991, productivity has increased by about
2% a year, which is more than twice the 1978-87 average. The trouble is that part of the recent
acceleration is due to the usual rebound that occurs at this point in a business cycle, and so is not
conclusive evidence of a revival in the underlying trend. There is, as Robert Rubin, the treasury
secretary, says, a “disjunction” between the mass of business anecdote that points to a leap in
productivity and the picture reflected by the statistics.
   Some of this can be easily explained. New ways of organizing the workplace — all that re-
engineering and downsizing — are only one contribution to the overall productivity of an economy,
which is driven by many other factors such as joint investment in equipment and machinery, new
technology, and investment in education and training. Moreover, most of the changes that

文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌                              34
                 走进文都信达,踏上成功之路                                   咨询电话 010-66215567
走




companies make are intended to keep them profitable, and this need not always mean increasing
productivity: switching to new markets or improving quality can matter just as much.
   Two other explanations are more speculative. First, some of the business restructuring of recent
years may have been ineptly done. Second, even if it was well done, it may have spread much less
widely than people suppose.
   Leonard Schlesinger, a Harvard academic and former chief executive of Au Bon Pain, a rapidly
growing chain of bakery cafes, says that much “re-engineering” has been crude. In many cases, he
believes, the loss of revenue has been greater than the reductions in cost. His colleague, Michael
Beer, says that far too many companies have applied re-engineering in a mechanistic fashion,
chopping out costs without giving sufficient thought to long-term profitability. BBDO’s Al
Rosenshine is blunter. He dismisses a lot of the work of re-engineering consultants as mere rubbish
— “the worst sort of ambulance-chasing.”

45. According to the author, the American economic situation is ____.
    [A] not as good as it seems            [B]at its turning point
    [C]much better than it seems          [D]near to complete recovery
46. The official statistics on productivity growth ____.
    [A] exclude the usual rebound in a business cycle
    [B] fall short of businessmen’s anticipation
    [C] meet the expectation of business people
    [D] fail to reflect the true state of economy
47. The author raises the question “what about pain without gain?” because ____.
    [A] he questions the truth of “no gain without pain”
    [B] he does not think the productivity revolution works
    [C] he wonders if the official statistics are misleading
    [D] he has conclusive evidence for the revival of businesses
48. Which of the following statements is NOT mentioned in the passage?
    [A] Radical reforms are essential for the increase of productivity.
    [B] New ways of organizing workplaces may help to increase productivity.
    [C] The reduction of costs is not a sure way to gain long-term profitability.
    [D] The consultants are a bunch of good-for-nothings.

                                                 Text 3
   Science has long had an uneasy relationship with other aspects of culture. Think of Gallieo’s
17th-century trial for his rebelling belief before the Catholic Church or poet William Blake’s harsh
remarks against the mechanistic worldview of Isaac Newton. The schism between science and the
humanities has, if anything, deepened in this century.
   Until recently, the scientific community was so powerful that it could afford to ignore its critics
— but no longer. As funding for science has declined, scientists have attacked “antiscience” in
several books, notably Higher Superstition, by Paul R. Gross, a biologist at the University of
Virginia, and Norman Levitt, a mathematician at Rutgers University; and The Demon-Haunted
World, by Carl Sagan of Cornell University.


文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌                              35
                 走进文都信达,踏上成功之路                                  咨询电话 010-66215567
走




   Defenders of science have also voiced their concerns at meetings such as “The Flight from
Science and Reason,” held in New York City in 1995, and “Science in the Age of (Mis)
information,” which assembled last June near Buffalo.
   Antiscience clearly means different things to different people. Gross and Levitt find fault
primarily with sociologists, philosophers and other academics who have questioned science’s
objectivity. Sagan is more concerned with those who believe in ghosts, creationism and other
phenomena that contradict the scientific worldview.
   A survey of news stories in 1996 reveals that the antiscience tag has been attached to many
other groups as well, from authorities who advocated the elimination of the last remaining stocks of
smallpox virus to Republicans who advocate decreased funding for basic research.
   Few would dispute that the term applies to the Unabomber, whose manifesto, published in 1995,
scorns science and longs for return to a pretechnological utopia. But surely that does not mean
environmentalists concerned about uncontrolled industrial growth are antiscience, as an essay in
US News & World Report last May seemed to suggest.
   The environmentalists, inevitably, respond to such critics. The true enemies of science, argues
Paul Ehrlich of Stanford University, a pioneer of environmental studies, are those who question the
evidence supporting global warming, the depletion of the ozone layer and other consequences of
industrial growth.
   Indeed, some observers fear that the antiscience epithet is in danger of becoming meaningless.
“The term ‘antiscience’ can lump together too many, quite different things,” notes Harvard
University philosopher Gerald Holton in his 1993 work Science and Anti-Science. “They have in
common only one thing that they tend to annoy or threaten those who regard themselves as more
enlightened.”

49. The word “schism” (Line 4, Paragraph 1) in the context probably means ____.
    [A] Confrontation                    [B]dissatisfaction
    [C]separation                        [D]contempt
50. Paragraphs 2 and 3 are written to ____.
    [A] discuss the cause of the decline of science’s power
    [B] show the author’s sympathy with scientists
    [C] explain the way in which science develops
    [D] exemplify the division of science and the humanities
51. Which of the following is true according to the passage?
    [A] Environmentalists were blamed for antiscience in an essay.
    [B] Politicians are not subject to the labeling of antiscience.
    [C] The “more enlightened” tend to tag others as antiscience.
    [D] Tagging environmentalists as “antiscience” is justifiable.
52. The author’s attitude toward the issue of “science vs. antiscience” is ____.
    [A] Impartial                       [B]subjective
    [C]biased                          [D]puzzling




文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌                             36
                 走进文都信达,踏上成功之路                                  咨询电话 010-66215567
走




                                                Text 4
    Emerging from the 1980 census is the picture of a nation developing more and more regional
competition, as population growth in the Northeast and Midwest reaches a near standstill.
    This development — and its strong implications for US politics and economy in years ahead —
has enthroned the South as America’s most densely populated region for the first time in the history
of the nation’s head counting.
    Altogether, the US population rose in the 1970s by 23.2 million people —numerically the third-
largest growth ever recorded in a single decade. Even so, that gain adds up to only 11.4 percent,
lowest in American annual records except for the Depression years.
    Americans have been migrating south and west in larger numbers since World War II, and the
pattern still prevails.
    Three sun-belt states — Florida, Texas and California — together had nearly 10 million more
people in 1980 than a decade earlier. Among large cities, San Diego moved from 14th to 8th and
San Antonio from 15th to 10th — with Cleveland and Washington, DC, dropping out of the top 10.
    Not all that shift can be attributed to the movement out of the snow belt, census officials say.
Nonstop waves of immigrants played a role, too — and so did bigger crops of babies as yesterday’s
“baby boom” generation reached its child-bearing years.
    Moreover, demographers see the continuing shift south and west as joined by a related but
newer phenomenon; More and more, Americans apparently are looking not just for places with
more jobs but with fewer people, too. Some instances —
    ·Regionally, the Rocky Mountain states reported the most rapid growth rate — 37.1 percent
since 1970 in a vast area with only 5 percent of the US population.
     ·Among states, Nevada and Arizona grew fastest of all: 63.5 and 53.1 percent respectively.
Except for Florida and Texas, the top 10 in rate of growth is composed of Western states with 7.5
million people — about 9 per square mile.
    The flight from overcrowdedness affects the migration from snow belt to more bearable
climates.
    Nowhere do 1980 census statistics dramatize more the American search for spacious living than
in the Far West. There, California added 3.7 million to its population in the 1970s, more than any
other state.
    In that decade, however, large numbers also migrated from California, mostly to other parts of
the West. Often they chose — and still are choosing — somewhat colder climates such as Oregon,
Idaho and Alaska in order to escape smog, crime and other plagues of urbanization in the Golden
State.
    As a result, California’s growth rate dropped during the 1970s, to 18.5 percent — little more
than two thirds the 1960s’ growth figure and considerably below that of other Western states.

53. Discerned from the perplexing picture of population growth the 1980 census provided,
    America in the 1970s ____.
    [A] enjoyed the lowest net growth of population in history
    [B] witnessed a southwestern shift of population
    [C] underwent an unparalleled period of population growth
    [D] brought to a standstill its pattern of migration since World War II

文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌                             37
                  走进文都信达,踏上成功之路                                   咨询电话 010-66215567
走




54. The census distinguished itself from previous studies on population movement in that ____.
    [A] it stresses the climatic influence on population distribution
    [B] it highlights the contribution of continuous waves of immigrants
    [C] it reveals the Americans’ new pursuit of spacious living
    [D] it elaborates the delayed effects of yesterday’s “baby boom”
55. We can see from the available statistics that ____.
    [A] California was once the most thinly populated area in the whole US
    [B] the top 10 states in growth rate of population were all located in the West
    [C] cities with better climates benefited unanimously from migration
    [D] Arizona ranked second of all states in its growth rate of population
56. The word “demographers” (Line 1, Paragraph 7) most probably means ____.
    [A] people in favor of the trend of democracy
    [B] advocates of migration between states
    [C] scientists engaged in the study of population
    [D] conservatives clinging to old patterns of life

                                                Text 5
    Scattered around the globe are more than 100 small regions of isolated volcanic activity known
to geologists as hot spots. Unlike most of the world’s volcanoes, they are not always found at the
boundaries of the great drifting plates that make up the earth’s surface; on the contrary, many of
them lie deep in the interior of a plate. Most of the hot spots move only slowly, and in some cases
the movement of the plates past them has left trails of dead volcanoes. The hot spots and their
volcanic trails are milestones that mark the passage of the plates.
    That the plates are moving is now beyond dispute. Africa and South America, for example, are
moving away from each other as new material is injected into the seafloor between them. The
complementary coastlines and certain geological features that seem to span the ocean are reminders
of where the two continents were once joined. The relative motion of the plates carrying these
continents has been constructed in detail, but the motion of one plate with respect to another,
cannot readily be translated into motion with respect to the earth’s interior. It is not possible to
determine whether both continents are moving in opposite directions or whether one continent is
stationary and the other is drifting away from it. Hot spots, anchored in the deeper layers of the
earth, provide the measuring instruments needed to resolve the question. From an analysis of the
hot-spot population it appears that the African plate is stationary and that it has not moved during
the past 30 million years.
    The significance of hot spots is not confined to their role as a frame of reference. It now appears
that they also have an important influence on the geophysical processes that propel the plates
across the globe. When a continental plate comes to rest over a hot spot, the material rising from
deeper layers creates a broad dome. As the dome grows, it develops deep fissures (cracks); in at
least a few cases the continent may break entirely along some of these fissures, so that the hot spot
initiates the formation of a new ocean. Thus just as earlier theories have explained the mobility of
the continents, so hot spots may explain their mutability (inconstancy).

57. The author believes that ____.

文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌                               38
                走进文都信达,踏上成功之路                                咨询电话 010-66215567
走




    [A] the motion of the plates corresponds to that of the earth’s interior
    [B] the geological theory about drifting plates has been proved to be true
    [C] the hot spots and the plates move slowly in opposite directions
    [D] the movement of hot spots proves the continents are moving apart
58. That Africa and South America were once joined can be deduced from the fact that ____.
    [A] the two continents are still moving in opposite directions
    [B] they have been found to share certain geological features
    [C] the African plate has been stable for 30 million years
    [D] over 100 hot spots are scattered all around the globe
59. The hot-spot theory may prove useful in explaining ____.
    [A] the structure of the African plates
    [B] the revival of dead volcanoes
    [C] the mobility of the continents
    [D] the formation of new oceans
60. The passage is mainly about ____.
    [A] the features of volcanic activities
    [B] the importance of the theory about drifting plates
    [C] the significance of hot spots in geophysical studies
    [D] the process of the formation of volcanoes




                             第二章 历年阅读理解文章参考译文

2004 年考研试题译文
Part A / 阅读理解
Text 1
【参考译文】
    Gant Redmon 律师去年下半年到处求职,他撞到了互联网上的工作职位库“打造职
业”,他没有成功地找到工作,但被网站的“个人搜索代理”吸引住了。它是互动的,人
们可以键入诸如地点、职位和薪金的工作标准,等到资料库里有了与人们的要求相符合的

文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌                           39
           走进文都信达,踏上成功之路                   咨询电话 010-66215567
走




工作职位,系统就会以电子邮件方式通知人。Redmon 选择了法律的、知识产权和哥伦比亚
特区华盛顿这些关键词,三周后,他收到了第一份职位通知。“我找到金矿了”,Redmon
说,他用电子邮件把自己的简历发给了那位老板,由此得到了该公司内部咨询员的职位。
  由于互联网上有成千上万个与找工作有关的网站,寻找一个有前途的就业机会需要花
很多时间,而且往往最终也没有结果。搜索代理使人不必不断地查阅数据库。但是,虽然
搜索代理帮了 Redmon 的忙,就业专家们还是看到一些缺欠。例如,将自己的工作标准范围
设定得很窄也许会对你不利,“每回答一个问题,你就失去一个机会,”一位专家说。
  找任何工作时,你应该从一个狭窄的概念开始——你认为你想干的工作——然后拓宽
它。“这些电脑程序中没有一个是这么设计的,”另一位专家说。“整个体系中没有任何
明确的就业咨询。”因此,最好的办法就是将这个代理看作是一种提示,使你手头总是有
几个工作机会;收到电子邮件的时候,就当它是提醒你再去资料库里查看一下。“我不会
指望代理帮我找到资料库中所有吸引我的东西,”一个求职指导书的作者说。
  有的网站设计自己的代理,以吸引求职者重新造访。例如,职业网站的代理给登记过
的人发邮件时,邮件包含三个工作职位——它所认为最好的三个。数据库中或许还有更
多;求职者必须回到网站中才能找到它们——而他们也确实是这么做的。“我们发出邮件
的第二天我们发现,网站上的流量急剧增加,”职业网站的市场部副经理 Seth Peets 说。
  甚至那些并不找工作的人也觉得搜索代理很有用处。有的人通过它们密切关注市场对
自己这个职业的需求,或者搜集信息,以便在和老板谈判加薪的时候有理有据。Redmon 虽
然工作得很开心,但他仍保留着在“打造职业”网站的搜索代理。“这样你就知道外面的
一切,”他说。拥有一个个人搜索代理意味着有另外一双眼睛为你巡视。

Text 2
【参考译文】
    在近百年里,各类不公平和歧视都遭到了谴责或被定为非法。但是还有一种阴险的不
公平和歧视形式仍在大行其道:字母顺序排列法。对于那些还未意识到这种劣势的人们来
讲,这指的是对那些姓氏首字母排在字母表后半部分的人的歧视。
    很久以来人们就知道,当顾客翻看电话号码本的时候,与一家名叫 Zodiac 的出租车公
司相比,名名叫 AAAA 的出租车公司占有相当大的优势。但是一个名叫 Adam Abbot 的人
在他的一生中比一个名叫 Zoe Zysman 的人占了多大的优势,就不是鲜为人知了。英语名字
均匀地分布在字母表的前后两个部分里。然而很多头面人物和要人的姓氏首字母在 A 与 K
之间。
    美国的总统和副总统的姓氏首字母分别是 B 和 C;George Bush 的前任中(包括他的父
亲)有 26 人姓氏首字母排在字母表的前半部分,而只有 16 人在后半部分。更让人惊讶的
是,七国首脑中有六人的姓氏首字母占有字母排列优势(Berlusconi, Blair, Bush, Chirac,
Chretien and Koizumi)。世界三大中央银行家(Greenspan, Duisenberg and Hayami)的姓氏
首字母也都位于字母表前列,尽管他们其中之一实际上用的是日文。世界五大富翁也是这
样(Gates, Buffett, Allen, Ellison and Albrecht)。
    这种现象仅仅是巧合吗?在字母顺序排列上处于劣势的人花去所有的业余时间得出的
一个结论是情况在很早的时候就已经开始不妙了。在幼儿园第一年开始的时候,老师们从
前排开始,按字母顺序给学生安排座位,旨在方便记忆学生的名字。因此近视眼的小
Zysman 被扔在了后排,而麻木的老师们也很少问他那些启发智力,提高能力的问题。当时
受字母顺序排列之害的孩子们还以为自己幸运,逃脱了老师的控制。其实结果是成绩更
差,因为他们得到较少的个别关照,和较少的公众讲谈自信。

文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌              40
        走进文都信达,踏上成功之路           咨询电话 010-66215567
走




  这种羞辱并没有结束。在大学毕业典礼上,姓氏以 A,B,C 开始的学生自豪地首先受
到了嘉奖;等轮到 Zysman 的时候,多数学生其实已经在打瞌睡了。求职面试的决选名单,
选票,会议发言和出席名单:所有这些通常是根据字母表顺序排列的,在翻看这些东西
时,人们渐渐失去兴趣。

Text 3
【参考译文】
    谈及正在发展迟缓的经济,Ellen Spero 并不绝望。但是这位 47 岁的指甲修剪师每天修
剪、锉光、打亮的指甲并不像她希望的那么多。她的大多数顾客每周消费 12 到 50 美元,但
是上个月两位老顾客突然停止光顾。Spero 认为这都应归咎于疲软的经济。“我是个很好的
经济显示表”,她说,“我所提供的服务,人们想省钱的时候就可以不需要”。所以,
Spero 正在缩减开支,在 Cleveland 她郊区家宅附近的中档商场迪乐,而不是在 Neiman
Marcus 购物。她说“我不知道是否其他顾客也会抛弃我。”
    甚至在格林斯番承认美国这些经济正在开始降温之前,许多上班族自己早已觉察到了
经济疲软的迹象。从汽车销售商到服饰专卖店,由于顾客缩减了开支几个月来销售额一直
走低。零售业去年在感恩节和圣诞节之间的收入占全年收入的 24%,而今年他们的关键时
刻又来到了。专家们说,假日销售和去年比,已经降幅了 7%。但是先不要拉警报器。消费
者们似乎只是稍有忧虑,并不惊慌,许多人说他们对经济的长远发展仍然乐观,尽管他们
适当地勒起腰带。
    消费者说他们并没有陷入绝望,因为虽然报纸上的大标题令人沮丧,他们自己的财产
并没有什么损失。在大多数地区房地产价格仍很稳定。在曼哈顿,“四百万到一千万之间
的房子非常抢手,主要是因为华尔街的分红”,房产经纪人 Barbara Corcoran 说。在旧金
山,尽管疯狂的过高叫价趋于平息,但房价仍在攀升。“以前总是有 20 到 30 个卖主,而现
在也许只有两三个”,一个海滨地区的房产经纪人 John·Tealdi 说。大多数人对自己有能力
找到并保住一份工作感到很自信。
    许多人在这次经济萧条中仍能看到一线希望。想买房子的人会为低利率而高兴。老板
们不会介意就业市场上少几个泡沫。许多消费者似乎已经受到了股市波动的影响,投资者
将波动看作持续增长的一个必要条件。就餐者也能得到好处。过去在曼哈顿的新艾伦杜可
斯饭店找个餐位是不可能的,现在不是那样了。因此,格林斯番和各大公司还是可以举杯
庆祝一下的。

Text 4
【参考译文】
    今天的美国人并不特别重视心智。我们的英雄是运动员、演员、企业家,而不是学
者。甚至学校也只不过是我们把孩子送去获得实用教育的地方——而不是为了知识而学知
识的地方。不难找到学校里四处弥漫的反心智主义的表现。
    “学校一直处于一个实用性高于心智性的社会中,”教育作家 Diane Ravitch 说,“学
校能够是一种平衡力量。”Ravitch 最新出版的书《滞后:百年失败的学校改革》追溯了我
们的学校里反心智主义的根源,得出结论说学校根本不能平衡美国人对追求心智的厌恶。
    但是学校能够而且应该是一种平衡力量。鼓励孩子抛弃思维生活使得他们面对剥削和
控制时无能为力。没有能力进行批判性思维、维护自己的观点、并理解他人的观点,他们
就不能充分地参与我们的民主。这样发展下去,就会像作家 Earl Shorris 说的,“我们会变
成一个二流的国家。社会文明度将降低。”

文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌     41
         走进文都信达,踏上成功之路           咨询电话 010-66215567
走




  “心智被人们视作一种权力或特权而受到憎恶”,历史学家和教授 Richard Hofstadter
在他的《美国生活中的反心智主义》一书中这样说。这本书获得了普利策奖,是关于美国
政治、宗教和教育中的反心智主义根源的。Hofstadter 说,从我们的历史初期,我们的民主
和民粹主义倾向就使我们摈弃一切和精英主义沾边的东西。实用性、基本常识、天分一直
都被认为是比从书本中学来的任何东西都高尚的资质。
  Ralph Waldo Emerson 和其他一些超自然主义哲学家认为学校教育和高强度的书本学习
会使孩子受到不自然的限制,“我们被关在学校和大学的背诵室里,一关就是 10 到 15 年,
最后满腹经纶却一窃不通。”马克·吐温的作品《哈克贝利·芬》这样描述美国的反心智
主义。这本书的主人公回避接受文明教化——上学认字——所以他保持了自己天生的良好
品质。
  在 Hofstadter 看来,心智和天分是不同的,天分是我们不大情愿羡慕的品质。心智是头
脑中批判性、创造性和沉思性的一面。天分试图掌握、控制、重组、并且调整,而心智却
会研究、思考、质疑、归纳、批判、并且想象。
  目前学校仍然是心智遭到怀疑之处。Hofstadter 说我们国家的教育体系掌握在这样一些
人手中,他们“毫不掩饰自己对心智的敌意,对心智发展最差的学生却表现出极大的认
同。”

2003 年考研试题译文
Text 1
【参考译文】
     Bill Donovan 会喜欢网络的。这位美国间谍大王对情报着迷,他曾经在第二次世界大战
时建立了战略事务办公室,后来又为中央情报局的成立奠定了基础。Donovan 相信,在谍报
工作这个“大游戏”中可以使用任何手段。如今,互联网已经改变了买书和寄信这样的日
常活动,也正在改变 Donovan 曾经从事的这个职业。
     最近的这次改变不只是一些人偷看另一些人的电子邮件的问题。这样的电子间谍活动
已经存在了数十年。在过去的三四年中,国际互联网已经派生出一个可称为点击谍报的完
整的产业。间谍们把它称为“公开来源情报”。随着互联网的增长,这样的情报变得越来
越有影响力。1995 年,中央情报局举办了一次竞赛,看谁能够就“布朗迪”收集到最多信
息。胜者胜出了一大截,仅是弗吉尼亚的一个小公司,名为“公开来源解决方案”,它的
明显优势是它对电子世界的把握。
     在这个新的电子世界中最引起轰动的是一个叫 Straitford 的公司,它是德克萨斯州奥斯
汀市的一个私营的情报分析公司。该公司的业务(范围包括从智利到俄罗斯的一系列国
家)是将情报销售给“麦克德莫国际”这样的能源公司。它的许多预测在网上都可以查
阅,网址为www.straitford.com。
     该公司的总裁 George Friedman 说,他把网络世界视为情报收集和情报发布两方面相互
增强的工具,是间谍们的梦想。上周,他的公司正在从世界的另一角落收集零散的信息,
并预测在乌克兰将发生一场危机。“一旦这个报道发布,我们将从乌克兰突然新增 500 个浏
览用户,”曾经做过政治学教授的 Friedman 说,“我们将听到其中一些人的回应。”当
然,公开来源的谍报活动的确有它的风险,因为很难区分正确与错误的信息。这正是
Straitford 公司挣饭吃的地方。
     Friedman 只在奥斯汀市雇用了区区 20 位雇员。其中的一些有军事情报工作背景。他把
公司的“局外人”地位视为它成功的关键。Straitford 公司的简报听上去不像华盛顿当局常


文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌      42
        走进文都信达,踏上成功之路           咨询电话 010-66215567
走




常提供的躲闪的言辞,政府机构往往避免发布引人注目的言论,因为这些言论可能出错。
Friedman 说,Straitford 公司为其独立的声音而感到自豪。

Text 2
【参考译文】
    18 世纪政治家 Edmund Burke 曾说过类似这样的话:“一个被误导的事业如果要成功,
它唯一所需要的是好人无所作为。”一个这样的事业现在正在寻找终止生物医学的研究,
因为有这样一种理论说,动物享有禁止它们被用于实验的权利。科学家应该对动物权利鼓
吹者作出强有力的回应,因为他们的言论混淆了公众的视听,从而威胁到卫生知识和卫生
服务的进步。动物权利运动的领导者将矛头指向生物医学研究,原因在于它依赖公共资金
的资助,并且很少有人懂得医学研究的过程。当人们听到医学实验虐待动物的指控时,许
多人都不明白为什么有人会故意伤害动物。
    例如,在最近的一次集市上,一位老奶奶站在动物权利宣传点前散发小册子,规劝人
们不要使用动物制品和动物实验制品——肉类,毛皮,药物。当被问到她是否反对接种
时,她问疫苗是否来自动物实验。当被告知的确如此,她回答道:“那么我不得不说,是
的,我反对接种。”当被问到瘟疫爆发怎么办时,她说:“不用担心,科学家会找到一种
方法,用计算机来解决问题。”这样好心的人们就是不明白。
    科学家必须把他们的意思传达给公众,并且要使用有同情心和通俗易懂的语言,而不
要使用分子生物学的语言。我们需要说明动物实验与祖母的髋骨更换,父亲的心脏搭桥,
婴儿的免疫接种,甚至宠物的注射针剂都密切相关。许多人不明白这些治疗方法和新的治
疗方法,疫苗都必须进行动物实验。对于他们来说,动物实验说得好是浪费,说得不好是
残忍。
    有很多事情可以做。科学家可以进入中学课堂,展示他们的实验结果。他们应该对报
刊的读者来信及时作出反应,以防止动物权利的误导言论在毫无质疑的情况下横行,从而
获得一幅真理的面容。科研机构应该对外开放,让人们参观,向人们展示实验动物获得了
人道的对待。最后,因为决定因素是病人,医疗研究机构不仅应该积极争取斯蒂芬·库柏
这样的名人的支持——他对动物实验的价值勇敢地进行了肯定——而且应该争取所有接受
治疗的病人的支持。如果好人无所作为,一群不明真相的公众真的有可能扑灭医学进步的
宝贵火种。

Text 3
【参考译文】
    近些年以来,铁路公司相互联合,组成了超大型集团,引起人们对垄断的日益关注。
近至 1995 年,四家大型铁路公司占有近 70%的铁路运输业务。到明年,一系列兼并活动完
成之后,四家铁路公司控制 90%以上的铁路运输业务。
    支持组建超大型铁路集团的人认为,兼并将带来成本的大幅度降低,服务项目的更好
协调。他们认为,在公路运输的激烈竞争面前,垄断的威胁已经不复存在。但许多客户却
抱怨说,对于长途运输的大宗商品来说,如煤炭、化学制品和粮食,公路运输花费太大,
因此铁路公司就会制约住他们。
    铁路运输业的大规模联合意味着多数客户将会依赖一家公司的业务。通常,铁路公司
对这些“被控”客户的收费要比有另一铁路公司竞争业务时多 20% — 30%。如果客户感到
他们被多收费,他们有权上诉到联邦政府的“陆路运输局”以争取价格下调。但这个过程
耗财、耗时,并且只有在真正极端特殊的情况下才有所作用。

文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌     43
         走进文都信达,踏上成功之路            咨询电话 010-66215567
走




  铁路公司对受到制约的客户进行区别对待的依据是,从长远来看,这样做会降低所有
人的成本。他们认为,如果铁路公司向所有客户收取同样的普通价格的话,那么,可以使
用公路运输或其他交通工具的客户将会转移,使剩下的客户来承担铁路正常运作的开销。
这种理论得到了多数经济学家的认同,但在实际操作中,它使铁路公司获得了一个决定谁
败谁赢的权利。“我们是否真的想让铁路公司成为在市场上决定谁败谁赢的裁决者?”马
丁·贝科维奇问道。他是一位经常代表铁路客户的华盛顿律师。
  许多受到制约的客户还担心他们很快将遭受一轮新的大幅涨价。从整体来说,虽然铁
路工业有耀眼的资产,但它的收入仍然不足以支付为满足不断增长的运输需要而进行的固
定资产投资。然而,铁路公司仍然继续贷款数十亿美元来进行相互兼并,而华尔街也鼓励
它们这样做。请想一想今年南诺弗克公司和 CSX 公司兼并康雷尔公司所花的 102 亿美元
吧。康雷尔公司 1996 年铁路运营纯收入为 4.27 亿美元,这还不足这宗交易运作成本的一
半。谁来支付其余的费用?许多受到制约的客户担心他们会支付,因为南诺弗克和 CSX 公
司将增加对市场的控制。

Text 4
【参考译文】
    据说,在英国死亡令人感到十分紧迫,在加拿大死亡不可避免,在加利福尼亚死亡可
以选择。难怪,在过去的一个世纪里,美国人的寿命几乎翻了一番。髋骨不行了可以更
换,临床的忧郁症得到了控制,白内障仅用 30 分钟手术便可以切除。这些进步给老年人口
带来的生活质量在 50 年前我刚从事医学工作时是不可想象的。但是即使有一个伟大的医护
卫生体系,死亡也是无法战胜的——而我们不能面对这个现实,正危及我们自身的伟大。
    死亡是正常的;我们的基因决定我们即使在最理想的环境里也会解体和灭亡。我们所
有人在某种程度上都懂得这一点,但是作为医疗消费者,我们通常将死亡视为一个问题来
解决。由于医疗费用由第三方支付,我们常常要求用尽所有的医疗手段,即使它们不会有
任何作用。最明显的例子是晚期癌症的治疗。医生由于不能治愈疾病,同时又担心病人失
去希望,常常采用极端大胆的治疗方法,这些方法远远超出了科学能够认同的界限。
    1950 年,美国在医疗卫生方面的开支是 127 亿美元。2002 年,这项开支将达到 15,400
亿。任何人都可以看到这个趋势不可持续,但是很少有人愿意逆转它。有些学者总结说,
如果政府资金有限,它应该停止支付某一个年龄以上的人群的医疗费用——比如 83 岁左
右。据说科罗拉多州前州长理查德·拉姆曾经说,老年多病者“有责任死去和让位”,以
便让更年轻、更健康的人们发挥他们的潜能。
    我不会那么极端。现在精力充沛的人们通常能工作到 60 岁,甚至更长,并仍然具有惊
人的创造力。78 岁的 Viacom 公司总裁萨姆纳·雷德斯通开玩笑说他只有 53 岁。最高法院
法官桑德拉·戴奥康奈 70 有余,前卫生局医务主任 C.埃弗里特·库普 80 岁出任一互联网
公司总裁。这些领导人就是活生生的证据,证明疾病防治能够起作用,证明我们能够对付
年龄带来的健康问题。作为一名年仅 68 岁的人,我希望像他们一样在老龄阶段保持创造
力。
    然而在这样的追求中,一个社会能够承担的费用是有限的。作为一名医生,我深知最
昂贵和最激进的手段也可能是无效和痛苦的。我也深知在医疗开销少得多的日本和瑞典,
人们获得了比我们更长的、更健康的寿命。作为一个民族,我们可能在寻求不可能奏效的
治疗方法上花钱太多,而在研究能提高人们生活质量的更平常的方法上花钱太少。

41. 本文第一句话暗示了什么?

文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌       44
            走进文都信达,踏上成功之路        咨询电话 010-66215567
走




      A) 美国人在死亡面前比其他人更有准备 B)美国人享受的生活质量比从前更高
      C)美国人对他们的医疗技术过于自信        D)美国人对他们的长寿感到洋洋得意
42.   作者使用“癌症病人”这个例子是为了证实______。
       A) 医疗资源经常被浪费掉        B)医生对致命疾病束手无策
       C)有些治疗方案过于大胆          D)医疗费正变得支付不起
43.   作者对理查德·拉姆的言论持______的态度。
       A) 强烈反对              B)有保留地赞同
       C)稍有蔑视               D)热烈支持
44.   与美国相比,日本和瑞典对医疗卫生事业的资助______。
       A) 更灵活              B)更奢侈
       C)更谨慎             D)更合理
45.   本文主要想表达的思想是______。
       A) 医学将进一步延长人们的生命       B)超过了一定限度,生命就不值得延续
       B)死亡应该作为生活的一个现实被接受 D)过多的要求增加了医疗卫生的开支

2002 年考研试题译文
Text 1
【参考译文】
    如果你想在谈话中运用幽默语言使人发笑,你必须知道如何识别共同的经历和共同的
问题。你的幽默必须与听众有关,应该向他们显示你是他们中的一员,你了解他们的情
况,赞同他们的观点。根据你谈话的对象的不同,问题也有所不同。如果你在对一群经理
谈话,你就可以提及他们秘书的工作方法紊乱;相反,如果你在对一群秘书谈话,你就可
以评论她们老板的工作方法紊乱。
    下面举一个例子,它是我在一个护士会上听到的。这个故事效果很好,因为听众对医
生都有同样的看法。一个人到了天堂,圣彼得正带他参观。他看到了豪华的住宅、美丽的
花园、明媚的天气等等。所有人都很安静、礼貌和友善,然而在排队等候午餐时,这位新
来的人突然被一位穿白大褂的人推到一旁。只见这人挤到了队伍的前头,抓过他的食物,
咚咚地走到一张餐桌旁。“这是谁啊?”新来的人问圣彼得。“哦,那是上帝,”他回答
说,“但有时他认为他是一名医生。”
    如果你是你谈话对象的一部分,你就能够了解你们所共有的经历和问题,你就可对餐
厅那不可入口的食物和总裁在选择领带方面的不得体的品味进行评头论足。对于其他听
众,你就不能试图插入这种幽默,因为他们不喜欢外人对他们的餐厅和总裁有如此微词。
如果你选择去评论邮局或电话局这样的替罪羊,那你就会讲话时更稳妥。
    如果你在幽默时感到很别扭,你应该进行练习才能变得更自然。插入一些很随便的看
上去是即兴的话,你能够用轻松的、不做作的方式把它们说出来。常常是你说话的方式使
听众发笑,因此说慢一些,并且记住扬扬眉毛或者一种无法相信的神情都会向人们显示你
正在说笑话。
    留意幽默,它常常是在出奇不意的时候出现。对一句常言的歪曲如“你要是一开始未
成功,就放弃”,或者玩弄语言和玩弄情景。留意夸张和打折扣的话。考虑一下你的谈
话,选出一些词汇和句子,颠倒它们的顺序,添加一些幽默。

Text 2
【参考译文】

文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌       45
        走进文都信达,踏上成功之路          咨询电话 010-66215567
走




  自从人类智慧的起源至今,人们一直在设计日益精巧的工具,来处理那些危险的、枯
燥的、劳累的和令人讨厌的工作。由于人们不愿从事这些工作,因此便有了机器人学——
一种将人类的能力赋予机器的科学。虽然科学家们仍然没有实现科幻小说的幻想,但他们
已经很接近这个目标了。
  由此引起的结果是,现代世界已经被日益充斥着智能的仪器,我们平时仅仅能够察觉
这些仪器,而它们的普遍存在节省了许多人类劳力。我们的工厂里轰鸣着机器人生产线的
节奏。我们的金融服务完成于自动柜员机旁,完成业务后,它们还会机械地、有礼貌地谢
谢我们。我们的地铁车辆由不知疲倦的机器人驾驶。由于电子和微型机械仪器的不断缩
小,已经出现以精确到毫米的准确性实施某些大脑和骨骼手术的智能系统——其准确性远
远超过极其熟练的外科医生仅用他们的双手所能达到的准确程度。
  但是如果机器人要进一步节省劳力的话,它们必须能够在更少的人工监控下运行,并
且至少能够独立地作一些决定——这些目标给我们提出了一个真正的挑战。“虽然我们知
道如何让机器人去处理一个特定的问题,”NASA 的机器人计划经理戴维·拉维里说,“我
们仍然不能赋予机器人以足够的‘常识’,以使它们能够与动态的世界进行可靠的交
流。”
  的确,对真正的人工智能的追求已经产生了各种各样的效果。虽然一开始在二十世纪
六十年代和七十年代有一个乐观的时期,仿佛晶体管电路和微处理器的发展将在 2010 年前
能够模仿人类大脑的活动,但是最近研究人员已经开始将这个预测延后数十年,甚至数百
年。
  在试图建造思维模型的过程中,他们发现,人类大脑中的一千亿个神经细胞要比以前
想象的更聪明,人类的感觉器官也比以前想象的更复杂。用人脑建造的机器人在严格控制
的工厂环境里,能够在仪表盘上识别毫米以下的误差。但是人的大脑能够扫描一个快速变
化的场景,迅速排除 98%的不相干的物体,立即聚焦于森林中蜿蜒道路旁的一只猴子,或
者人群中的一张可疑的脸。地球上最先进的计算机系统都不能成功模仿这样的能力,并且
神经科学家仍然不知道人类是如何能够做到这一点的。

Text 3
【参考译文】
    昔日经济衰退的日子是否会昨日重现?自从 3 月份石油输出国组织同意减产,原油的价
格已经从去年 12 月的不到 10 美元一桶上升到大约二十六美元一桶。这次近三倍的涨价唤起
了 1973 年油价暴涨的可怕记忆,那时油价涨了四倍,也唤起了 1979 — 1980 年的可怕记
忆,那时油价也涨了近三倍。前两次油价暴涨都造成了两位数的通货膨胀率和全球性经济
衰退。那么这次警告人们厄运来临的头版新闻都到哪里去了?
    油价这个星期因伊拉克暂停石油出口又一次被抬升。强劲的经济增长势头,加上冬季
笼罩了北半球,可能在短期内使油价涨得更高。
    然而有充足的理由相信这次油价暴涨在经济上造成的后果不会比 20 世纪 70 年代严重。
在多数国家,原油价格在汽油价格中的份额比 20 世纪 70 年代要小。在欧洲,税收在汽油零
售价的比例可高达五分之四,因此即使原油价格大幅上涨,它对加油站价格的影响也比过
去要轻微。
    富有的发达国家对石油的依赖性也不如从前,因此对油价的波动也不那么敏感。能源
储备、燃料替代和能耗大的重工业重要性的减退都减少了石油的消耗量。软件、咨询和移
动通讯所用的石油要比汽车和钢铁生产少得多。发达国家的 GDP 中每一个美元所消耗的石
油量比 1973 年要少近 50%。国际经合组织在最近一期的《经济展望》中估计,如果石油价

文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌    46
         走进文都信达,踏上成功之路              咨询电话 010-66215567
走




格持续保持在 22 美元一桶的水平,相对 1988 年的 13 美元一桶,那么这将使发达国家在石
油进口方面的支出增加仅为 GDP 的 0.25% — 0.5%。这将比 1974 或 1980 年四分之一的收入
损失要小。另一方面,进口石油的新兴经济国家由于转向了重工业,消耗能量更大,因此
将受到更严重的冲击。
  另一个不要因油价上涨而失眠的原因是,这次不同于 20 世纪 70 年代,油价上涨并未在
商品总价格上涨和全球需求旺盛这种大环境中发生。世界的一大部分地区刚刚从经济衰退
中解脱出来。《经济学家》的商品价格指数与一年前相比基本未变。在 1973 年,商品价格
上上涨了 70%,而 1979 年也上涨了近 30%。

Text 4
【参考译文】
    最高法院在医生协助自杀问题上作出的判决对于医学如何寻求减轻垂危病人的痛苦方
面有着重要的意义。
    虽然法院在判决中承认医生协助病人自杀不是宪法赋予的权利,它实际上对“双重效
果”的医疗原则表示了支持,这个古老的道德原则认为,一种行为具有双重效果——好的
是想要的,坏的是可以预见的——是可以接受的,如果行为人追求的只是好的效果。
    近年来医生一直使用这个原则为他们使用大剂量吗啡来控制临终病人的痛苦进行辩
护,即使增加剂量最终会导致这个病人死亡。
    蒙非奥尔医疗中心主任南茜·杜布勒认为,这个原则将为这样一些医生提供保护,
“他们直到现在都一直坚持认为,如果药物会加快死亡,他们就不能使用足够的药物来控
制病人的病痛。”
    波士顿大学健康法律系主任乔治·安纳斯认为,只要医生开的药物是用于合法的医疗
目的,他就没有做违法的事情,即使病人用这些 药物来加速死亡。“这就好比外科手
术,”他说道,“我们并不把这种死亡称作他杀。因为医生并未想要杀死他们的病人,虽
然他们冒了杀人的风险。如果你是医生,你可以冒病人自杀的风险,只要你没有想要他们
自杀。”
    在另一个层面,医学界的许多人士承认,关于协助性自杀的争论部分是由于病人的绝
望所引起,现代医学一直只能延长他们死亡的肉体痛苦。
    在法院对医生协助性自杀作出判决前仅三周,全国科学院发布了一个两卷本的报告:
《走近死亡:改善临终关怀》。它明确指出,对病痛不进行足够的处理和大胆使用“无效
和强制的医疗程序来延长死亡期或给它带来耻辱”是临终关怀的两个大问题。
    医疗行业正在采取步骤要求年轻医生到晚期病人医院接受训练。参加激进的病痛处理
医疗知识测试,为医院提供的关怀建立一个收费准则,并且为评估和处理临终病痛建立新
的标准。
    安纳斯说,律师在坚持将好意的医疗行为转变为优质的关怀方面将起关键作用。“大
批医生似乎对病人承受的不必要和可预见的痛苦漠不关心”,以至于到了“故意虐待病
人”的地步。他说医疗行业许可委员会“必须明确这一点,即痛苦的死亡可被认为是管理
死亡病人不能胜任的表现,应该吊销营业执照。”

2001 年考研试题译文
Text 1
【参考译文】


文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌        47
         走进文都信达,踏上成功之路         咨询电话 010-66215567
走




   专业化可被视为针对科学知识不断积累这个问题所做出的反应。通过对学科的分支和
细化,个人能够继续处理这些信息并将它们作为深入研究的基础。但是专业化仅是科学领
域内一系列影响交流过程的有关现象之一。另一现象是科学活动的日益职业化。
   在科学领域内,没有绝对的专业与业余之分:任何规律都有其例外。但是“业余”这
个词的确具有其特殊的含义,那就是所指的个人没有完全融入科学家的群体,具体地说,
他可能并不完全认同这个群体的价值观。19 世纪的专业化的发展,以及随之而来的对训练
的长期性和复杂性的要求,对业余人员进入科学界形成了更大的困难。特别是在以数学和
实验室训练为基础的科学领域,这种倾向自然尤为明显,并可以在英国的地质学发展过程
中得到证实。
   对过去一个半世纪的英国地质出版物进行比较不但向我们显示人们对研究的重视程度
在不断增加,而且人们对可以接受的论文的定义也在不断变化。因此,在 19 世纪,对局部
的地质进行研究本身就可以形成一种有价值的研究。而在 20 世纪,如果局部的研究能够被
专业人员接受,那么它必须体现或思考更广阔的地质面貌,而且这种倾向越来越明显。另
一方面业余人员继续以旧的方式从事局部的研究。其整体的结果是使业余人员进入专业性
地质学杂志更加困难,而审稿制度的全面引进——开始是在 19 世纪的全国性杂志实行,然
后进入 20 世纪后也在一些地方性地质杂志实行——使这个结果得到加强。这样发展的必然
结果是出现针对专业的读者和业余读者的不同杂志。同样的分化过程导致专业地质学家聚
集起来,形成一两个全国性的团体,而业余地质学家则或者留在地方性团体中,或者以不
同方式组成全国性的团体。
   虽然职业化和专业化过程在 19 世纪的英国地质学中已经得到迅速发展,但是它的效果
在 20 世纪才充分显示出来。然而,从科学这个整体来看,19 世纪必须被视为科学结构发生
变化的关键时期。

Text 2
【参考译文】

  现今,所谓的数字差异——世界被划分为信息富裕国家和信息贫穷国家——得到了人
们的广泛关注。这个差异的确存在,我和我的妻子 20 年前就对这个潜在的危险做过演讲。
但那时还看不清楚的是一些消除数字化差异的、新的积极因素。有值得乐观的理由。
  有技术上的理由希望数字差异会缩小。随着互联网越来越商业化,普及上网对商家是
有利的——毕竟上网人数越多,潜在的客户就越多。越来越多的政府担心它们的国家被抛
在后面,都愿意扩大互联网的普及率。10 年到 20 年后,这个星球上的 10 亿至 20 亿人口将
被联结在一起。因此,我相信数字差异在未来的几年将会缩小,而不是扩大。那是一个很
好的消息,因为互联网将很可能成为我们用来对付贫穷的最有力的工具。
  当然,使用互联网不是击败贫困的唯一方法。互联网也不是我们拥有的唯一工具,但
它有巨大的潜力。
  为了利用这个工具,一些贫穷国家就必须克服它们过时的针对外国投资的反殖民偏
见。那些仍然认为外国投资是侵犯主权的国家应该好好地研究一下美国的基础设施建设
史。当美国建造它的工业基础设施时,它没有资金。那就是为什么美国的第二浪潮基础设
施——包括道路、港口、高速公路、码头等等——都是利用外资建设的。英国人、德国
人、荷兰人和法国人都在这块前英国殖民地投资。他们投入资金,移民参加建设。猜猜现
在谁拥有这些基础设施?美国人。我相信这种事对巴西或其他所有的地方都一样。你拥有
用以建设第三浪潮基础设施目前即电子基础设施的外国资金越多,你就将越富裕。这并不

文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌    48
        走进文都信达,踏上成功之路         咨询电话 010-66215567
走




是说躺在那里被人欺骗,或者让外国公司毫无限制地经营。但它的确意味着认识外资在建
设充分利用互联网的能源和通讯基础设施中的重要性。

Text 3
【参考译文】
    为什么有那么多美国人不相信他们的报纸?美国新闻编辑协会正在试图回答这个痛苦
的问题。这个组织正深深地陷入一个长期的自我剖析过程:即新闻可信度调查项目。
    遗憾的是,这个项目最终发现了一些低级问题,如事实错误和拼写及语法错误,伴随
着不少令人头疼的迷茫,不知读者究竟想要些什么。
    但是不信任的根源要比这深得多。记者们都学着用一套标准的模式去看世界,并把每
天的新闻装入这个模式之中。换句话说,在新闻演播室的运作方式中有一个国家的新闻套
路,它为纷繁复杂的新闻提供了一个构架和一个现成的叙事方式。
    在记者和读者之间存在着一种社会的和文化的脱节,这种脱节可以说明为什么新闻演
播室的“标准模式”对广大读者是如此的疏远。在最近的一次调查中,问卷被送到了全国
五个中等城市和一个大城市区域的记者手中,然后随意地给这些区域的居民打电话,问他
们同样的问题。
    这些问题显示,与一般的美国人相比,记者更有可能居住在富人区,拥有仆人,拥有
奔驰轿车,炒股,并且他们去教堂,做义务工作,在社区扎根的可能性较小。
    记者们往往属于广义上所说的社会和文化精英的一部分,因此他们的工作往往反映了
这些精英的传统价值观。公众对新闻媒体的惊人的不信任并非来源于不准确或低下的报道
技巧,而来源于记者和读者的世界观的日常冲突。
    这对于任何一个行业都是一个爆炸性的局势,特别是对于一个正在衰落的行业。这里
是一个困境中的不停地雇用员工的产业,这些员工的观点大大地使客户感到恼火。然后它
出资组织研讨会和可信度调查项目,旨在弄清楚为什么顾客恼火了,为什么会大范围抛弃
新闻。但它似乎从来没有注意到从前的许多买报人所抱怨的文化的和社会的偏见。如果它
真正仔细地研究一下,它会启动一个多样化方案,目前它仅集中于种族和性别,并且寻找
有着不同世界观、价值观、教育水平和社会阶层的记者。

Text 4
【参考译文】
    世界正在经历一场从未见过的巨大的并购浪潮。这个浪潮从异常活跃的美国席卷到欧
洲,并以不可比拟的威力影响到正在崛起的国家。这些国家的许多人注视这个浪潮,忧虑
着:“企业合并的浪潮会不会导致产生一种不可控制的反竞争力量?”
    无疑,大企业正在变得更大型、更强大。跨国公司在 1982 年只占有国际贸易不到 20%
的份额。目前,这个数字上升到 25%,并且还在迅速上升。在那些对外开放并欢迎外资的
国家的经济中,国际分公司在国民生产中形成一个快速增长的部门。比如,在阿根廷,经
过 90 年代初的改革之后,跨国公司在 200 家大型企业的工业生产中从 43%增加到几乎
70%。这个现象造成人们对小型企业,对民族资本的作用的严重忧虑,也造成了人们对世界
经济的最终稳定的忧虑。
    我相信,推动这次巨大的并购浪潮的最主要的力量,也是推动全球化进程的力量:运
输与通讯费用的降低,贸易与投资障碍的减少,以及要求满足消费者需求的扩大运用的扩
大市场。所有这些对消费者来说都有益而无害。随着生产力的提高,世界的财富也就增长
了。

文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌   49
        走进文都信达,踏上成功之路        咨询电话 010-66215567
走




  目前这场合并浪潮的利与弊并无多少实例。但是很难想象当今的几个石油公司的合并
能够重新造成 100 年前美国标准石油公司被解散时人们担心它对竞争造成的威胁。通讯公司
的合并,如世界通讯公司,似乎没有给消费者带来更高的价格,或者降低技术进步的速
度。在汽车行业,合并也同样在增加——看看戴姆勒与克莱斯勒,雷诺与尼桑——但仿佛
消费者并未受到伤害。
  但是合并运动必须受到严密监视这个事实仍然存在。几星期以前,格林斯潘对银行业
的巨大合并发出了警告。如果如此巨大的银行出现,谁来充当最终的借贷者,发挥监督、
管理和运作的作用?当一个国家对破坏公平竞争的行为的处理过于严格时,跨国公司会不
会把它们的产业从一地转到另一地?在事情将影响所有国家的情况下,如美国政府与微软
公司的诉讼案,一个国家是否应该独自担负起“保护竞争”的责任?

Text 5
【参考译文】
    当我决定放弃全日制工作的时候,我怎么也没有想到我会成为一个新的国际流行趋势
的一部分。由于工作的平级调动伤害了我的自尊心,阻碍了我的职业提升,这促使我放弃
了较高层的职业,虽然我学着倒台的政府部长的样子将我的辞职说成是“我想有更多的时
间与家人在一起”。
    奇怪的是,在经过大约两年半的时间,写了两本小说之后,我对美国人叫做“激流勇
退”的试验使我牵强的借口完全变成了现实。我已经从“拥有一切”观念的极力倡导者—
—林达·凯尔茜在过去的七年中一直在《她》杂志上鼓吹这样的观念——转变为一个满足
于每样都要一点点的女人。
    我已经发现——也许凯尔茜也会发现,在她由于过于劳累而从《她》的编辑职位上退
下来后——放弃“搏击生活”的理论,采取另一种行动进入“激流勇退”,要比经济上的
成功和社会上的地位带来更大的回报。没有任何理由能够说服我回到凯尔茜曾经鼓吹、我
曾经喜欢的那种生活:12 小时的工作日、压力巨大的最后期限、办公室政治的可怕压力和
在“黄金时间”做父母的局限。
    在美国,从搏击生活隐退到一种较为简单、较为脱离实利主义的生活是一个已经确立
的趋势。激流勇退——在美国也叫做“自愿返朴归真”——已形成一个可称为反消费主义
的新领域。有不少关于激流勇退的畅销的自助手,教人们简化他们的生活;也有诸如《吝
啬鬼公报》的简报给成千上万的美国人提供从回收保鲜膜到自制肥皂的有用指点;甚至还
有团体支持那些想获得 90 年代中期的变相失业的人们。
    在美国,这个潮流原本是经济衰退的一种反应——80 年代后期经济的萎缩造成了大量
失业——并仍然与勤俭节约的生活作风相联系,而在英国,至少在我所认识的中产阶级激
流勇退者当中,我们有简化生活的不同理由。
    对于我这一代在 80 年代被敦促搏击生活的女性来说,在 90 年代中期激流勇退并不是
对神秘的美好生活的追求——种植自己的绿色蔬菜,冒着变为蔬菜的危险——而是自身局
限性的自我承认。

2000 年考研试题译文
Text 1
【参考译文】
    长期的、不费力气的成功史可能成为一种可怕的障碍,但是如果处理得当,它也可能
成为一种动力。美国二战后进入这样辉煌的历史时期时,它拥有比任何竞争对手大八倍的

文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌   50
        走进文都信达,踏上成功之路          咨询电话 010-66215567
走




市场,这使其工业经济规模前所未有。它的科学家是世界上最优秀的,它的工人是世界上
最具技能的。美国和美国人的富庶是被大战破坏了经济的欧洲人和亚洲人所无法想象的。
  当其他国家逐渐富有起来时,这种差距的缩小是必然的。同样必然的是,绝对优势的
缩小也是痛苦的。在 80 年代中期,美国人为他们工业竞争力的减退感到困惑。有些巨型的
美国工业,如消费电子工业,在外国的竞争面前萎缩或者消失。到 1987 年,只剩下一家美
国电视机制造企业——Zenith(现在已经完全没有了:Zenith 已经在七月份被韩国的 LG 电
子兼并)。外国汽车和纺织品正横扫国内市场。美国的机械工业岌岌可危。在一段时期,
好像半导体制造业,这个美国发明的并且对新的计算机时代极为关键的工业,也将成为下
一个牺牲品。
  所有这些造成了一种信心危机。美国人已经不再将繁荣视为当然的事。他们开始认为
他们的经营方法出了问题,并认为他们的收入很快就会下降。80 年代中期对美国工业衰退
的原因进行一次又一次的调查。时而耸人听闻的发现充满了对来自海外的竞争日益加剧的
警示。
  情况改变的太大了!在 1995 年美国可以回顾在过去五年中稳步的增长而日本却步履维
艰。很少有美国人把增长的原因归结为美元的贬值或经济周期的轮转。对自己的怀疑已经
被盲目的自豪所代替。“美国的工业已经改变了其结构,经过了一段节食期,已经学得更
加机智,”哈佛大学肯尼迪行政学院执行院长理查德·卡凡纳指出。“看到美国经济如此
地提高生产力使我为自己是美国人而感到自豪,”华盛顿特区的智囊机构之一凯托研究院
的史蒂芬·莫尔说。哈佛经管学院的威廉·萨尔曼认为,人们将来会把这个时期视为“美
国经济管理的黄金时期”。

Text 2
【参考译文】
    做男人从来都充满危险。每出生 100 名女婴,就会出生 105 名男婴,但这个比例在他们
成年时下降为基本保持平衡,在 70 岁的老人中女性是男性的两倍。不过男性死亡率高的普
遍规律正在改变。现在男婴的成活率与女婴基本一样。那意味着有史以来第一次男孩在他
们择偶的关键年龄期有所过剩。更重要的是,又一个自然选择的机会消失了。50 年前,婴
儿(特别是男婴)成活的关键在于他的体重。多一公斤或少一公斤几乎都意味着死亡。今
天,体重的多与少几乎没有任何差别。既然这种区别的多数原因是由基因造成,又一个进
化的因素消失了。
    还有一种进化自杀的方式:活着,但少生孩子。现在很少有人像过去那样大量生育。除
了在一些宗教社区,几乎没有女性生 15 个孩子。现在出生的数量,就像死亡的年龄一样,
变得平均化。我们大多数都有同样数量的后代。又一次,人与自然选择可利用的机会之间
的差异消失了。印度证实了这种状况。这个国家为大城市的少数人提供了财富,为其余大
多数部落居民造成了贫穷。现今普遍的现象——所有人的生存以及后代数量一致——意味
着自然选择在印度的上中产阶层中与部落相比已失去 80%的效力。
    对于我们来说,这意味着进化已经结束;生物学的乌托邦已经到来。奇怪的是,它并未
包含多少生理上的改变。没有其他物种在自然界占据如此多的地方。但是在过去 10 万年中
——甚至过去 100 年中——我们的生活改变了,但我们的身体没有改变。我们没有进化,因
为机器和社会在代替我们进化。达尔文有句话描写那些不懂得进化论的人们:他们“看着
一种生物像一个野蛮人看着一艘船,把它视为他们完全不能理解的东西”。无疑,我们将
记住 20 世纪的一种生活方式,因为它的丑陋让人无法理解。但是不管我们的后代对我们离
乌托邦之远多么感到吃惊,他们看上去将和我们一样。

文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌    51
        走进文都信达,踏上成功之路          咨询电话 010-66215567
走




Text 3
【参考译文】
    当一种新的艺术运动达到某种程度的流行,人们最好搞清楚这个运动倡导者的目标是
什么,因为不管它们的原则现在看来如何牵强和不合理,很可能在将来它们会被视为正常
规范。但是对未来派诗歌来说,情况就很难判定,因为不管未来派诗歌是什么——即使承
认奠定它们基础的理论是正确的——它都很难被划归为文学。
    以下简要地就是未来派诗歌的言论:在一个世纪里,昔日的生活的环境一直在有条件
地加快,到现在我们生活在一个充满了噪声、暴力和速度的世界。因此,我们的感觉、思
想和情感都发生了相应的变化。未来主义者说,生活的加速需要一种新的表达方式。我们
要解释现代的压力,也必须加快文学的速度。我们必须滔滔涌出重要的话语,不受句号、
修饰性形容词或限定性动词的阻碍。我们必须制造模仿声音的词汇而不是描写声音;我们
必须在同一页纸上使用大小不同,颜色不同的字,可以随意地加长或缩短词汇。
    当然,他们对战斗的描写是混乱的。但是令人有点心烦意乱的是在注释中读到某一行
诗描写一位土耳其军人和一位保加利亚军人在桥上的厮打,结果双双从桥上坠入河中——
然后发现这一行诗由两名军人坠落的声音和两位军人的重量构成, “噗!噗!100 和 85 公
斤。”
    虽然这符合未来派诗歌的规律和要求,但是它很难被划归为文学。即使如此,没有一
个有思维的人能拒绝接受他们的大前提:我们感情生活的巨大变化要求表达方式的变化。
整个问题可以归结于此:从根本上说,我们改变了吗?

Text 4
【参考译文】
    盲目性几乎一直不是战后日本的特征,它的生产力和社会和谐是被美国和欧洲羡慕的。
但是逐渐地日本人目睹传统工作道德价值观的衰落。10 年前,年轻人工作很努力并视他们
的工作为生存的主要理由,但是现在日本已经大致满足了它的经济需求,年轻人不知道他
们下一步应该怎么走。
    战后生育高峰年代的到来,以及女性进入男性为主的劳动力市场,都限制了年轻人的机
会,他们已经对攀登严格的社会阶梯以获得较好的教育和工作所付出的巨大个人代价提出
质疑。在最近的一次调查中,人们发现只有 24.5%的日本学生对学校生活感到十分满意,
而美国有 67.2%。而且,日本工人对他们的工作感到不满的人数要比其他 10 个被调查的国
家多得多。
    虽然日本的教育常常因重视基础知识而受到外国人士赞扬,但它对测试和机械性学习的
重视程度超过了创造性和个性表现。“那些在考试分数中不能表现的东西——个性、能
力、勇气和人性——被完全忽视了,”执政的自民党教育委员会主席 Toshiki Kaifu 说道。
“这种状况所引起的失意感使学生辍学和变野。”去年日本经历了 2,125 起校园暴力事件,
包括 929 起殴打教师的事件。在抗议声中,许多保守的领导人寻求回到战前对道德教育非常
重视的状态。去年,当时的教育部长 Mitsuo Setoyama 令人吃惊地说道,二战后美国占领当
局所引进的自由化改革削弱了“日本人尊敬父母的道德”。
    但是那可能与日本人生活方式更有关系。教育学者 Yoko Muro 说道:“在日本,问题
从来都不在于你是否喜欢你的生活和你的工作,而只在于你能够忍受多少。”经济的增长
带来了集约化,日本 1.19 亿人口的 76%都住在城市。在城市中,社区和大家庭遭人抛弃,
取而代之的是孤立的,两代人构成的家庭。日本的城市人口长期以来忍受着耗时的(上下
班)路途和拥挤的生活条件,但是,随着旧的群体和家庭价值观的弱化,不满开始显露出

文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌    52
        走进文都信达,踏上成功之路       咨询电话 010-66215567
走




来。在过去的 10 年中,日本的离婚率虽然仍不及美国,但已经上升了 50%,并且自杀率上
升了差不多四分之一。

Text 5
【参考译文】
    如果雄心壮志被人们所正视,那么它的回报——财富、荣誉、对自己命运的掌控——
必须被人们认为值得去为它付出的代价。如果雄心壮志的传统要具有生命力,它必须被人
们广泛接受;特别是它必须被那些本身受到尊敬的人士所重视,受过教育的人们是其中重
要的一部分。然而奇怪的是,正是这些受过教育的人们宣称他们已经放弃将雄心壮志作为
理想。奇怪的是他们也许从雄心壮志中受益最大——如果雄心壮志不总是他们自己的,至
少也是他们父母或祖父母的。在这里有一种很强烈的虚伪感之音,一种在马逃走后关闭马
厩门的做法,——受过教育的人士本人就骑在马上。
    当然,目前人们似乎对成功及其象征物的兴趣并不亚于以前。夏季别墅、欧洲旅行、
宝马车——地点、地名和品牌可能有所不同,但人们对这些东西的需求并不比 10 年、20 年
前小。实际的状况是人们不能像从前那样容易地、公开地完全承认他们的梦想,以免被人
认为出风头、贪婪、庸俗。而我们所看到的是得体的虚伪景象,这种景象比以往更多:批
评美国实利主义的人却拥有南安普敦的消夏别墅;出版激进思想书籍的人却正在三星级饭
店里就餐;鼓吹在生活各阶段实行分享民主制的记者却将自己的孩子送进了私立学校。对
于这些人,以及更多也许不如此特别的人,恰当的原则是“不惜任何代价去追求成功,但
避免表现出雄心壮志。”
    对雄心壮志的攻击为数众多,并且各自角度不同;为它公开辩护的人极少,也很平
淡,有些甚至极其乏味。其结果是,对雄心壮志的支持,支持它作为一种健康的冲动,一
种受人尊重并扎根于年轻人心中的品德,也许低于美国以往的任何时期。这并不意味着雄
心壮志不存在了,人们不再感到它的涌动和激励了;而只是它不再公开被嘉奖,较少公开
被承认。随之而来的结果当然是,在有些情况中雄心壮志被逼到了“地下”,或被逼得偷
偷摸摸。这就是目前的状况:在左边是愤怒的批评者,在右边是不得力的支持者,而在中
间像往常一样,是大多数努力在生活中进取的认真的人们。

1999 年考研试题译文
Text 1
【参考译文】
    外面的世界是严峻的。当你走出房门,你可能在踏脚垫上摔倒,摔断一条腿。当你点
燃炉火,你可能烧掉你的房屋。幸运的话,如果踏脚垫或火炉没有给予危险警告,你可能
会赢得一场官司从而获得赔偿。或者从 80 年代初公众是这样想的,当时法庭开始让更多的
公司对消费者的不幸负责。
    面对这样的威胁,公司的反应是努力预见所有可能的事故,写出更冗长的警告标签。
现在梯子带有几英尺长的警告,在其他事项中告诉你——这让人吃惊——你可能摔倒。为
儿童制造的“蝙蝠侠”披肩上的警告说它“不可能让使用者飞翔”。
    尽管警告标签通常是恰当和必要的——例如,药物交叉反应的危险——许多警告是各
州或联邦政府规章所要求的,但是如果顾客受伤,它们能否保护制造商和销售商仍不清
楚。如果受到伤害的消费者将它们告上法庭,大约 50%的公司都会败诉。
    现在这种情况似乎正在发生变化。个人受伤索赔案件一如既往,但是法庭开始站在被
告一边,特别是在有警告标签也不能避免事故的案件。今年 5 月,伊利诺伊州舒茨体育用品

文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌   53
        走进文都信达,踏上成功之路          咨询电话 010-66215567
走




商店的总经理朱莉·尼蒙斯赢得了一场官司,这场官司涉及一位橄榄球员戴着舒茨头盔在
比赛中受伤瘫痪的事故。“对他的瘫痪我们感到很遗憾,但头盔并不是用来避免此类事故
的,”尼蒙斯说。陪审团认为是运动的性质造成了球员的伤害,而不是头盔。
     同时美国法学会——由法官、律师和学术研究人员组成的团体,他们的意见有一定的
分量——发布了有关民事侵权法的新准则,新准则指出公司不需要警告消费者注意明显的
危险,也不需要向他们大量提供潜在危险的冗长清单。“重要的事项可能会被埋没于庞杂
的无关紧要信息之中,”康奈尔大学法学院的一位参加起草新准则的法律教授说。如果这
些法学界的温和派占了上风,产品上的信息可能会真正出于有益于消费的目的被提供者,
而不是作为避免法律责任的保护措施。
51. 当事故发生时,若在 20 世纪 80 年代情况任何?
    A) 顾客可能通过诉讼从灾难中解脱出来。
    B) 受伤的顾客能期望从法律体制得到保护。
    C) 公司可以通过提供新警告避免被起诉。
    D) 陪审团趋于从公司允诺的赔偿金中挑毛病。
52. 文中提到的生产厂家倾向于_____。
    A) 通过在产品上写明长长的警告来满足顾客
    B) 在描述他们产品的不足之处时,变得诚实
    C) 最大限度地利用标签以避免承担法律责任
    D) 觉得有责任将顾客的安全作为第一关注问题
53. Schutt 防护头盔的例子说明_____。
    A) 一些伤害索赔不再被法律支持 B) 防护头盔不是被设计用来预防伤害的
    C) 产品标签最终会被放弃          D) 一些体育项目可能失去运动员的喜爱
54. 作者对这个问题的态度似乎是_____。
    A) 有偏见的          B) 漠不关心的
    C) 令人感到困惑的      D) 客观的

Text 2
【参考译文】
    在网络商务的初期阶段,商务活动主要围绕消费者市场的开发。近来,网络已经超越
一种时尚的概念,因此公司之间开始相互做起了商品买卖。这种公司对公司的销售是有意
义的,因为商业人士了解他们所需要的产品。
    但是许多公司仍然不愿使用网络,因为他们怀疑网络的可靠性。“公司需要感到他们
能够信任供应商与他们之间的联络渠道,”福瑞斯特研究所的高级分析员 Blane Erwin 这样
说道。一些公司为减少风险只与长期合作的商业伙伴进行网上交易,只有这些商业伙伴才
被允许进入公司的内部局域网络。
    互联网商务模式的另一个主要转变与有关营销的技术有关。直到最近,互联网的营销
活动一直主要集中在“拉”顾客进入网站的一些策略上。然而从去年开始,软件公司开发
出了一些工具软件,它们能让公司将信息直接地“推”送到消费者,将营销信息直接送到
目标消费者手中。最令人注意的是,Pointcast 网络使用屏幕保护程序将不断更新的新闻和广
告送往注册用户的显示器。用户可按需要接受他们想要得到的信息,然后直接进入公司的
互联网站。Virtual Vineyards 及其他公司已经开始使用类似技术将信息“推”送到顾客手
中,告之特价销售、产品供应或其他活动信息。但是这种“推”送的技术受到了许多网民
的蔑视。网络文化非常重视这样一种理念,那就是:出现在屏幕上的信息应该是特别要求

文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌    54
        走进文都信达,踏上成功之路           咨询电话 010-66215567
走




的结果。一旦促销活动开始不请自到地充斥屏幕,网络与电视的界线就消失了。这样的前
景使主张纯网络的人士震惊。
    但网络上的公司通过强行“推”送策略去挣钱并非不可避免。Virtual Vineyards、亚马
逊和其他一些开拓者的事例显示,如果一个网站出售合适商品并辅之以适当交流互动、热
情周到、服务安全可靠的网络会吸引网上顾客。经营计算机业务的成本继续下降,这对于
任何建立网上商店的公司都是一个好兆头。回顾过去的五到十年的人们也许会疑问为什么
如此少的公司尝试网络商务。
55. 从本文的开头我们得知网络商务_____。
    A) 一直努力扩展市场      B) 打算追随一种奇异的时尚
    C) 努力但是没能控制市场    D) 已经急速发展了一年左右
56. 谈到可用于营销的在线技术时,作者暗示_____。
    A) 这种技术受到许多网络用户的喜爱 B) 商界对在线交易的可靠性有信心
    C) 在战略上有根本性的改变        D) 只有长期的业务伙伴才可获得
57. 在网络纯粹主义者眼里,_____。
    A) 在在线文化里,不应有营销信息 B) 在网络上,赚钱应被赋予优先权
    C) 网络应该像电视那样发挥功能     D) 在没有要求情况下,不应该有在线商业信息
58. 从最后一段,我们得知_____。
    A) 在网上“推”送消息对网络商务很重要 B) 互动、友好和安全对在线顾客很重要
    C) 大公司十年前就开始从事在线业务        D) 在硅谷开商店与计算能力的成本无关

Text 3
【参考译文】
    一条无形的界线将主张计算机进入课堂的人们分成了两种:一种是以学生的谋职前景
为理由的,另一种是以激进的教育改革为理由的。很少有作者以这个区别——事实上是矛
盾——为主题进行过探讨,但这却是促进计算机进入课堂的活动出问题的关键。
    目的在于使学生胜任某种工作的教育是技术教育。它存在的理由与法律所规定的普及
教育之间有巨大的差别。按法律规定儿童必须就学至十几岁,这并非简单地为了增强学生
的谋职前景。相反,我们对美国公民有一个特别的理念,如果他不能够对外界如何影响他
的生活和幸福作出准确的判断,他就是不完善的。但这并非从来就是如此;在法律规定所
有儿童上学至某个年龄之前,人们普遍认为有些儿童天生不适合接受这样的教育。由于所
有工业化国家的乐观精神,我们还是承认人人都适合受教育。计算机教育的倡导者抛弃了
这种乐观理念,取而带之的是与他们乐观的外表相违背的悲观精神。依赖于计算机进入课
堂的教育理由和谋职理由之间的混淆,计算机教育的倡导者常常强调毕业生的谋职前景而
忽视他们受教育成效。
    如果学生适合,技术教育是很有必要的。许多欧洲的学校早早引进职业训练的概念,
以保证儿童为他们想要从事的职业作好适当的准备。但是去臆断未来科学家、商人、会计
师职位的固定数量是武断的。而且也不可能在我们这样大的国家里培养出所需数量的每种
专业技术人员,在这个国家里经济分布在如此众多的州中,并且涉及如此多的跨国公司。
    但是对于一小部分学生来说,职业训练也许是可取的道路,因为在其他因素同等的情
况下,熟练的技术的确可以在就业方面起到很大的作用。当然,现在使用任何计算机的基
本操作非常简单。不需要花一生的时间去学会各种软件的使用。当然,如果要成为计算机
工程师,事情就完全不同了。基本的计算机技能最多花费——最长时间——若干个月就可
以学会。不管怎样,基本的计算机技能只是成为任何专业技术人员所需的众多真正技能的

文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌     55
        走进文都信达,踏上成功之路        咨询电话 010-66215567
走




补充。当然,必须搞清楚的是,没有一个学校,不管是职业技术学校与否,会因其目的含
混不清而受益。
59. 作者认为现在的这种将计算机引入教室的热潮是_____。
    A) 意义深远的         B) 目标不明确的
    C) 自相矛盾的         D) 根本上改革性的
60. 教育对所有孩子都是不可缺少的这种观点_____。
    A) 是伪装中的悲观主义的象征           B) 随着计算机的到来而产生
    C) 根深蒂固于计算机教育提倡者的思想里 D) 源于工业化国家的乐观态度
61. 从文中可以推知,在作者所在的国家里,欧洲的职业训练模式_____。
    A) 依赖于候选人的起始年龄       B) 在各种社会区域都值得尝试
    C) 没有什么实用价值         D) 对各种职业都具有吸引力
62. 根据作者的观赏,基本计算机技术应该_____。
    A) 在学校里作为一门辅助课程被纳入其中
    B) 在为获取专业证书方面被强调
    C) 通过一生的课程被熟练掌握
    D) 被任何学校,职业性的或非职业性的,同等地强调

Text 4
【参考译文】
    当一个苏格兰研究小组 3 个月前透露他们克隆了一只成年的羊并以此震惊整个世界时,
克林顿总统很快采取了行动。他声称反对用这种动物养殖技术克隆人的同时,下令禁止将
联邦政府的经费用于类似的试验—虽然并没有人提出要进行这样的试验—并且要求以普林
斯顿大学校长哈罗德·沙皮罗为首的一个独立专家小组在 90 天内向白宫提交一个报告,就
针对克隆人所采取的国家政策提出建议。这个小组——全国生物伦理学咨询委员会
(NBAC)—一直在努力工作,将他们的智慧写成文字,在 5 月 17 日的一次会议上,委员
们就其建议的几乎最后一稿达成一致意见。
    NBAC 将要求克林顿长达 90 天的禁止联邦政府资金用于克隆人的禁令无限期延长,并
且可能最终使之成为法律。但 NBAC 成员们正在计划缩小建议的范围,以避免对有关克隆
人类 DNA 和细胞(分子生物学的常规研究)造成新的限制。然而,小组在一个关键性的问
题上仍未达成一致意见,那就是是否建议立法将私人资金用于克隆人定为一种犯罪。
    在 5 月 17 日的会议上所讨论的建议的初稿前言中,沙皮罗暗示:“专家小组已经达成
了广泛的一致意见:用成人细胞克隆方法来制造婴儿的做法在道德上是不可接受的。”沙
皮罗在会上解释说,道德上的否定主要来自对这种孩子健康危险的忧虑。专家小组非正式
地接受了若干总体上的结论,虽然一些细节仍未最后确定。
    NBAC 计划呼吁继续禁止联邦政府资助用人体细胞核克隆人的任何做法。由于目前的
法律已经禁止联邦经费用于制造胚胎(人类后代出生前的最初阶段)供研究或有意威胁胚
胎的生命,因此 NBAC 在胚胎研究方面将仍保持沉默。
    NBAC 成员还表示他们将呼吁私人资助的研究人员和研究所不要用人体细胞核转移技
术去克隆人。但他们在是否进一步采取立法行动完全禁止克隆人的问题上有所分歧。沙皮
罗和大多数成员赞成呼吁立法,但在一次电话采访中,他说这个问题仍然“悬而未决”。
63. 从第一段我们得知_____。
    A) 联邦基金已被用于一个克隆人的项目
    B) 白宫对克隆这条消息的反应极为强烈

文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌   56
        走进文都信达,踏上成功之路           咨询电话 010-66215567
走




    C) NBAC 被授权控制克隆技术的滥用
    D) 白宫已经得到了专家小组有关克隆问题的建议
64. 专家小组对以下各条除_____外,全部达成一致意见。
    A) 联邦基金不准用于克隆人类的禁令应被制成法律
    B) 人类 DNA 的克隆将不会被置于更严格的控制下
    C) 私人基金用于克隆人类是犯罪行为
    D) 克隆人类是有悖于道德观的
65. NBAC 将不会讨论胚胎研究问题,因为_____。
    A) 胚胎研究仅仅是克隆的现今发展形式
    B) 孩子的健康不是胚胎研究的主要问题
    C) 胚胎的生命在胚胎研究中不会受到危险
    D) 这个问题已在法律中被清晰地表述和解决了
66. 从最后一段可推知_____。
    A) 一些 NBAC 成员对彻底禁止克隆人类感到犹豫不决
    B) 禁止克隆人类的法律即将被通过
    C) 受私人基金资助的研究员对 NBAC 的呼吁会积极响应
    D) 克隆人类问题会很快被解决

Text 5
【参考译文】
    实践中,科学依赖于实验,但更依赖于做实验的人的心灵是否有足够的准备。人们普
遍认为伊萨克·牛顿通过苹果坠落发现了地球引力。苹果在许多地方,在以前的多个世纪
中一直坠落,有数以万计的人们见过它坠落。但牛顿多年以来一直对月球和行星沿轨道运
行的原因特别好奇。什么使它们处于固定的位置?它们为什么不从天上掉下来?苹果坠落
到地面而不是向上落入树中,这一事实解答了他一直在思考的有关天体那些巨大水果,即
月亮及行星的问题。
    有多少人曾经思考过苹果向上坠入树中的可能性?牛顿思考过,因为他并不企图预测
任何结果。他仅仅在思考。他的心理作好了充分的准备迎接预想不到的结果。不可预测性
是科学研究重要本质的一部分。如果没有预想不到的东西,就没有科学研究。科学家们在
为科学杂志撰写删节过和压缩过的报告时往往忘记这一点,但历史充满了这方面的例证。
    在与科学家特别是年轻科学家交谈时,你可能有这样的印象:他们认为“科学的方
法”可以代替创造性思维。我曾参加一次科研大会,在这次科研大会上,一位科学家被问
及某个实验继续进行的可能性。这位科学家皱紧了眉头,看了一下图表,说道:“数据仍
然不完整。”“我们知道数据仍然不完整,”预算办公室的人员说道,“但你怎么想的?
是否有必要继续呢?你认为我们可能期待什么样的结果?”这位科学家对于让他进行推测
感到非常吃惊。
    当然,这里所暗示的是这位科学家已经成为他自己所写的东西的受害者。他一直不断
地提出未经审视的主张,以致不仅他自己对它们深信不疑,而且还使工商管理界相信它们
都是真的。如果实验都像科学杂志上报道所说的那样按部就班地计划并进行,那么工商界
希望科学研究产生可以用金钱衡量的结果是完全符合逻辑的。审计员当然有理由认为完全
明白自己的发展目标和如何达到这些目标的科学家,不应该被一只眼睛盯着账目,另一只
眼睛盯着显微镜的必要性而分心。如果对于科学家来说,常规性和符合标准如同他们论文


文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌     57
        走进文都信达,踏上成功之路         咨询电话 010-66215567
走




所述内容会反映的那么重要的话,那么管理界歧视科学研究人员中的“怪才”,偏爱“与
团队合作的”更传统的人士,也就不该遭到指责了。
67. 作者引用艾萨克·牛顿的例子是想证明_____。
    A) 探索的头脑比科学实验更重要       B) 当进行富有收获的科研时,科学就会发展
    C) 科学家很少忘记研究的重要本质 D) 在科学研究中,无法预料性没有可预料性重要
68. 作者主张科学家们_____。
    A) 不应该用想象思维代替“科学方法” B) 不应忽视对无法预料事物的推断
    C) 应该为技术杂志写更多的简洁报告 D) 应对他们的研究发现抱有信心
69. 似乎一些年轻的科学家_____。
    A) 对预测有极大兴趣      B) 常常预测未来
    C) 高度重视创造性的思维    D) 坚持“科学方法”
70. 作者暗指科学研究的结果_____。
    A) 可能不像预期的那样有利润     B) 能够以金钱来衡量
    C) 依赖于符合一种标准模式      D) 多半被管理部门低估了

1998 年考研试题译文
Text 1
【参考译文】
    很少有重大技术创造像巨型大坝那样吸引人们的想象。正是人类长期承受洪水和干旱
的折磨,使驾驭水域的想法特别具有吸引力。但是被吸引有时也意味着盲目。有几座巨型
大坝工程有弊大于利的潜在危险。
    大坝给人们的教训是大并不总是等于美。这并没有阻止建立巨大、强劲的大坝成为努
力去表现自己的国家和人们的成就的象征。在阿拉伯世界埃及的领导权因 Aswan 大坝而坚
固起来。土耳其争取进入第一世界的理由包括 Ataturk 大坝。
    但是大坝往往并不按人们的意志行事。例如,Aswan 大坝阻止了尼罗河的洪水爆发,
但也使埃及失去了洪水带来的肥沃的淤泥——所有回报是一个巨大的疾病水库,现在水库
沉积了如此多的淤泥,以致于水库只能用于发电了。
    但是,控制水域的神话仍然在延续。本周,在文明的欧洲的中心,斯洛伐克与匈牙利
差点在多瑙河一座大坝的争议上互动干戈。这个巨大的工程可能将带来巨型大坝通常造成
的所有问题。但斯洛伐克正在争取从捷克的独立,因此现在需要一座大坝来证明自己。
    同时在印度,世界银行已经准许修建那座更加错误的 Narmada 大坝。世界银行给予准
许,即使它的顾问们说大坝将造成弱势群体的困苦和环境的破坏。权利阶层获益,但获益
也远没有得到保证。
    对大坝造成的影响和控制水的利与弊进行恰当的、科学的研究能有助于解决这些冲
突。即使不修建这些魔鬼似的大坝,水力发电、洪水控制和农田灌溉都是可能做到的。但
是当你在与神话打交道,就很难做到恰当或者科学。该是世界从 Aswan 大坝吸取教训的时
候了。你并不需要建一座只是把它保留在那儿的大坝。
51. 第一段第三句话意味着_____。
    A) 如果人们闭上眼睛不去理会现实,人们会感到快活
    B) 瞎子比不瞎的人更快活
    C) 过度兴奋的人易忽略关键事情
    D) 着迷使人们丧失他们的视力
52. 在第五段,“powerless”大概是指_____。

文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌    58
         走进文都信达,踏上成功之路           咨询电话 010-66215567
走




    A) 缺电的地区      B) 没有发电站的水坝
    C) 印度周围的贫穷国家 D) 那玛达水坝地区的普通人
53. 关于大型水坝的神话是什么?
    A) 它们带来了更多的肥沃土壤 B) 它们帮助保卫国家
    C) 它们加强国际联系       D) 它们对水域有广泛的控制
54. 作者试图暗示的内容可以被最恰当地解释为_____。
    A) “不要做无益的后悔”     B) “欲速则不达”
    C) “三思而后行”        D) “谁笑到最后,谁笑得最好”

Text 2
【参考译文】
    嗯,不劳则无获,人们这样说。但是有劳而无获那又会怎么样呢?在美国各地,你都
会听说企业在复苏。很难证实的是,商界人士所相信的他们正在主持的生产力革命是否是
真的。
    官方的统计有点不令人失望。它们显示,如果将制造业和服务业合起来计算,生产力
从 1987 年以来平均增长 1.2%。这个速度比前 10 年的平均增长速度要快一点。从 1991 年以
来,生产力的增长约每年 2%,这是 1978—1987 年的平均增长速度的两倍。问题是目前快
速增长的一部分归因于经济发展周期在这个点上出现的通常反弹,因此在深层的趋势上说
进期增长不是复苏的结论性证据。正如财政部长罗伯特·鲁宾所说,在显示生产力增长的
大量商界轶闻和统计数字所反映的情况之间有一个“脱节”。
    这其中的一些很容易解释。组织企业的新方法——一切重组和规模缩小——只是经济
总生产力的一个促进因素,经济受其他许多因素的驱动例如:对设备和机械的共同投资、
新技术、对教育和培训的投入。再有,公司所进行的大多数改革都是为了使公司能够赢
利,这种需求并不总是意味着不断提高的生产力:转移到新的市场和提高质量可以起到同
样的作用。
    其他两种解释更具猜测性。第一,近年来进行的一些商业重组也许做得并不恰当。第
二,即使重组做得恰当,它到达的范围也许并不像人们所假设的那样广泛。
    哈佛学者、前快速发展面包咖啡连锁店 Au Bon Pain 的总裁,莱昂纳多·史莱辛格说,
许多“重组”是粗糙的。在许多情况,他认为,收入的损失一直大于成本的降低。他的同
事麦克·彼尔说,太多的公司以机械的形式运用重组的方法,降低成本,而没有对长远的
赢利能力予以充分的考虑。BBDO 的阿尔·罗森席恩更直率。他否定重组咨询专家的许多
工作为胡搞——“最糟糕的一种对救急的追逐。”
55. 根据作者的观点,美国经济形势_____。
    A) 不像它看起来那么好     B) 处在它的转折点
    C) 比它看起来要好得多     D) 接近完全恢复
56. 有关生产力增长的官方统计_____。
    A) 没有包括商业周期的自然反弹      B) 出乎商业人士的预期
    C) 与商业人士的预计相符         D) 没有反应经济的真实状况
57. 作者提出“劳而无获又该怎样呢?”这个问题是因为_____。
    A) 他向“不劳无获”的真实性提出质疑 B) 他认为生产力革命不起作用
    C) 他怀疑官方统计是否是误导性的        D) 他对商业复兴有绝对证据
58. 下面哪个选项没有在本文中被提到?
    A) 根本性的变革对生产力的增长是重要的。

文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌      59
         走进文都信达,踏上成功之路       咨询电话 010-66215567
走




    B) 组织公司的新方法可能有助于提高生产力。
    C) 削减成本不是获取长期利润的稳妥之道。
    D) 顾问们是一群无用的饭桶。

Text 3
【参考译文】
    科学与文化的其他方面的不协调关系由来已久。想一想伽利略在 17 世纪因叛逆的信仰
被天主教会审判,或者诗人威廉·布莱克针对牛顿机械的世界观所作的尖刻的评论。科学
与人文学科的分裂在这一世纪更有所加深。
    直到最近,科学界的力量一直很强大,它不需理睬批评它的人们——但现在不行了。
由于对科学的资助的减少,科学家在好几本著作中对“反科学”进行了攻击。最值得注意
的是《更高级的迷信》,作者为弗吉尼亚大学的生物学家保罗·R·格洛斯和罗特杰斯大学
数学家诺曼·列维;《魔鬼缠身的世界》,作者为康奈尔大学的卡多·萨根等。
    捍卫科学的人士也在以下的集会上表示了他们的关注,其一是 1995 年在纽约市举行的
“从科学和理智的飞翔”和去年 7 月在巴弗罗附近召开的“(伪)信息时代的科学”。
    反科学对不同的人明确地意味着不同的交情。格洛斯和列维主要指责对科学客观性提
质疑的社会学家、哲学家和其他学者。萨根主要关注那些相信幽灵、创世纪学说和其他与
种子的相对立的现象。
    对 1996 年的新闻进行的调查表明,反科学的标签也被贴在其他许多人群身上,从主张
彻底消除天花病菌的权威到主张减少基础研究经费的共和党人。
    很少有人会反对将这个帽子扣在“反原子弹人”协会头上,他们 1995 年发表的宣言蔑
视科学并希望回到技术时代之前的乌托邦。但是这并不是意味那些关注无节制的工业发展
的环保主义者是反科学的,像《美国新闻和世界报道》去年 5 月发表的一篇文章似乎暗示的
那样。
    环保主义者当然对这种批评作出回应。斯坦福大学的保罗·埃理奇,一位环境研究的
先驱说道,科学的真正敌人是那些对全球气温变暖、臭氧层被破坏和工业发展带来的其他
后果的证据表示怀疑的人。
    的确,有些观察家担心反科学一词面临着变为毫无意义的危险。“反科学这个词包容
太多,太不相同的东西,”哈佛大学哲学家杰拉法·霍尔登在其 1993 年出版的著作《科学
和反科学》中说道。“它们唯一的共同点是它们往往激怒或威胁那些自认为更加开明的
人。”
55. 单词“schism”(第一段,第四行)在文中大概意味着_____。
    A) 冲突             B) 不满
    C) 分离             D) 轻视
56. 作者通过第二段和第三段来_____。
    A) 讨论科学影响力下降的原因 B) 表达作者对科学家的认同
    C) 解释科学发展的方式     D) 例证科学和人文学的分裂
57. 根据本文,下面哪个选项是正确的?
    A) 环保人士在一篇文章里被斥为反科学。
    B) 政客们不易被贴上反科学的标签。
    C) 那些“更开化的人”倾向于给别人贴上反科学的标签。
    D) 给环保人士贴上“反科学者”的标签是合理的。
58. 作者对“科学与反科学”这个问题的态度是_____。

文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌    60
          走进文都信达,踏上成功之路         咨询电话 010-66215567
走




    A) 不偏不倚的       B) 主观的
    C) 有偏见的        D) 令人困惑的

Text 4
【参考译文】
     1980 年的人口普查所显示的是这样一幅图画:随着东北部和中西部人口发展几乎达到
停顿,国家形成越来越多的地方性竞争。
     这个发展——以及它对未来美国政治经济的巨大影响——已经使南方第一次在全国人
口统计史上成为美国人口最稠密的地区。
     总体上说,美国人口在二十世纪七十年代增长了 2,320 万——从数量说是有史以来在一
个十年内的第三大增长。即使如此,这次增长只形成了 11.4%的增长率,除了经济大萧条年
代,这是美国年记录中最低的。
     第二次世界大战以来,美国人一直在向南部和西部大量流动。这个趋势现在仍然在继
续。
     弗罗里达、德克萨斯和加利福尼亚这三个太阳地带内的州在 1980 年时比十年前人口整
个多出了近 1,000 万。在大城市中。圣地亚哥从第 14 位升到第 8 位,圣安东尼从第 15 升到
第 10 位——而克利夫兰和华盛顿特区则降到十大城市以外。
     人口普查官员说,不能把所有这些变化归因于人口迁移出冰雪地带。不断的移民潮也
起到了作用——还有一个因素是过去的“婴儿潮”那一代人已达到生育年龄,这一代人所
带来的婴儿数量增长。
     再者,人口统计专家认为人口向西和向南的不断流动又与一个相关的但更新的现象联
系在一起:越来越多的美国人显然不仅寻找工作更多的地方,而且寻找人口更少的地方。
以下是几个例子——
     从地区上讲,洛基山脉地区的各州报告最快的人口增长率——自从 1970 年以来的
37.1%,广阔大地域的人口仅占美国人口的 5%。
     在各个州中,内华达和亚利桑那增长最快:分别为 63.5%和 53.1%。除了弗罗里达和德
克萨斯,增长率最高的十个州都是西部州,共 750 万人——每平方英里大约九个人。
     逃离拥挤地区影响了人口从冰雪地带向更温和的气候带的流动。
     1980 年人口普查显示美国人追求生存空间最明显之处在边远西部。在那里,加利福尼
亚在二十世纪七十年代人口增长 370 万,比任何其他州都多。
     然而在那十年中,大量人口也从加利福尼亚流出,多数是流向西部其他地方。他们常
常选择——现在仍然选择——较为寒冷的州,如俄勒冈、爱德荷和阿拉斯加,为的是逃离
金色之州的烟雾、犯罪和其他城市化所带来的弊病。
     结果,加利福尼亚的人口增长率在二十世纪七十年代降到 18.5%——只是二十世纪六十
年代增长率的三分之二强一点,比西部其他州的增长率低得多。
59. 从 1980 年人口普查提供的复杂的人口增长图可以辨析出来,20 世纪 70 年代的美国
    _____。
    A) 经历历史上最低的人口净增长     B) 目睹向西南地区的人口转移
    C) 经历了空前的人口增长期      D) 终止了自二战以来的迁移模式
60. 这次人口普查与以前的有关人口迁移研究不同,因为_____。
    A) 它强调气候对人口分布的影响    B) 它强调持续的移民潮的作用
    C) 它揭示美国人地宽敞家居的新追求 D) 它详细阐述昔日“育婴高峰”的日后影响
61. 从已有的统计资料我们可以看出_____。

文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌     61
         走进文都信达,踏上成功之路           咨询电话 010-66215567
走




    A) 加利福尼亚曾经是全美国人口最稀少的地区
    B) 人口增长率排名前十位的州都位于西部地区
    C) 气候条件较好的城市一致从人口迁移中受益
    D) 亚利桑那州人口增长率在所有州中排名第二
62. 单词“demographers”(第七段,第一行)最可能的含义是_____。
    A) 赞同民主趋势的人        B) 州与州之间人日迁移的倡导者
    C) 从事人口研究的科学家      D) 抓着旧的生活模式不放的保守主义者

Text 5
【参考译文】
    100 多个分离的火山活动的小型区域分布全球各地,地质学家称它们为“热点”。与世
界的大多数火山不一样,它们并不总是位于构成地球表面的巨大源源板块的边缘。相反,
它们当中的许多位于板块内部。大多数“热点”只缓慢地移动,在有些情况中,从“热
点”上通过的板块运动,留下一连串死火山。热点与火山群是标明板块经过的里程标。
    板块在移动,现在已经是不可争辩的事实。例如,非洲与南美洲正在向相反方向移
动,因为新的物质被喷注到它们之间的海底。吻合的海岸和似乎横跨大洋的某些地质特征
提醒人们这两大洲曾经的连接处。承载这些大洲的板块的相对运动已经被详细地解释,但
是一个板块与另一个板块之间的运动不能简单地解释为地球内部的运动。无法断定两个大
洲是向相反的方向移动,还是一个大洲没有运动,另一个大洲在离它而去。根植于地球深
层的“热点”也提供了解决这个问题的测量手段。根据对热点群的分析,好像非洲大陆板
块是静止的,在过去的 3,000 万年中没有移动。
    “热点”的价值不仅局限于它们作为一个参照框架的作用。现在看来,它们仿佛对推
动板块移动的地球物理过程也有着重要影响。当一个大陆板块移动至一个“热点”之上,
从地球深层喷出的物质形成一个宽广的穹隆地形。随着这个穹隆地形的增长,它形成深深
的裂缝;在至少几种情况中,大陆可能沿这些裂缝中的一些完全断裂,因此,“热点”造
成新的大洋的形成。正如以前的理论解释了大陆的移动,“热点”可能解释大洋的变迁。
67. 作者认为_____。
    A) 板块的运动和地球内部的运动一致 B) 有关漂移板块的地质理论已被证实
    C) 热点和板块向相反的方向缓慢移动 D) 热点的运动证明大洲正在彼此分开
68. 非洲和南美洲曾经是彼此相连的,这一点可以从_____这一事实推断出来。
    A) 这两个洲仍在向相反方向移动           B) 它们被发现共享若干地质特征
    C) 非洲板块已经静止了 3000 万年了 D) 一百多个热点散布在地球周围
69. 热点理论对解释_____是有用的。
    A) 非洲板块的结构         B) 死火山的复活
    C) 大洲的运动性         D) 新大洋的形成
70. 本文主要叙述_____。
    A) 火山活动的特点              B) 关于漂移板块的理论的重要性
    C) 热点在地质物理研究中的重要性 D) 火山形成的过程




文都信达考研—中国考研卫星远程第一品牌      62

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:50
posted:3/2/2012
language:
pages:62